World of Religions & Bizarre Rituals
Including Cannibalism, Murder, Torture, Sacrifice and more!

Postings - Feb. 2008 to
June 2015

By Michael Smith

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The Bizarre World in which we all live!

These postings are not meant to create or instill hatreds or prejudices against any person or group. They are simply to alarm, awaken and a request for readers to question their own beliefs. All people and all religions share blame for the world's turmoil.

Click on the link posted near the bottom of the page to watch the videos of the severity of inhuman atrocities committed daily by Islamic Radicals. The videos, like most of the postings on this site, are not for Children or the faint hearted.

Aug. 2009 headlines;

Catholic bank in Germany has some unethical investments

A German bank owned by the Roman Catholic church has admitted to having stocks in defense, tobacco and birth control companies worth over a million dollars. Do a little researching and you will be quite surprised at what is owned by churches...

The bank was 'outed' by Der Spiegel newspaper after it was discovered that the bank had invested 580,000 euros in BAE Systems. BAE Systems is a British arms company. Further investigation revealed that the bank invested in Wyeth who makes American birth control pills and had invested in various tobacco companies. The bank has apologized for not keeping within ethical standards. The Catholic Dynasty is well worth over a few Trillion dollars and yet millions of impoverished people continue perishing without hope. So think about that before you empty your pockets into their countless bank accounts.

Raped Nine-Year-Old’s Abortion Outrages Brazil’s Catholic Church
March 8 2009

Recife - Brazil

The case of the pregnant 9-year-old was shocking enough. But it was the response of the Catholic Church that infuriated many Brazilians. Archbishop Jose Cardoso Sobrinho of the coastal city of Recife announced that the Vatican was excommunicating the family of a local girl who had been raped and impregnated with twins by her stepfather, because they had chosen to have the girl undergo an abortion. The Church excommunicated the doctors who performed the procedure as well. “God’s laws,” said the archbishop, dictate that abortion is a sin and that transgressors are no longer welcome in the Roman Catholic Church. (I see ignorance and totalitarianism is still strong in the Church)

Shocking facts and acts

For instance, 16 cultists died a few years ago in a clash of gunfire against lawmen, believing they were invulnerable against bullets. Alfredo Obsioma, leader of the Catholic God's Spirit cult, claimed that their magical powers did not work because many of them were sinners. The former army soldier declared that amulets made of paper scribbled with Latin prayers would be enough to make his followers invincible to bullets.

Another instance was the arrest of the Philippine Benevolent Missionaries Association leader Ruben Ecleo Jr. of Cebu that has ignited a new conflagration of controversy. The PBMA claims to have more than 10,000 followers, most of whom are also practicing Catholics. The difference is that they worship Ecleo, their "divine master" whom they believe to be the living incarnation of Jesus Christ. At the moment, Ecleo is being detained in Manila with charges of murdering his wife and use of illegal drugs. But this did not stop legions of his followers to flock to the prisons to pay homage to him.

Warning; The below article in it's entirety is not suitable for people under 18 years of age, nor for the feint hearted. The below postings may be offensive to some people and the photos/videos, while genuine, are quite graphic!

Religion in one form or another, actually in thousands of forms have plagued, mankind since the beginning.

If you ask how many different faiths there are around the world it depends totally on what you consider a faith. Is agnostic a faith? Is atheism a faith?

If you are looking for a number of faiths in Christianity. . . several years ago there were more than 30,000 Christian varying faith structures. The easiest way to answer your question is to look at faith structures around the world. Islam and Christianity are two of the larger faith systems. Again the Islamic faith system breaks down in many different belief systems. The religion of Judaism, for example, has many different faith structures based upon the belief or creed of the individual belief group.

All of this is a long way to come around to an answer. The 'correct answer' is that the number of religions changes almost on a daily basis, but the overriding faith structure are manifold.

It is impossible to accurately predict the number of religions individuals obtain. There are many small, isolated religions in certain parts of the world. Groups living in areas that hinder communication and interaction often tend to be small, thus preventing diffusion from occurring.

It should also be noted that in the "Humanist" philosophy, each persons religious theology is unique, therefore the answer would be equal to the current population of the Earth.

"If we believe absurdities, we shall commit atrocities" -- Voltaire (1694-1778)

Throughout history, religion has been responsible for a large proportion of the suffering in the world - yet religious beliefs are based in ancient myths and legends that should have been discarded centuries ago.

China, Iran, Saudi Arabia and the US are The World's main executioners: They all use this extreme and diabolic form of punishment,” China has carried out executions by shooting or lethal injection, Saudi Arabia by beheading, Iran by hanging or stoning and the United States by electrocution or lethal injection.

The below Video betrays the  deliberate lies and distortions of the Religion Doctrines

 

Disclaimer

This is not a hate site - the contributors are not inciting violence towards any individual or group because of their beliefs. Much of the content of this site however will be offensive to many believers. We make no apology for ridiculing both the beliefs and, in some cases, the believers themselves. Despite what many people think, religion - like any other system of belief or philosophy - does not automatically deserve respect.

Please note that the comments in the blog are generally uncensored and do not necessarily reflect the views of the authors of this site.

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The below postings of some of the world's most bizarre religions, practices, rituals and other abnormalities are simply to bewilder, and perhaps instill a shocking awareness to the odd, bizarre and violent nature of mankind and his primitive beliefs. Religion was born of carnage, ignorance, superstition and self righteousness...it remains basically unchanged.

Indeed, as Dr. M. La Ritvo (1974) says in his discussion of my paper (La Porta, 1974), I treat the religious ritual mainly as an external situation acting on religious people. I emphasize the word mainly because, as we know, there is a basic and internal need for religious feeling and for belief. We are also familiar with Freud's ideas about religion: firstly, the internal source of the father as a God, and secondly, his hypothesis of the origins of morality and religion as being derived from the sacrifice of the father in mankind's prehistory. Above all, the human mind was structured through contact between biological impulses and needs, and the external world.

Nowadays the human mind is a complete historical archive of this contact and its prehistory. Internal reality is a product of this encounter and the external world is in part also a product of internal necessity, principally through the projection of internal fantasies, wishes and conflicts.

" In paying reference to the author of the below article; The Biggest Lie Ever Told; Please buy and read the books that detail and explain the founding of the Christian Religion; Purchase Books Online

At this point, we shall explore a correlation that has direct bearings to the astrological (astronomical) foundations of the Christ Myth. Humanity has, since time immemorial looked upon December 25, as the birth of the Sun (Son) God. Witness a quote from my previous book:

"The Biggest Lie Ever Told"-

"As I stated at the beginning of this chapter, the key to the connection between the Sun God and the Son of God is the number 3. The bible is replete with verses stating that the major sign for identifying the Son of God is that he would lay in a grave for three (3) days and then be resurrected-Born Again. Jesus Christ is the Personification of the Sun-God. I will not delve into the subject, at this point, but if you searched from now till doom's day, you will not find any Secular History of a person living 2,000 years ago, in Palestine, by the name of Jesus Christ, that accomplished the feats that are attributed to him, in the bible. The source of all knowledge concerning a person (prophet) called the Christ or Jesus are the biblical scriptures and other literature that was derived from the original biblical sources. Furthermore the bible was compiled and translated and revised by proponents of the Christian faith who established that religion, during the early centuries of this era (this era began approximately 2,000 years ago).

The pre-Christian Europeans practiced a variety of paganistic rituals that culminated each year, at the dawning of the winter type weather, on Dec. 25. They celebrated this day as the day of the Birth or Resurrection of the Sun God. Not as a symbol. They actually looked upon Dec. 25 as the day when the Sun was Born anew- Resurrected into new life. This ritual worship of the resurrection (birth) of the Sun-God on Dec. 25 goes back thousands of years into pre-history. The primary, motivating factor that inspired early man to worship god, was his fear and dread of the potential fierceness of his environment. His ( primitive man) major impetus for worshipping and sacrificing to the Sun God was to assure that the Sun God would continue protecting mankind from the ravages of the dreaded winter. So for primitive man, the inception of winter, December 22, was the worst day of every year for him. This day (December 22, the start of winter) marked the beginning of the worst stage of his yearly struggle for survival. This day (December 22, the start of winter) was the harbinger of his potential perdition. This day December 22, is referred to by astronomers as the Winter Solstice. This word, Solstice, according to Webster's Dictionary means "to stand still, pause, a turning point". On December 22 of each year, the Sun reached its Winter Solstice, the lowest point of trajectory (angle of rays) of the entire year. After December 22 (the turning point), the Sun again Rises northward, which is a sign that summer shall come again! Even though December 22 marks the beginning of winter and the weather turns progressively worst from that point (December 22) until the start of spring (March 21), all is not lost. Because the fact that the angle of Sun's rays projecting on the earth, was moving progressively northward told early man that the Warmth and Comfort of the summer Sun would eventually prevail. But there was a period of doubt, for early primitive civilization. Primitive man did not understand our universe and solar system as we do today. In this age of science we, today, know exactly what causes the four seasons of the year. But early man knew absolutely nothing about solar system, the axis of the earth--it's rotation and revolving around the sun. He did not understand that these forces operated by a Natural, Providential Law would stay it's course, no matter what. Early man only understood the result, not the cause.

So each year, early society awaited the approach of December 22, with foreboding. December 22, the day of the Winter Solstice (definition is to stand still) was a day of reckoning for them. Because it seemed to them, as they observed and tracked the North to South movement of the Sun, that on this day December 22, the sun entered its grave. The North to South progression of the Sun can be likened to a swinging pendulum. You know that when a pendulum reaches its solstice (the point where it swings back - its turning point), that for a slight imperceptible moment, it actually stands still. But in terms of our vast solar system, the point of solstice is not imperceptible. It lasts for days, three days to be exact.

For three days, after the sun reaches its solstice, it appears to stand still. This period of pause, between the Suns descent and Ascent, wrought paralyzing dread and fear into the hearts and minds of the early pre-Christians. Over Time, they established rituals and traditions concerning this period (December 22 to December 25). They passed the word through oral tradition, and eventually, after their societies established writing, wrote it down, concerning their Sun God: the sun shall lay in a grave (point of solstice) for 3 days. But after 3 days the sun shall rise, be resurrected, (according to Webster's dictionary, the word resurrect is linked to the word resurge, which means To Rise Again, to revive), and ascend toward heaven, (progressively ascend northward to the position of the summer sun). And when the sun completes its ascent upward toward the point of its summer solstice, it will comfort us and bless us with warm weather and long days and will save us (be a savior) from the ravages of winter."

So, this, that I have explained to you here, is the Original, authentic, true Concept of the resurrection. When the pre-Christians spoke and wrote of the resurrection of the Sun; they meant exactly that. It did not refer to a person, but to the Solar Sun. But, when the priesthood founded and established Christianity, they changed the Sun (s-u-n) to Son (s-o-n). The priesthood told the pagans that the Son (Christ) was born on December 25, just like their Sun. They told them that the Son had been dead in a grave for three days and then was resurrected (revived) and ascended to heaven (upward), just like their Sun. As stated in this excerpt from my other book, the reverence for December 25, as the Day of Birth for the Sun (Son of God) goes back into pre-history.

Related Article

The hollowed reckoning for this day did not begin two thousand years ago with the Christ. Jesus Christ, so called , was simply the latest personage to be linked to this ancient date of December 25, depicted as the birth of the Sun God. Some of the others that were revered on this day are as follows: Krishna, of India, born on December 25, his mother was a virgin, mother's name was Maia . The name Krishna means Black or Dark. His uncle , Kamsa, the ruler at the time of his birth sought to kill him (Krishna) because he had heard a Prophecy that Krishna would overthrow him. Krishna escaped death by being smuggled out of the area to safety.

Mithra, of Persia , born on December 25, his birth was witnessed by Shepherds that brought gifts to honor him. He was styled as a Mediator between God and Man. Witness this quote from my Encyclopedia Encarta: Mithraism was similar to Christianity in many respects, for example, in the ideals of humility and brotherly love, baptism, the rite of communion, the use of holy water, the adoration of the shepherds at Mithra's birth, the adoption of Sundays and of December 25 (Mithra's birthday) as holy days, and the belief in the immortality of the soul, the last judgment, and the resurrection. Mithraism differed from Christianity in the exclusion of women from its ceremonies and in its willingness to compromise with polytheism. The similarities, however, made possible the easy conversion of its followers to Christian doctrine. "Mithraism," Microsoft (R) Encarta. Copyright (c) 1994 Microsoft Corporation. Copyright (c) 1994 Funk & Wagnall's Corporation. ----

Horus, of Egypt, born on December 25. His mother, Isis , gave birth to him in the swamp, she was warned by the god Thoth, to flee and conceal the child from the evil Set. Set had killed the father of Horus, whose name was Osirus, and sought to kill Horus, also. Isis was able to keep Horus hidden from Set, till he (Horus) grew to manhood. Horus sought to avenge the murder of his Father, and made war against Set , and defeated him.

Buddha, of India, born on December 25, his mother's name was Maya, she was a virgin. He was immaculately conceived, and at birth , he announced that he was a savior to the world. His birth was announced by a star. At his birth, he was visited by Wise Men who declared that they had seen Signs of his birth, that is to say , signs of the royal birth.

Beddou (Fot), was a god of the orient born 1027 BC, his mother was a virgin, he was born of royal blood. The king sought to kill him at birth, because he felt the newborn infant posed a future threat to his Throne. The god child was saved by shepherds, and lived in the desert till he reached the age of thirty, at which time he commenced teaching his spiritual doctrine to that region.

Quetzalcoatl, a god the Western Hemisphere , was born of a virgin. He sojourned in the wilderness, fasted forty days. Was crucified. He was variously represented as the God of light that struggled against the god of darkness called Tezcatlipoca.

Hercules, son of the god Zeus, predestined by birth to inherit the throne of Argos. Hera, the jealous wife of Zeus desired the throne for another and sought to delay the birth of Hercules, and subsequently tried to kill Hercules while in his crib , by sending two snakes to strangle him. Hercules killed the snakes, though he was less than a year old. Later, He was sent away to the countryside where he became a shepherd.

Attis, of Phrygia , His mother was a virgin, her name was Nana. He was a shepherd, and reported to have died by self emasculation under a pine tree. He was alleged to have risen from the dead at Easter i.e. The vernal Equinox.

Tammuz. hailed as the only begotten son of the god Ea. His mother was a virgin , by the name of Ishtar. As an infant he was hidden in a chest by Aphrodite, the goddess of love and entrusted to Persephone, the goddess of the nether world. Persephone later opened the chest, and was so stricken by the beauty of the babe, that she refused to return the child to Aphrodite. The two goddesses fought each other for possession of the child, till finally the god Zeus mediated the matter, and declared that the child shall spend half it's year with Aphrodite and the other half in the nether world with Persephone.

There were many, many more gods and saviors born of virgin mothers, than I have listed here. To explore this subject in detail, read The World's Saviors, by Charles Vail - The Worlds Sixteen Crucified Saviors, by Kersey Graves, and The Golden Bough, by George Frazer.

The fact that so many saviors were alleged to have been born on the same day of the year, under the same and similar circumstances, in vastly scattered locations of the world, throughout thousands of years of history, indicates a worldwide dissemination of a common mythology. The sameness of these various myths that are widely separated geographically and in language and racial affiliation indicates an extremely ancient source as well as a coalescence of thought and philosophy within the ancient world that, perhaps many of us had not envisioned. The Son of God in all religious texts is representative of the most powerful entity in our known universe at that time...The Sun...giver of all life!

America's Christian Puritanism - History of war & bloodshed;

From the Revolutionary War against foreign evil agents preventing the birth of a new body politic; on through a Civil War with competing assertions about the evil oppressors existing within the body politic; up to this very moment, with war being waged against unseen terrorizing evil agents bent on the ultimate destruction of the body politic, America defines itself through identification of evil mortal enemies and by shared grief for glorified heroes who die in the battle against them. America is one of the most violent nations in the world, a country gripped by fears of violence from others, an economy driven by propped up global threats of self-made violent forces, with the majority fascinated by graphic depictions of violent acts from early Puritan sermons to contemporary interactive computer games, rap music and extremely violent movies.

American history is a tale of death and destruction from the beginning; a warrior’s story unfolding in the New World with the earliest English settlers establishing warfare as a fundamental ingredient of social progress and as fundamentally religious in its social consequences. The present terror war is no exception. The lifeblood of the nation, its spiritual vigor and moral convictions that move the social body onward in time, is nourished by broken bones and bodies of soldiers who die violently in bloody combat for unknown causes. With their self righteousness and God's ordained blessings they march..."Onward Christian Soldiers." Bush...patriotism...terrorism...oil...religion, profit...all just words...words men die for!

 Present day atrocities

 Japan
As most of the world is now aware, Japan is by far one of the worst in attitude towards animals. They slaughter whales, dolphins, turtles and pretty much everything that lives and breathes. They hold to some of the world's oddest and cruelest rituals, such as the murder of Black bears;

The Lyomante ritual is supposed to be the most important ritual within the Ainu tribe. Their disgusting ritual involves the killing of hibernating mother bears in caves. After the brutal slaughter they then take the cubs back to their villages, raising them for one to two years, at which time they choke the young bears to death. The people state that it is the core of their culture, but the sick methods used clearly show it is nothing more than the acts of disgustingly demented dark minds. In that they do not make a living bear hunting there can be no other reason to torture and murder these beautiful animals. It seems to be the instrumentation of the commercial tourism industry. Personally, I would not care to know anyone that thought this act was entertaining. (Pic on rt. Yet another sick ritual of bear being choke to death with logs)

The Ministry of Environment Japan published their view last October; “The ritual does not violate the law as long as it is observed in an appropriate manner for justifiable purposes”.

If they regard such ceremonial killings of innocent bear cubs as harmless, educationally and ethically...I dread to think of what these people are capable of? But then again, I am aware of their atrocities in war world 2.

Japan also allows the hunting of black & brown bears and last year 5000 Japanese bears were shot and killed. The Japan government caters to thousands of ancient, sick and barbaric rituals, including the allowance of the beating to death of trapped dolphins and the murder of endangered whales. They also allow the slaughter of literally millions of sharks; the fishermen catch and cut off the fins and throw the bleeding and suffering sharks back into the sea, where they sink to the bottom where they slowly and painfully bleed to death.

Japan claims that the hunting is necessary as bears are hazardous to human safety. However, this view is false as hunting is controlled by Hunting Associations in local areas. Hunters apply for expensive hunting permits “in order to eliminate human hazard.” The hunters kill the bears, take out their livers and sell each for around Yen \200,000 (£870 Euro) and up to \600,000 (£2,600Euros)!!

Permitted hunting period is between 15 November and 15 February. (1 October to end of February in Hokkaido), and of course bears are killed perfectly legally within these periods.

Last year, a ceremony called, “Marat Opnika” the ritual of killing grown bears instead of cubs was revived in Asahikawa Hokkaido after a 7 years ban. 60 people attended the ceremony from all over Hokkaido where a male bear which was 4-5 years old was sacrificed.

When bears feel in danger of being attacked by humans in the caves, mother bears sometimes eat their cubs to keep them from being captured by humans. Some hunters go so far as cutting off the bear’s paws with an axe if the bear resist coming out from the cave.

Please get involved and voice your detest of their murderous actions against animals and wildlife by calling or writing to;

Minister Masatoshi Wakabayashi Ministry of Environment, Government of Japan Godochosha No.5,1-2-2 Kasumigaseki, Cho-ku, Tokyo 100-8975, JAPAN. Tel: 81-(0)3-3581-3351, Email:

Governor Harumi Takahashi Hokkaido Government Nishi 6-chome, Kita 3-jo, Chuo-ku, Sapporo 060-8588 JAPAN Tel: 81-(0)11-231-4111

Mr. Kazushi Abe. {This organization promotes the ceremony.} Vice Chairman Utari Association Presto 1.7 (7F), North 1, West 7, Chuo-ku, Sapporo, Hokkaido 060-0111 JAPAN, Tel: 81-(0)11-271-4171 Email: ainu@frpac.or.jp

Your letters, calls and emails will help! Please let them know the world does care and we demand action.

 Canada

The Money Ritual
The clubbing murders of thousands of Baby Seals. You might ask if the below article is of a religious nature, and I would state that yes, as all driving forces in our genetic makeup are self driven, such as rituals, superstitions, dogmas and yes...especially greed. The below falls into the greed category and clearly expresses our barbaric nature and vile contempt for all things...especially if we can make a buck.

The Canadian Province of Prince Edward Island is primarily noted for four things. The most famous of these is an author named Lucy Maud Montgomery and her books about Anne Shirley – Anne of Green Gables.

Anne Shirley is one of the most famous Canadians known in Japan. The Japanese love her and every years thousands of Japanese travel to the island Province of Prince Edward Island to see Green Gables, the home of Anne. Actually it is the home of Lucy Maud Montgomery but those who visit it envision Anne, and not Lucy when they tour Green Gables. In Japan, the book is entitled Akage no An.

The second thing that Prince Edward Island is famous for is that it is the birthplace of the nation of Canada. It was in Charlottetown on July 1st, 1867 that Canada became a country. (Above Picture showing thousands of clubbed baby seals in Canada)

The third thing that Prince Edward Island is noted for is potatoes and the rich red soil of the island situated in the Gulf of St. Lawrence is the source of potatoes sold throughout the world.

The fourth thing that Prince Edward Island is famous for is not so romantic as Anne and not so tasty as the potatoes. It is a horrid thing, a bloody, nightmarish, cruel, and evil thing and that is the annual slaughter of beautiful, newly born, fluffy white, baby harp seals.

During the days when Anne lived at Green Gables, the month of March saw men from Anne’s province put on spiked boots, and then armed with clubs they walked out onto the hard ice offshore the beaches of Prince Edward Island, and began to bludgeon the defenseless seals in their nursery. Before the eyes of the baby seals helpless mothers, these men kicked the pups in the face, smashed their fragile skulls with their clubs and sometimes, because they were lazy or inclined to be cruel, they would skin the little creatures alive. Any mother that tried to protect her baby was shot or clubbed in the face.

The icy shores of Cavendish Beach is annually saturated with the the blood of these helpless baby seals. The skinned little bodies of baby seals, thousands of them, their glazed large black eyes staring sightlessly into the cruel skies, reflecting the horror of the clubs and vicious boots of the sealers. Born on the ice, and nursed by their mother for only a few days...just to be ruthlessly assaulted and slaughtered.

In 2003 the Canadian government targeted 350,000 seals for slaughter with another 350,000 to be killed in 2004 and another 350,000 to be killed in 2005 and continues these horrific numbers even today. A million and a half defenseless seals have been murdered in the last 4 years not far from Green Gables. I wonder how many of the tourists who make the pilgrimage to Green Gables every summer would be horrified to have their vision of the innocence and simplicity of Green Gables to be shattered by the knowledge that Lucy Maud Montgomery’s Reaper of Death continues to inflict horrific cruelty and slaughter on the innocents on the shores of Anne’s beloved province of Prince Edward Island. (What on heaven or Earth gives us the right to murder what nature has taken millions of years to create?)

Canada's Governor General eats raw Seal Heart

Canada's governor general ate a slaughtered seal's raw heart in a show of support to the country's seal hunters, a display that a European Union spokeswoman on Tuesday called "too bizarre to acknowledge."

Governor General Michaelle Jean, the representative of Britain's Queen Elizabeth II as Canada's head of state, gutted the seal and swallowed a slice of the mammal's organ late Monday after an EU vote earlier this month to impose a ban on seal products on grounds that the seal hunt is cruel.

The Canadian Gov. justifies the slaughter of the harp seals by managing them and referring to them as fish. It is called the seal fishery. Well, if this is justification, then I guess we humans should still be classified as monkeys and put in zoos and fed bananas!!!

If eating a seal's raw heart isn't barbaric...what is! She said it tasted like sushi...I wonder what her calloused heart would taste like...yuck! Sic...sic and sic! MS. 06-16-08.

Email, call and write the Canadian Gov. and in support of protecting the world's species, boycott all Canadian fish & game products!

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Ritual Human Sacrifices of The Aztecs & Mayans
Ritual Sacrifice does serve a practical purpose, actually. It serves to reinforce support for the Ruling Elites from the Populace. Behold the awesome and terrible power of your rulers!

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Executing someone is by all forms of the meaning...a ritual sacrifice, which, sadly, is surprisingly effective, even though it has no direct benefit to the populace itself. It’s a carefully crafted fantasy, justified by precedent and authority, just as carefully crafted. Today...like yesterday...not much ever changes!

Aztecs waged “flower wars” to capture prisoners for sacrifices they called nextlaualli, “debt payment to the gods” so that the sun could survive each cycle of 52 years. Every 52 years a special “new fire ceremony” occurred. All fires were extinguished, and in the middle of the night a sacrifice was made. They then waited for dawn. If the Sun appeared, it meant that the sacrifices for this cycle had been enough.

The practice of sacrifice is found in the oldest human records. The archaeological record contains human and animal corpses with sacrificial marks long before any written records of the practice. Sacrifices are a common theme in most religions, and though the frequency of animal, sacrifices are said to be rare...they are still practiced daily in Nepal and India, as I personally have seen hundreds of animal sacrifices in those regions. Even worse...human sacrifices are still going on in many parts of India, even now.

Judaism

On Sept. 06 2009 a diplomatic feud erupted between Israel and Sweden over an unsubstantiated article in a Swedish tabloid that accused Israeli soldiers of harvesting organs from dead Palestinians and suggested a connection with an international organ trafficking ring run by Jews. Israeli officials condemned the article as anti-Semitic and reminiscent of medieval blood libels against Jews. The Jews use that verbal defense for every negative comment or action even if it's all true! Stating facts is not anti-semitic...it's anti bull-shit! MS.

The Forever Warring Israelis; Before the Israelites ever saw Chanaan the people there were peaceful.

QUOTE. So the five men ( Israelites ) went on and came to Lias. They saw that the people dwelling there LIVED SECURELY after the manner of the Sidonians, QUIET AND TRUSTING, with no lack of any natural resources. ( Judges 18:7)

Then after their God taught his Egyptian slaves to make war, he gave them orders on how to take a city outside their territory.

QUOTE. When you march up to attack a city, first offer it terms of peace. If it agrees to your terms of peace and opens it's gates to you, all the people to be found in it shall serve you in forced labor. But if it refuses to make peace with you and instead offers you battle, lay siege to it, and WHEN THE LORD, YOUR GOD, DELIVERS IT INTO YOUR HAND, PUT EVERY MALE IN IT TO THE SWORD; but the women and children and livestock and all else in it that is worth plundering you may take as your booty, and you may use this plunder of your enemies which the Lord, Your God, has given you. That is how you shall deal with any city at a considerable distance from you, which does not belong to the peoples of this land. (Deuteronomy 20:10)

But God had a much different set of rules for his army in the lands He did intend Israel to occupy. He wanted to occupy the land with a clean slate.

QUOTE. But in the cities of those nations which the Lord, your God, is giving you as your heritage, YOU SHALL NOT LEAVE A SINGLE SOUL ALIVE. You must doom them all - the Hethites, Amorrites, Chanaanites, Pherezites, Hevites and Jebusites - as the Lord, your God, has commanded you. (Deuteronomy 20:15)

QUOTE. The Crusades, for example, were an attempt to TAKE BACK the lands that were taken, by violence, by the Muslims.

QUOTE. Islam was spread, by the sword (violence) from the Atlantic (Spain and North Africa) to the Pacific (Indonesia).

QUOTE. But in the cities of those nations which the Lord, your God, is giving you as your heritage, you shall not leave a single soul alive. You must doom them all - the Hethites, Amorrites, Chanaanites, Pherezites, Hevites and Jebusites - as the Lord, your God, has commanded you. (Deuteronomy 20:15)

And if you take notice, God didn't ask, or suggest, He commanded! Which religion is the most violent is a question that can only be answered by looking inside each faith and marking the propensities of its doctrines in encouraging its adherents to commit acts of violence for the sake of that religion and as an article of faith.

The God of the Jews did not teach, he demanded genocide time and time again. I don't have to wait for adherents to commit acts of violence. The God of the Jews ordered them to do it now.

I became curious about the number of deaths in the Old Testament of the Christian Bible, so I did a line-by-line search for the numbers that are printed there. The number of human beings that died directly, or indirectly, because of the God of the Jews was 6,548,935. I don't know if any other book in print records the number of deaths attributed to the religious leader or God, but 6 1/2 million is a very big number. As for God teaching death and destruction, I don't know how you can deny these passages from the Bible.

Since the Muslim and the Christian religions both stem from Abraham's sons Isaac and Ismael, I have no doubt that the descendants of God's chosen, Abraham, are responsible for more violent deaths than any other group of people. If you want to narrow it down between the two, The God of the Jews was responsible in his time directly, or indirectly, for over six and one half million deaths.

 Korban and Shechita

In response from his peoples concern over Israel's treatment of Palestinians; “Every time we do something you tell me America will do this and will do that...I want to tell you something very clear: Don’t worry about American pressure on Israel. We, the Jewish people, control America, and the Americans know it.” - Israeli Prime Minister Ariel Sharon, October 8th, 2004.

In Judaism, a sacrifice is known as a Korban, from the Hebrew root karov, meaning "to [come] close [to God]" (Pic on left shows one of Israel's more recent atrocities of rolling people in tin and burning them)

The centrality of sacrifices in Judaism is clear, with much of the Bible, particularly the opening chapters of the book Leviticus, detailing the exact method of bringing sacrifices. Sacrifices were either bloody (animals) or unbloody (grain and wine). Bloody sacrifices were divided into holocausts (burnt offerings, in which the whole animal was burnt), guilt offerings (in which part was burnt and part left for the priest) and peace offerings (in which similarly only part of the animal was burnt). Yet the prophets point out that sacrifices are only a part of serving God and need to be accompanied by inner morality and goodness.

After the destruction of the Second Temple, ritual sacrifice ceased except among the Samaritans. Maimonides, a medieval Jewish rationalist, argued that God always held sacrifice inferior to prayer and philosophical meditation. However, God understood that the Israelites were used to the animal sacrifices that the surrounding pagan tribes used as the primary way to commune with their gods. As such, in Maimonides' view, it was only natural that Israelites would believe that sacrifice was a necessary part of the relationship between God and man. Maimonides concludes that God's decision to allow sacrifices was a concession to human psychological limitations. It would have been too much to have expected the Israelites to leap from pagan worship to prayer and meditation in one step. In the Guide for the Perplexed, he writes:

"But the custom which was in those days general among men, and the general mode of worship in which the Israelites were brought up consisted in sacrificing animals... It was in accordance with the wisdom and plan of God...that God did not command us to give up and to discontinue all these manners of service. For to obey such a commandment would have been contrary to the nature of man, who generally cleaves to that to which he is used; it would in those days have made the same impression as a prophet would make at present [the 12th Century] if he called us to the service of God and told us in His name, that we should not pray to God nor fast, nor seek his help in time of trouble; that we should serve Him in thought, and not by any action." (Book III, Chapter 32. Translated by M. Friedlander, 1904, The Guide for the Perplexed, Dover Publications, 1956 edition.)

In contrast, many others such as Nachmanides (in his Torah commentary on Leviticus 1:9) disagreed, contending that sacrifices are an ideal in Judaism, completely central.

The teachings of the Torah and Tanakh reveal Judaism's abhorrence of human sacrifices. (Above Pic. on left of Israelis Stoning a Woman)

 Judaism, cont.
Current religious thinking views the Akedah as central to the replacement of human sacrifice; while some Talmudic scholars assert the replacement was the sacrifice of animals at the Temple - using Exodus 13,2.12f; 22,28f; 34,19f; Numeri 3,1ff; 18,15; Deuteronomy 15,19 - others view that as superseded by the symbolic pars-pro-toto sacrifice of circumcision. Leviticus 20,2 and Deuteronomy 18,10 specifically outlaw the giving of children to Moloch, making it punishable by stoning; the Tanakh subsequently denounces human sacrifice as barbaric customs of Baal worshippers (e.g. Psalms 106,37ff).

Kaparot is a traditional Jewish religious ritual that takes place around the time of the High Holidays. Classically, it is performed by grasping a live chicken by the shoulder blades and moving around one’s head three times, symbolically transferring one’s sins to the chicken. The chicken is then slaughtered and donated to the poor, preferably eaten at the pre-Yom Kippur feast. In modern times, Kapparos is performed in the traditional form mostly in Haredi communities. The ritual is preceded by the reading of Psalms 107:17-20 and Job 33:23-24.

On the eve of Yom Kippur 2005, more than 200 caged chickens were abandoned in rainy weather as part of a Kaparot operation in Brooklyn, NY; some of these starving and dehydrated chickens were subsequently rescued by the American Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Animals. Jacob Kalish, an Orthodox Jew from Williamsburg, was charged with animal cruelty for the drowning deaths of 35 of these chickens. In response to such reports of the mistreatment of chickens, animal rights organizations have begun to picket public observances of kaparot, particularly in Israel. (Pic. on left; Rabbi flogs (beats) child)

 Judaism, cont.
Infant circumcision; "The method to be adopted is laid down thus: 'One excises the foreskin, [that is] the entire skin covering the glands, so that the corona is laid bare. Afterwards, one tears with the finger-nail the soft membrane underneath the skin, turning it to the sides until the flesh of the glands appears. Thereafter, one sucks the membrane until the blood is extracted from the remote places, so that no danger [to the infant may ensue; and any circumciser who does not carry out the sucking procedure is to be removed [from his office] The operation itself, then, consists of three distinct acts: the excision of the prepuce; the laceration of the mucous membrane covering the glands; and the sucking of the blood from the interior of the wound." Immanuel Jakobovits. Jewish Medical Ethics: A Comparative and Historical Study of the Jewish Religious Attitude to Medicine and Its Practice. New York: Bloch Publishing Company, 1959.

The Bloody Passovers of Dr. Toaff — By Israel Shamir

(Pic. on rt. of Rabbi performing circumcision by biting off the foreskin of a baby and sucking out the blood)

Blood, betrayal, torture, and surrender are interwoven in the story of an Italian Jew, Dr Ariel Toaff, as if penned by his compatriot Umberto Eco. Dr Toaff stumbled onto a frightful discovery, was horrified but bravely went on, until he was subjected to the full pressure of his community; he repented, a broken man.

Dr Toaff, the son of the Rabbi of Rome and a professor in the Jewish University of Bar Ilan, not far from Tel Aviv. He made a name for himself by his deep study of medieval Jewry. His three-volume; Love, Work, and Death (subtitled Jewish Life in Medieval Umbria) is an encyclopedia of this admittedly narrow area. While studying his subject he discovered that the medieval Ashkenazi Jewish communities of North Italy practiced a particularly horrible form of human sacrifice. Their wizards and adepts stole and crucified Christian babies, obtained their blood and used it for magical rituals evoking the Spirit of Vengeance against the hated Goyim.

In particular, he dwelt on the case of St Simon of Trent. This two-year old child from the Italian town of Trent was kidnapped by a few Ashkenazi Jews from his home on the eve of Passover 1475 AD. At night, the kidnappers murdered the child; drew his blood, pierced his flesh with needles, crucified him head down calling “So may all Christians by land and sea perish”, and thus they celebrated their Passover, an archaic ritual of outpouring blood and killed babies, in the most literal form, without usual metaphoric “blood-wine” shift.

The killers were apprehended, confessed and were found guilty by the Bishop of Trent. Immediately, the Jews took their protest to the Pope and he sent the bishop of Ventimiglia to investigate. The bishop allegedly accepted a hefty bribe from the Jews and concluded that the child was murdered by a Hamas mine in order to besmirch Israel, as there was no Tsahal ordnance found on the beach of Trent. “Simon had been killed by Christians with the intention of ruining the Jews”, said the pre-war Jewish Encyclopedia, in a clear case of premonition: the same argument was used by Jews in 2006 while explaining away the mass murder of children in Kafr Qana.

Jewish ritual murder has classically been characterized as extremist Jews ritually murdering Christian children and then using their blood in ritual foods. Some Jewish scholars have attacked the book’s thesis by saying the use of blood that way would be completely against Jewish laws, because Jews view any blood as unclean. These rabbis conveniently forgot to mention that some Orthodox rabbis actually suck the blood from the freshly circumcised penises of infants. This sounds very strange, but is true and one Jewish organization even published pictures of the ceremony.

Another interesting corollary is that on Purim, Orthodox Jews have some very strange rituals and dietary habits. Purim is a major Jewish celebration of the murder of Haman, all of his sons and 70,000 Persians that Jews claim plotted a pogrom against them. In Synagogues at Purim, Jewish children beat willow branches which symbolizes the beating of Haman, a fairly hateful ceremony to be sure. Even stranger is the cuisine made up for Jewish Purim feasts. They make and eat with glee Hamantaschen, which are triangle shaped cookies that symbolize Haman’s ears. But, the height of their dietary oddness might be the dish they call Kreplach, which are dough pockets filled with ground beef, the ground beef is meant to represent the beaten flesh of Haman. Some of you who are new to the world of Jewish extremism might not believe me but I document these facts from mainstream Jewish sources in my book Jewish Supremacism.

Kapparot Ritual

Jewish Ritual of passing their sins to a chicken
 

I had never heard of the ancient Jewish rite of Kapparot until I came across the headline Rabbi Battles PETA Harassment in Fight for Kapparot Ritual.


Performed on the eve of Yom Kippur, the ritual involves lifting a chicken over one's head while saying a prayer in an act of atonement..... whereby the chicken symbolically carries away your sins. The chicken is then slaughtered and donated to the poor. Strange People!

 

 

Israel's Crimes, America's Silence

John Dugard

 

Palestinians Fenced like cattle in their own land by Israel. Is there really a difference between Israelis & Nazis?
 

____________________________________________________________________________________

June 24, 2009

US President Obama's recent speech to the Muslim World failed to address allegations that Israel committed war crimes in Gaza. Palestinians and people throughout the region were shocked at the firepower Israel brought to bear against Gaza's civilians and do not want Palestinians' ongoing misery to be further ignored. Many were surely waiting to hear from President Obama that the way to peace does not lie through the devastation of civilian life and infrastructure in Gaza. (Pic. on left of Palestine child killed in latest Israeli attack) (Pic. on rt. of bombed out Gaza in 2009)

 

   Jewish Theologies of Sacrifice

The theology of sacrifice remains an issue, not only for religions that continue to practice rituals of sacrifice, but also for those religions that have animal sacrifice in their scriptures, traditions, or histories, even if sacrifice is no longer made. Religions offer a number of reasons for why sacrifices are offered.

  • Gods need sacrifice to sustain themselves and their power, without which they are diminished.

  • Sacrificed goods are used to make a bargain with the god, who has promised some favour in return for the sacrifice.

  • The lives or blood of sacrificial victims contains mana or some other supernatural power whose offering pleases the god.

  • The sacrificial victim is offered as a scapegoat, a target for the wrath of a god, which otherwise would be visited on the followers.

  • Sacrifice deprives the followers of food and other useful commodities, and as such constitutes an ascetic discipline.

  • Sacrificed goods actually become part of a religious organization's revenue; it is a part of the economic base of support that compensates priests and supports temples.

  • The sacrifice is actually a part of a festival and is ultimately consumed by the followers themselves.

  • In the Hebrew Bible, God issues a number of commandments for Israelites to offer animal sacrifices in the portable sanctuary, known as the TabernacleTabernacles redirects here. For the Feast of Tabernacles, see Sukkot. The Tabernacle is known in Hebrew as the Mishkan ("Place of [Divine] dwelling"). It was to be a portable central place of worship for the Children of Israel from the time they left anci. Once the Israelites were settled in the land of Canaan, all sacrifices were ordered to be ended except those offered in the Temple in Jerusalem. The Jerusalem Temple ( Hebrew: beit ha-mikdash was the center of Israelite and Jewish worship, primarily for the offering of sacrifices known as the korbanot''. It was located on Jerusalem's Temple Mount. According to the Bible, the First Temple was built. In the Bible God asks for sacrifices as a sign of a covenant between himself and the Israelite people. Haven't the animals suffered enough without being slaughtered to appease fantasy deities? And we call animals dumb! MS. 07-25-09

Intermarriage and Monotheistic Religions

 

Qur'an 2:221 and 24:3 forbid Muslims, men and women alike, to marry idolaters, unless the idolaters convert to Islam. A non-Moslem man of whatever religion is compelled to embrace Islam if he is to marry a Moslem woman.' (Islamic Institute for Information and Education).

 

Disparity of worship embraces and renders null and void the marriage of a Catholic with pagan, Mohammedan, Jew, catechumen, heretic and schismatic.' (Catholic Encyclopedia).
 

 

Intermarriage has created a silent holocaust in this generation. Intermarrying may have become fashionable, but it is still wrong and destructive' (Judaism Online).
 

Although most secular bans on intermarriage were repealed, religious invectives against intermarriage abound. Entering 'intermarriage' into the Google Internet search reveals hundreds of sites, overwhelmingly against the intermarriage and predominantly Jewish. Most arguments against the intermarriage revolve around

Deuteronomy 7:3-4: 'You shall not intermarry with them; you shall not give your daughter to his son, and you shall not take his daughter for your son, for he will cause your child to turn away from after Me and they will worship the gods of others then the L0rd’s wrath will burn against you, and He will destroy you quickly.'

And;

Exodus 19:5,6): 'Now if you obey Me and keep My covenant, you shall be my special treasure among the nations, even though all the world is Mine. You will be a kingdom of priests and a holy nation.'

These quotations are followed by commentaries such as

'In these few words lies the task for which the Jews were chosen – to be a kingdom of priests. That is his God-given responsibility and privilege. To shirk this responsibility is to deny oneself the ultimate privilege. To intermarry is an open violation of that responsibility.' Oh yeah! MS.

Allies in Apartheid

It is by no means difficult to recognize from afar, as leader of South Africa, Verwoerd, had been able to do, that Israel is indeed an apartheid state. Verwoerd’s successor Balthazar John Vorster visited Israel after the 1973 October War, when Egypt in a rare victory regained the Suez Canal and Sinai from Israel. After that Israel and South Africa were virtually twinned as military allies for Pretoria helped supply Israel militarily in the immediacy of its 1973 setback and Israel came to support apartheid South Africa at the height of sanctions with weaponry and technology -- from naval ships and the conversion of supersonic fighter planes to assistance in building six nuclear bombs and the creation of an arms industry.

The burgeoning global abortion industry is the most notable example of Jewish ritual murder, and is viewed as such by most Jews, especially the Orthodox and Hasidic. Forced abortion and infanticide of Gentiles by design of the Jews has been particularly prevalent under the Jew invented Asian socialist regimes; and Jews have been entirely responsible for establishing the pro-abortion lobby and for achieving legalization of abortion of Gentiles in the Western World.

Jews have been disproportionately prominent among owners and staff of abortion clinics in the United States, where Planned Parenthood, the National Abortion Rights Action League, NARAL Pro-Choice America, etc, have their roots in a global programme to satisfy the Jews’ lust for the blood of innocent Gentiles and Christians, and a scam to make covetous Jews lots of money. Jews doubtless derive satisfaction from and are soothed in their spirit by performing an abortion; because they know they’ve by that successfully destroyed a child of their Gentile enemies. Jewish anarchist and assassin, Emma Goldman, provided plenty of inspiration for feminist/birth control/pro-abortion organizations in America; and Betty Friedan (b. Betty Naomi Goldstein) was active in Marxist and Jewish circles and a co-founder of NARAL. (Above photo of aborted fetus)

Whereas Catholicism expresses the interests of the landed nobility and of the feudal order, while Calvinism (or Puritanism) represents those of the bourgeoisie or capitalism, Judaism mirrors the interests of a pre-capitalist mercantile class. MS. 07-30-09

Israel - Friend or Foe

Jews Kill USS Liberty Crew and The US accepts the Big Lie and Covers it up!

Watch the actual attack by the Israeli Forces On An American Ship

 


Picture on left of Liberty before the Attack - a $40 million state-of-the-art NSA fitted surveillance vessel

Picture on right; After the Attack - a wreck sold for scrap.

More of the Jews' 'collateral war damage' - 34 US crew members dead and more than two-thirds of the 297 on board wounded. (below Pic.)

On June 8, 1967,
Israeli air and naval forces violated the Geneva Conventions and gained lasting notoriety among honest Americans for deliberately and viciously attacking the surveillance vessel USS Liberty, 13 nautical miles (24km) off Arish, in international waters, during the ‘67 Six-Day War; and since then the Jews and their acolytes in U.S. government and the media have lied about and provided blatantly fraudulent accounts of what really happened on the day.

The facts are really quite simple and straightforward, and can be summarized by saying that the Israeli air force and navy carefully monitored the Liberty on June 8 for several hours in broad daylight and with nothing to hamper their visibility; and they correctly reported the vessel’s identity to their headquarters. Shortly after that, the command was given to Israeli fighter pilots and the Israeli navy that the USS Liberty must be immediately sunk without trace or survivors.

Israeli fighter jets then proceeded to callously batter the Liberty with machine-gun fire, rockets, and napalm bombs; and the Israeli navy backed that up with a treacherous torpedo attack from three Israeli boats. The assault lasted for seventy-five minutes, leaving 821 holes in the ship – a hundred were rocket-sized, as well as a 40-foot wide torpedo hole in the hull.

Not being particularly competent at sinking the vessel, the Israeli war criminals decided to leave the Liberty disabled; but not before firing indiscriminately from the torpedo boats at medical personnel and firefighters onboard the stricken vessel from as little as 50 feet away, completely disregarding the American flag unfurled in the breeze from a mast in front of them.

The Israelis also vented their frustration and failure to fulfill their mission to sink the vessel by machine gunning the life rafts the crew had lowered into the water to receive survivors, so that they could at least say to their superiors that they did everything they could to ensure that no one was left alive to inform on them after the atrocity.

A Jew-spun Wikipedia entry on the USS Liberty actually has the cheek to call all of the foregoing Israeli violence “an error – a friendly fire incident”!

The death toll among the Liberty’s crew was 34 and more than two-thirds of the 297-man crew were wounded.

USS Liberty's American flag was flying and very visible on that day!

The callous and vicious Israeli operation was intended to ensure that data collected on the surveillance vessel couldn’t adversely affect Israel’s plans to invade the Golan Heights before a new cease-fire agreement with the Arabs came into effect.

By June 10, the IDF had concluded the Golan offensive and a ceasefire agreement was signed the following day. Israel had thus secured the Gaza Strip, the Sinai Peninsula, the West Bank of the Jordan River (including East Jerusalem), and the Golan Heights, increasing her overall territory by a factor of three and placing about a million Arabs under her direct control.

Now for the cover-up:

According to an article at the USS Liberty Memorial Web site:

“Despite a near-universal consensus that the Israeli attack on the USS Liberty on June 8 1967 was made with full knowledge that it was a US Navy ship, the Johnson administration [Johnson was of Jewish pedigree, an ardent Zionist and complicit in JFK's assassination] began an immediate cover-up of this fact.

Though administration officers continued individually to characterize the attack as deliberate, the Johnson administration never sought the prosecution of the guilty parties or otherwise attempted to seek justice for the victims. They concealed and altered evidence in their effort to downplay the attack. Though they never formally accepted the Israeli explanation that it was an accident, they never pressed for a full investigation either. They simply allowed those responsible literally to get away with murder.

In an ongoing effort to reveal the truth about the attack, the USS Liberty Veterans Association has filed with the Secretary of the Army in the manner prescribed by law a detailed, fully documented Report of War Crimes describing the circumstances of the attack on our ship and evidence that it was a crime under international law. In accordance with international law and treaties, the United States is obligated to investigate the allegations. So far, the United States has declined even to acknowledge that the report has been filed.”

James Ennes; According to another article in the Washington Report on Middle East Affairs, May-June 2007, by James Ennes, a lieutenant on the USS Liberty’s bridge during the attack and author of the notable Assault on the Liberty book (AET Book Club):

“The lies started almost immediately. Even before crewmen could give their eyewitness accounts, the Israeli government concocted a preposterous “tragic accident” story, claiming that the Liberty had been mistaken for an out-of-service Egyptian horse carrier designed to carry 40 horses and their riders for the Egyptian cavalry of the 1920s.

According to this story, the Liberty was recognized as American only after torpedoes were launched. Since torpedoes can’t be recalled or redirected, however, Americans died. According to the Israeli story, the attackers immediately ceased fire and apologized for their “mistake.”

But this was not true. The torpedo men continued to fire long after they claim the last shot was fired. In fact, they continued to fire until they heard that air support from the Sixth Fleet was on the way.

Survivors of the attack fully expected to refute the Israeli lie during one of the investigations that would be sure to follow, and show that the attack was no accident. That, however, was not to be.

Despite the presence of more than 200 men eager to testify, the Navy Court of Inquiry inexplicably did not ask about deliberateness, and did not allow survivors to testify freely—nor did Congress or anyone else. Israel’s “Big Lie” was accepted at face value, and no questions were ever asked about whether the attack was deliberate or whether the Israeli story was true.

According to a sworn affidavit by the Court’s own legal officer, the official Navy transcript was fraudulently changed and rewritten in Washington after it was signed by members of the Court. The official record, therefore, is a forgery. Yet despite several appeals to the secretary of the Navy and others, the Navy refuses to investigate or even to contact the senior legal officer making these very serious charges).”

The Liberty’s survivors’ frustration was made worse by sayanim (helpers of the Jews) of the ilk of the notorious ADL, a Jewish Florida bankruptcy magistrate by the name of Ahron Jay Cristol, and Gerardo Joffe, president of the pro-Israel group FLAME. Florida Jewish Bankruptcy Judge Jay Cristol.

This is Cristol according to one flatterer:

“A Renaissance man of the old school, Judge Cristol has accomplished in one lifetime what most people would need nine lives to do and he does it all with good humor and a genuine respect for and interest in his fellow man.”

But James Ennes again writes:

“[The Jew] Cristol first gave serious currency to “The Big Lie” when his book, The Liberty Incident, falsely claimed that up to 15 investigations “including five congressional investigations” had all inquired into the attack and exonerated Israel of any wrongdoing.

As we have demonstrated previously in these pages and elsewhere, that is totally untrue. No American investigation has ever inquired as to whether the attack was deliberate. Certainly no congressional inquiry has done so. Cristol’s dishonest tactic is to find a mention of the attack in some official record and call this an “investigation that exonerated Israel …

Sadly, other sycophants pick up Cristol’s ball and run with it. Perhaps most persistent is one Gerardo Joffe, president and chief cheerleader for the pro-Israel propaganda group FLAME—an acronym its critics maintain stands for “Fallacies and Lies About the Middle East.” In kneejerk letters to the Washington Report and in his FLAME Web site Joffe consistently parrots Cristol’s line that the Liberty attack has long been proven accidental and that it has been given too much attention, while other incidents are given too little.

Similarly, the Anti-Defamation League, whose stated mission is to stop defamation of the Jewish people and “to secure justice and fair treatment to all,” has no problem supporting the Cristol/FLAME fiction by pretending, according to its Web site, that “Several government investigations have concluded that the attack…was carried out in error” and that “every piece of information declassified to date…has supported this conclusion.”

Survivors repeatedly have asked Cristol and others to provide copies or other evidence of these so-called “investigations.” None has done so. They cannot. There are no such investigations. Similarly, we have asked them to remove their false statements. They refuse. These lies serve their purpose.

In fact, when survivors have sought details of such investigations from their congressmen, from the Navy Judge Advocate General, from the Library of Congress, from the Congressional Research Service, or from any other government agency, we have repeatedly been advised that there has never been any congressional investigation of Israel’s attack on the USS Liberty.“

According to an article by William Hughes, titled: “Liberty Smearing Backfires”:

“When Ahron Jay Cristol, a self-described “amateur historian,” showed up at the National Security Agency’s (NSA) National Cryptologic Museum at Fort George C. Meade, MD., on Jan. 14, 2004, there was something almost sacrilegious about his presence there.

He was there to peddle his pro-Zionist Israel book, “The Liberty Incident.” It is a clever, but seriously flawed, apologia, that attempts to mask the wrongdoing associated with Israel’s premeditated attack on the USS Liberty, an NSA-fitted spy vessel, on June 8, 1967. That attack killed 34 brave Americans and wounded 172 others. His book also smears those demanding justice in the Liberty matter as “conspiracy theorists …

Recently, two individuals from the U.S. intelligence community have come forward to verify that they had viewed intercepted real-time transcripts, on June 8, 1967, between Israeli jet pilots and their ground controllers, in which the Israelis clearly acknowledged that they knew that they were attacking, and worse still, trying to sink, “the American ship” (http://www.ussliberty.org/smoking.htm).

NSA’s Cryptologic Museum was built in 1993. It houses code-breaking, and related artifacts, from our country’s past. It also displays, the actual 5’ by 8’ American flag the Liberty was flying, when it was deliberately assaulted by unmarked Israeli jet planes and torpedo boats for over one hour and 15 minutes …

Also, at the book signing, Cristol made a big deal about the transcripts of NSA-released communications of June 8, 1967, between Israeli helicopter pilots. At best, these transcripts mimic an improvised vaudeville skit of the [Jewish] Marx Brothers [c.f., First Light Forum's recent post under the title of "Sarah Silverman- Comic or Just another Jew Cot Case"] and prove absolutely nothing, since the helicopter pilots arrived AFTER the attack. These particular pilots weren’t part of the original assault force.

When I queried Cristol whether it was a war crime or not, under any circumstances, for the Israelis to have machine-gunned the Liberty’s life rafts, he replied, “It’s one of the myths that has grown up,” about the Liberty. He said that story “isn’t accurate.”

It was a terrible mistake,” Cristol said, as the Liberty survivors, and their supporters, in the audience shook their heads in total disbelief."

USS Liberty survivors and many researchers into the atrocity tried for years to find out why the Israeli gun camera photography that was provided by the Jew Ahron Jay Cristol, on the cover of his book: The Liberty Incident, had blurred the US flag flying and showed a large white area near the starboard bow that looked like an explosion but in a part of the vessel that suffered no major strike, and when ordinary gun camera photos are usually quite sharp.

This question was finally answered by Ken Halliwell who proved that the Jew Cristol and his acolytes had surreptitiously altered the photograph in a manner similar to the way the Jew Zapruder’s film of the JFK assassination had been so successfully altered a few years earlier.

To quote one source:

“A close look at the two photos, with matching points circled by Halliwell, reveals that they are in fact almost the same picture — but the “gun camera” view has been doctored to hide the flag and other identifying marks. If a viewer will look carefully, the American flag is flying from the stern in both pictures.

Flags fly from a Navy ship’s stern only in port; the flag flies from the mainmast at sea. This is a picture taken in port in July, not taken during the attack as claimed by the Israelis. It cannot possibly be a gun camera photo taken during the attack as the Israelis claim.

If you look carefully, identical groups of men can be seen standing in identical places on the ship in both images. The white “splash” on the starboard bow is a doctored image of the tug boat that helped Liberty move to the pier at Little Creek.

Several highly decorated staff of the US forces studied a very revealing side-by-side comparison of the docking photo and the fake gun-camera photo taken from the same series.

Upon close inspection, one can also see in the fake gun camera photo that the ship is floating high in the water. When the ship was attacked, it was heavily loaded and floating low in the water. The docking photo shows the ship lightly loaded and floating high after having just completed a crossing of the Atlantic Ocean and the Mediterranean sea — the same height as shown in the fake gun camera photo.

A close examination of the bow wave shows that this is also faked. Since the image used as “gun camera photography” was actually of the ship alongside the pier at Little Creek, it was necessary to create a fake bow wave to sustain the illusion of movement. This can be seen clearly if one compares the fake bow wave with a bow wave of a similar ship underway.

Yet their fakery knows no bounds. A close examination of the “smoke” in their faked gun camera pictures reveals that the smoke is actually depicted moving crosswise to the wind, and in fact there were no fires in that area.

Still further analysis of the four photographs, supposedly taken by a Mirage jet on the second attack run of the day, reveals that all four photos are taken from an identical position, which would not be the case if they were actually taken from a fast-moving jet aircraft. The fakers placed the supposed firing ring, the circle of dots, on the photographs to simulate a gun camera image, moving the ring from frame to frame.

But the fakery is revealed by the fact that all four photos are taken from an identical position, not from a high speed jet approaching the ship on an attack run.”

On June 8, 2007, USA Today carried a story on the 40th anniversary of the Liberty attack, by a reporter of Israeli citizenship (a fact not disclosed in the article), and based on interviews with survivors who testified after reading the article that the reporter had ignored much of what they told him.

The article was loaded with falsehoods, fabrications and snow jobs; and was even introduced with the wicked lie [see the excerpt from James Ennes article above] that: “Eleven US investigations over the years have reached the conclusion that it was a case of mistaken identity” – a blatant error that to date USA Today has never bothered to correct.

One independent, blue-ribbon commission formed to reach a conclusion about the Jews’ attack on the USS Liberty was constituted of the following distinguished persons:

* A former ambassador to one of the United States most significant allies
* A US Navy rear admiral and former head of the Navy’s legal division
* A Marine general, America’s highest ranking recipient of the Congressional Medal of Honor and the former Assistant Commandant of Marines
* A US Navy four-star admiral, former Chairman of the Joint Chiefs of Staff (the highest military position in the country), former Chief of Naval Operations, a World War II hero, and the only Naval admiral to have commanded both the Pacific and the Atlantic fleets

The panel was moderated by a former ambassador who served as Chief of Mission in Iraq and Deputy Director of Ronald Reagan’s White House Task Force on Terrorism.

The commission’s findings were:

* » That the attack, by a US ally, was a “deliberate attempt to destroy an American ship and kill her entire crew”
*

* » That the so-called ally committed “acts of murder against American servicemen and an act of war against the United States”
*

* » That the attack involved the machine-gunning of stretcher-bearers and life rafts
*

* » That “the White House deliberately prevented the U.S. Navy from coming to the defense of the [ship]… never before in American naval history has a rescue mission been cancelled when an American ship was under attack”
*

* » That surviving crewmembers were later threatened with “court-martial, imprisonment or worse” if they talked to anyone about what had happened to them; and were “abandoned by their own government”
*

* » That due to the influence of the ally’s “powerful supporters in the United States, the White House deliberately covered up the facts of this attack from the American people”
*

* » That due to continuing pressure by this lobby, this attack remains “the only serious naval incident that has never been thoroughly investigated by Congress”
*

* » That “there has been an official cover-up without precedent in American naval history”
*

* » That “the truth about Israel’s attack and subsequent White House cover-up continues to be officially concealed from the American people to the present day and is a national disgrace”
*

* » That “ A danger to the national security exists whenever our elected officials are willing to subordinate American interests to those of any foreign nation…” and that this policy “endangers the safety of Americans and the security of the United States”

President Johnson, not wanting this incident to become public, was heard in the White House yelling 'That he wanted the Liberty Sunk with no Survivals!'

The following statement was posted by a blogger! "Devious, traitorous and criminal. Israel is a terror state, created by military might and maintained by military might, heavily funded by the red, white and blue – the U$A. STOP ALL AID TO ISRAEL."

 Christianity

*Notation; Having lived and traveled throughout Mexico, Central and South America I am fully aware of the Spanish Christians murderous conquest of the vast land and its tribal peoples. Yet another morbid time in history. During the many years of my adventures in the region I rode mules, old cars, traveled the back roads, visited small villages and large cities. I talked, I researched and opened my eyes to this religious and murderous land-grab by the Catholic Dynasty. I visited countless museums and libraries, heard the tales, read the old Spanish memoirs to absorb the dominative cruelty of the Jesus freaks. The broad swords and pistoleros laid a path of destruction as they did whatever they liked to these simple natives of the 14th and 15th century. They came, the killed, they burned, stole, and literally enslaved a free people in their religious namesake. The demonic and inhumane Spaniards forced the young native children to guard their supplies and if caught dozing they would slice off their eyelids...in preventing it happening again. The blood thirsty Spaniards made necklaces from the nipples of young local girls. They spread their vile diseases, raped, tortured, murdered, enslaved, thieved and wrecked mayhem across the entire continent and beyond...and all in the name of their morbid God. MS. 06-18-08*

By what right did Castile lay claim to the sovereignty over the Americas? Religion and cruelty.

Did you know that Venezuela was named by one of Columbus' men that thought the coastline villages and homes on stilts reminded him of Venice...thus...Venezuela.

In clarity; THE SELF CLAIMED BIBLICAL PROPHETS DID NOT "PROPHESY." THEIR "PROPHECIES" DISCUSSED PAST HAPPENINGS, NOT THOSE OF THE FUTURE.

The world-famous Swiss Rabbi, Alexandre Safran, describes what the word "prophecy" means to Jews who live by the Torah: "The Hebrew language has its own representation of the divisions of time. It proceeds to a curious grammatical representation. It transforms the future into the past and the past into the future. And the passage from one epoch of time to another is made by the simple addition of the letter "vad", which indicates the sum… time, in its essence is unity." (La Cabala, p.101.) In short, when the Old Testament prophets "predicted," the "prediction" was not the future but past tense.

When Ezekiel predicted what would or was happening to the Mesechs, Tubal, Gomer, etc., he was telling us about something that happened in the past.

From the earliest times, Christianity has endorsed and promoted the death and torture of anyone that did not convert to Christianity, even other Christian sects. Even from the time of Paul, Turtillian documents the persecution and executions of the Gnostics by the earliest Christians. In fact, the first thing Constantine did after making Christianity the state religion, and indeed the required religion, was to conquer and kill in Christ's name. Christianity has never had a time in which it was not killing other Christians or pagans.

In the fourth century, Emperor Constantine, the first Roman Emperor to become a Christian, had over 3000 Christians executed because their interpretation of the Bible did not agree with his.

In 777, Charlemagne, a devout Christian, after conquering the Saxon rebels, gave them a choice between baptism and execution. When they refused to convert, he had 4500 of them beheaded in one morning.

Queen Isabella, famous for sending Columbus to the New World in 1492, was well known also for her 'Spanish Inquisition', the gruesome torture and murder of tens of thousands of Spanish Jews, Muslims, homosexuals, people who read or wrote, uppity women, and anyone else not up to the Queen's strict standards. Isabella was a champion of the faith, piously congratulating herself as her victims writhed to their deaths in the flames and the many other ingenious methods of torture invented by her inquisitors.

In the 12th and 13th centuries, the Inquisition was born, with Christians killing Christians, during what was known as the Albigensian heresies. Hundreds of thousands of people died because their Christianity did not agree with official dogma. This adds to the irony of murder in the name of Christ, when the majority of victims of the early inquisitions were themselves Christians.

English Catholics suffered horribly under Protestant regimes. American historian William T. Walsh writes: "In Britain, 30,000 went to the stake for witchcraft; in Protestant Germany, the figure was 100,000" (, p. 275).

Rome became Christian because of Emperor Constantine, who had a vision the night before a battle in 312 C.E., against Maxentius at Saxa Rubra. The vision supposedly told him to conquer in Christ's name. He killed every soldier of Maxentius to a man.

At the time of Constantine's conversion, Christianity was still collection of minor cults. Pagan Romans thought they had another nutcase-Emperor on their hands. And indeed, persecution of the pagans began in earnest, by 390 CE. Bureaucratic mismanagement had reduced the government to a morass of wasted money, and the roads were falling apart.

Notates that totals of people killed over the centuries by everyone, deaths contributed to the Christian crusaders are massive. The tortures incurred by the inquisitors is enormous, not to mention the entire annihilation of several indian cultures after forced conversion to christianity.

The beautiful thing about christianity in it earliest form, is that they completely justified the killing of anyone who disagreed with dogma and had no problem documenting their conquest for christianity. These numbers have been documented in part or whole by the actual people involved in them. There was no shame, and their cruelty pre-dated any religion that forced conversion. In short, Islam wasn't invented yet, and Paganism was extremely tolerant. In fact, the toleration of Greek and Roman paganism allowed the growth of christianity. But once christianity was in play, it did not allow, or suffer, any other religion to exist. It would spend over a thousand years trying to stamp out every other religion, including other sects of christianity that existed at the time such as the Gnostics, Marcionites, Ebonites, and Arians. Christianity is the most violent religion by means of documented deaths and atrocities, far more than any other religion dared.

Greek Christianity - Ascetics

Orthodox Monasteries Throughout the World

Greece - Russia - Europe & Far East - North America - Middle East

Fabulous Greek Monasteries in the Air

by Louie Jerome on 15/07/09 at 10:51 am.

Meteora Monasteries are located in a high, isolated and inaccessible part of Greece, near Kalabaka in the central region of Thessaly. These old monasteries are perched right at the top of rock pinnacles which look impossible to reach, let alone perch a building on.

The word ‘meteora’ means ‘in the air’ and these buildings really are as high up in the air as it is possible to get in this region.

These Greek monasteries are perched on rock pinnacles above the mountains of central Greece. Some of these locations look impossible to reach, let alone built upon. Even into the twentieth century, anyone who wanted to visit one of these monasteries clinging to the mountain top like an eagle’s nest had to climb up a rickety rope ladder which was secured to the rock face, or even have the hair raising experience of sitting in a basket which was then manually hauled up the mountain side. Traditionally, Christian ascetics hid themselves away in high and remote places and in this case it is the Greek Orthodox monks who first built the monasteries and settled in these wild mountainous places around 1350.  Life in a Meteora monastery was hard and very simple. There were a few minute cells for the monks to sleep in, a church, a refectory where they ate and a cistern which was cut into the rock face to collect the rainwater.  If rainfall was low, water was in short supply, but fortunately this area does have a very high annual rainfall.

The idea was to build them as close to heaven as it was possible to get them. Some of the rocky pinnacles on which they are built are up to 1800 feet, or 549 metres above the ground.

They are situated on the very edge of the Pindus Mountains and they overlook the beautiful Pinions Valley. This was the only view most of the monks had of the outside world because many of them, once they had entered the monastery, spent their entire lives there.

 

In the mountains of central Greece the Monks stored the skulls of all past deceased Monks in their monasteries! Eerie!
 

(Photo shot by Mike Smith)

 

 

 

Orthodox Monasteries and Monasticism of Sinai


"By a special privilege, the head of the monastery of St. Catherine (left) built by Emperor Justinian I in the sixth century near the spot where Moses is said to have received the Tablets of the Law, enjoys the rank of an archbishopric, and the monastery has the status of an autonomous church. The archbishop-abbot is elected by the chapter of monks but receives episcopal consecration at the hands of the Patriarch of Jerusalem. He only has jurisdiction over the monastery and the Bedouins who live in the neighborhood. The Archbishop of Sinai generally resides at the metochion (priory) of his monastery in Cairo. The monastery of Sinai possesses a very rich library of ancient Greek, Georgian, and Slavic manuscripts, and an interesting collection of icons." -- The Orthodox Church: Its Past and Its Role in the World Today by Fr. John Meyendorff

 

The Christians Merciless God

Quotes of God. And though they go into captivity before their enemies, thence will I command the sword, and it shall slay them: and I will set mine eyes upon them for evil, and not for good.--Amos 9:4

Were we allowed to read the Bible as we do all other books, we would admire its beauties, treasure its worthy thoughts, and account for all its absurd, grotesque and cruel things, by saying that its authors lived in rude, barbaric times. -- Robert Ingersoll, Some Mistakes of Moses There is no text more barbaric than the Old Testament of the Bible--books like Deuteronomy and Leviticus and Exodus. The Quran pales in comparison. -- But you ask me what the scariest things are in Christianity: this infatuation with biblical prophecy and this notion that Jesus is going to come back as an avenging savior to kill all the bad people. -- Sam Harris, Beliefnet inverview The God of the Old Testament has got to be the most unpleasant character in all fiction: jealous, and proud of it, petty, vindictive, unjust, unforgiving, and a definite racist. -- Richard Dawkins, The Root of All Evil?

*There are actually some 200 gospels, epistles and other books concerning the life of Jesus Christ. Writing such material was a popular literary form, particularly in the 2nd century. The pious fantasies competed with Greek romantic fiction. Political considerations in the late 2nd century led to the selection of just four approved gospels and the rejection of others. After three centuries of wrangling 23 other books were accepted by the Church as divinely inspired. The rest were declared 'pious frauds'. In truth, the whole lot belongs to a genre of literary FICTION.

Burning Times – Auto-da-fé

Christian Hell on Earth

Attendance at an auto-da-fé (Portuguese for "Act of Faith") was not merely a major social event and civic occasion: it was a religious act which even the king himself was obliged to attend. It was a collective act of sacrifice in which victims were roasted to appease the Christian godman.

The first auto was held in Seville in 1481, the last in Mexico in 1850. Such Church/State terror (a pretence was maintained that the secular authorities carried out the actual murders) not only enforced religious devotion and conformity: it provided substantial income from property confiscated from the victims.

 

Solemn Procession

Doomed prisoners were led in procession to the place of execution. The burning would be held on a Sunday or other holy day so that the maximum number of people could attend.
A Jesuit priest would walk on either side of each victim, gagged to prevent any words of outrage.The priests would intone the gospels and 'wrestle for his soul.'
 
 

 

Caricatured Victim

Decked out in a yellow 'san benito' penitential garment and wearing a 3' pointed 'coroza' cap – both painted with effigies, the flames of hell and devils, the victims would be given opportunities to recant and suffer a less painful death.
 
 

 

Garroting for last minute repentance

If a victim 'converted' to Catholicism at the last minute ("fuego resuelto") in its loving kindness the Church would sanction strangulation before burning.
 
 

Burning for the unrepentant

Those about to be murdered would first have their faces burned, a bit of fun to excite the crowd.
The corpses of those who had died during torture would also be burnt; those who had fled burnt in effigy.
 
 
 

A Fine Christian Sacrament, Exported to the Colonies too...

 
 
Mexico, Brazil and Peru would enjoy the delights of the auto-da-fé long after it lost its charm in Europe. Mexico witnessed its last auto-da-fé as late as 1850.
Did wonders for the conversion of the natives.
 

 Tariff for Torture, 1757

All the costs of conducting a trial and torture had to be paid by the hapless victim or by his relations. But that was not always possible.

In the German lands, the city of Cologne (originally established as a Roman colonia) had grown into a leading commercial and ecclesiastical centre. The town profited hugely from a 10th century fabrication of mass martyrdom – Saint Ursula and, variously, 5, 8, 11 and eventually, 11,000 virgin victims! – and a major trade in bones (probably taken from pagan graveyards). Monasteries proliferated and the local prince-bishop rose to become one of the seven electors of the Holy Roman Empire.

Church-sanctioned murder was no stranger to the Rhineland and in the mid-18th century the bishop of Cologne was most concerned that his High Executioner did not profit at his expense by claiming for tortures and murders not performed.

He set out, in "exquisite detail", the precise payments that would be made for diverse acts of sadism.

The Church's Grandeur built on the backs of beggars

If walls could talk…
Cologne Cathedral took seven centuries to complete. The Coliseum in Rome took 8 years. 
To dazzle the credulous the sacred precincts of Cologne Cathedral house a gold sarcophagus said to contain the bones of the Magi or Three Kings. These bones are also to be found in Milan; sacred relics have that miraculous ability to be in more than one place at the same time.
For centuries the city of Cologne was famous for the opulence of its churches and the remarkable army of beggars that frequented them.


Christianity was the first creed in history to exterminate its adversaries in the name of love.

 

 


The Insanity Begins The Closing Mind

Ignorance and intolerance – the midwives of Christian Europe


 

 

Roasting the Heretics

 

 

 

SIN Drowning Humanity in Guilt & Fear

Criminalizing Humanity

 

 

 

The World that was Lost Christianity Wrecks Civilization

Degradation of Law, trade, cities, women, language and human rights

A World Sunk in Piety – The Death of Science, Art, Technology

 

Medieval obsession with death included the display of clothed corpses.
(Capuchin vaults, Palermo) The Christians ignorance bestowed upon themselves great plagues with their filthy lifestyles.
In stark contrast, the ancient Greeks celebrated the healthy, perfected human form. (Below Photo)

                 
                   Greek Warrior, found nr. Riace, Italy, 5th century BC

Christianity's Savagery versus Pagan Wisdom

'Pagan'

'Christian'

Surgery
2nd - 3rd centuries AD – Roman surgical instruments
Almost indistinguishable from their 21st century counterparts.
 
Butchery
 
1100 AD
Christian cure for illness - cauterising!

The idea was that the blister caused by a hot iron would draw out a bad 'tumour'.

 

         
 

 

Eye Surgery

Roman suction couching needle for removal of cataracts (next to modern electric suction needle)!
Through an extremely fine inner tube a Roman surgeon could suck the cataract out of his patient's eye.
 
Prudery
 
1300 AD
Christian medical journal. The patient keeps his drawers on!

 

 
Accurate illustration of Yarrow
 

Herbal Wisdom

Fragment from De Materia Medica by Dioscurides - 6th century copy of 1st century AD herbal guide which detailed 500 herbs and their usage. (Prepared for Julia Anicia, daughter of Emperor Olybrius)
 
     

 

15th century - astrology and numerology passes for medical science.

 

Astrology
         

The plant Mullein (Johnson Papyrus)
Fragment from 4th century AD herbal guide
The Roman/Greek world had an extensive knowledge of herbalism.
 
 
1400 AD
'Cupping' – Heated glass bowls used to draw the blood
         

Dentistry

Roman, 3rd century AD
The rich diet of wealthy Romans ruined their teeth. False teeth, set in gold.
 
1500 AD
Bleeding – cure-all for centuries. Leeches often used.
 
         
 

 

Sanitation

1st century AD: Roman public flushed toilets, Ephesus
By 315 AD Rome had 144 public toilets which were flushed clean by running water.
 

 
16th century AD: emptying the potty in Christian Europe
 

” Because of frequent rains, the streets of the city of Nürnberg are full of garbage and other wastes flushed by the rain water, so that the rider has always to worry that the horse will fall in a deep layer of the dirt and will look and smell like a dirty swine or that his clothes will be stained by the mud splashed by other horsemen.” Not to mention the rampant diseases.
M. Strell (Die Abwasserfrage)

Hospitals – 2nd century AD

 
1600 AD
Approved clothing for dealing with plague victims – no kidding! The beak was filled with sweet-smelling herbs.

'Valetudinarium'
Roman Military Hospitals

 

During the reign of Marcus Aurelius the first true hospitals were built to serve the needs of the Roman army. They had separate wards, operating theatre, kitchens, baths, latrines, dispensary, mortuary and even a herb garden.
Neusser: Roman military hospital. 60 rooms, 300 patients

 

Childbirth

2nd century AD. Relief showing Roman birthing stool.
 
1700 AD
Birthing with all due decorum!
 

Hygiene

Hadrian's Baths - Leptis Magna (North Africa).
Bath houses were a feature of all Romano-Greek cities.
 
Pieces of wood – medieval VD 'cure'

Repair

2nd century AD. Traction tables used to put tension on a displaced bone or joint, such as a dislocated hip, to realign the bone correctly
 
"Theriac" – dried and powdered snake. Useless 'cure-all' for centuries
 

Clean Water

1st century AD - aqueducts bring fresh water hundreds of miles. Public baths and a culture of daily bathing kept many diseases in check.
Contrary to popular understanding, for most of their length Roman aqueducts ran underground, in sealed earthenware pipes similar to modern water mains.
   

 
19th century – water carriers hawk buckets in teeming city streets. Their source – a stand pipe, drawing water from sources polluted with human waste – worked delightfully well in spreading cholera and typhoid.

Surgery: Crude, blunt and horribly painful

Surgery in the Middle Ages was crude and blunt and … PAINFUL! Surgeons had a very poor understanding of human anatomy, anesthetics and antiseptic techniques to keep wounds and incisions from infection. It was not a pleasant time to be a patient, but if you valued your life, there was no choice. To relieve the pain, you submitted to more pain, and with any luck, you might get better. Surgeons in the early part of the Middle Ages were often monks because they had access to the best medical literature – often written by Arab scholars. But in 1215, the Pope said monks had to stop practicing surgery, so they instructed peasants to perform various forms of surgery. Farmers, who had little experience other than castrating animals, came into demand to perform anything from removing painful tooth abscesses to performing eye cataract surgery.

But there were some great successes. Archeologists in England found the skull of a peasant man from about 1100 who had been struck in the head by a heavy, blunt object. Close examination shows the man had been given life-saving surgery called trepanning, where a hole was drilled and a section of the skull was lifted, allowing smashed bone segments to be removed. The surgery alleviated pressure on the brain and the man recovered. We can only guess how painful it must have been!

Spells: Pagan rituals and religious penance as a form of cure

Early medieval medicine was often a mix of the pagan, religious and scientific. As the church gained more control, pagan “rituals” were made punishable offences. One such punishable offence might have been the following:

"When [the healer] approaches the house where the sick person lies, if [the healer] finds a stone lying nearby, [he turns] the stone over and looks in the place where the stone was lying [to see] if there anything living under it, and if [the healer] finds there a worm or a fly or an ant or anything that moves, they [the healer] avers that the sick person will recover." (From The Corrector & Physician).

Patients who had contracted the bubonic plague were told to perform penance – the practice of confessing one’s sins, then performing a religious devotion prescribed by a priest – a common “treatment.” They were told they might be spared death if they correctly confessed their sins. (Drawing by: motv)

Eye Cataract Surgery: Painful procedure that rarely saved patients’ sight

An early operation for removal of a cataract included inserting a sharp instrument, such a knife or large needle, through the cornea and forcing the lens of the eye out of its capsule and down to the bottom of the eye.

Once Islamic medicine became more widely followed in medieval Europe, cataract surgery improved. The syringe was used for the extraction of cataracts by suction. A hollow metallic hypodermic syringe was inserted through the white part of the eye and successfully extracted the cataracts through suction.

Blocked Bladders: Metallic catheters inserted into the bladder

Blockage of urine in the bladder, due to syphilis and other venereal diseases, was fairly common at a time when antibiotics were not available. The urinary catheter – a metal tube inserted through the urethra into the bladder – was first used in the mid-1300s. When a tube could not easily be passed into the bladder to relieve the obstruction, other procedures to enter the bladder were devised, some quite novel, though all probably as painful and dangerous as the condition itself.

Here is a description of the treatment of kidney stones: "If there is a stone in the bladder make sure of it as follows: have a strong person sit on a bench, his feet on a stool; the patient sits on his lap, legs bound to his neck with a bandage, or steadied on the shoulders of the assistants. The physician stands before the patient and inserts two fingers of his right hand into the anus, pressing with his left fist over the patient's pubes. With his fingers engaging the bladder from above, let him work over all of it. If he finds a hard, firm pellet it is a stone in the bladder... If you want to extract the stone, precede it with light diet and fasting for two days beforehand. On the third day, ... locate the stone, bring it to the neck of the bladder; there, at the entrance, with two fingers above the anus incise lengthwise with an instrument and extract the stone." (Photo by: McKinney Collection)

Surgeons on the Battlefield: Pulling of arrows was a nasty business

Use of the longbow – a large powerful bow that could shoot arrows great distances – flourished in the Middle Ages. This created a real problem for battlefield surgeons: how to remove arrows from the bodies of soldiers.

The heads of war arrows weren’t necessarily glued onto the shafts, but attached with warm beeswax. After the wax set, they could be handled normally, but once shot into something if the shaft was pulled, the head would come off inside the body.

One answer was the arrow spoon, based on a design by an Arab physician, named Albucasis. The spoon is inserted into the wound and attaches itself around the arrowhead to be drawn from a wound without causing further damage as the barbs rip out.

Wounds such as these were also treated with cautery, where red hot irons were applied to the wound so that the tissue and veins sealed over, preventing blood loss and infection. Cautery was especially used in amputations.

A famous illustration for surgeons was called, “The Wound Man,” which showed the various kinds of wounds a battlefield surgeon might expect to see. (Photo by: FM)

Bloodletting: A cure-all for almost any ailment

Physicians in the Middle Ages believed that most human illnesses were the result of excess fluid in the body (called humour). The cure was removing excess fluid by taking large amounts of blood out of the body. Two of the main methods of bloodletting were leeching and venesection.

In leeching, the physician attached a leech, a blood-sucking worm, to the patient, probably on that part of the body most severely affected by the patient's condition. The worms would suck off a quantity of blood before falling off.

Venesection was the direct opening of a vein, generally on the inside of the arm, for the draining of a substantial quantity of blood. The tool used for venesection was the fleam, a narrow half-inch long blade, which penetrates the vein, and leaves a small wound. The blood ran into a bowl, which was used to measure the amount of blood taken.

Monks in various monasteries had regular bloodletting treatments – whether they were sick or not – as a means of keeping good health. They had to be excused from regular duties for several days while they recovered. (Photo by: McKinney Collection and FM)

Childbirth: Women told to prepare for their death

Childbirth in the Middle Ages was considered so deadly that the Church told pregnant women to prepare their shrouds and confess their sins in case of death.

Midwives were important to the Church due to their role in emergency baptisms and were regulated by Roman Catholic law. A popular medieval saying was, "The better the witch; the better the midwife"; to guard against witchcraft, the Church required midwives to be licensed by a bishop and swear an oath not to use magic when assisting women through labour.

In situations where a baby's abnormal birth position slowed its delivery, the birth attendant turned the infant inutero or shook the bed to attempt to reposition the fetus externally. A dead baby who failed to be delivered would be dismembered in the womb with sharp instruments and removed with a "squeezer." A retained placenta was delivered by means of counterweights, which pulled it out by force. (Photo by: Wikipedia)

Clysters:
A medieval method of injecting medicines into the anus

The medieval version of the enema was known as the clyster, which is really an instrument for injecting fluids into the body through the anus. The clyster was a long metallic tube with a cupped end, into which the medicinal fluid was poured. The other end, a dull point, which was drilled with several small holes, was inserted into the anus. Fluids were poured in and a plunger was used to inject the fluids into the colon area, using a pumping action.

The most common fluid used was lukewarm water, though occasionally medical concoctions, such as thinned boar’s bile or vinegar, were used.

In the 16th and 17th centuries, the medieval clyster was replaced by the more common bulb syringe. In France, the treatment became quite fashionable. King Louis XIV had over 2,000 enemas during his reign, sometimes holding court while the ceremony progressed. (Photo by: CMA)

Hemorrhoids: Agony of the anus treated with hot irons

Treatment of many diseases in the Middle Ages included prayers to patron saints for possible divine intervention. A seventh century Irish monk, St. Fiacre, was the patron saint for hemorrhoid sufferers. He developed hemorrhoids from digging in his garden, one day, and sat on a stone which gave him a miraculous cure. The stone survives to this day with the imprint of his hemorrhoids and is visited by many hoping for a similar cure. The disease was often called “St. Fiacre’s curse” in the Middle Ages.

In more extreme cases of hemorrhoids, medieval physicians used their cautery irons to treat the problem. Others believed that simply pulling them out with their fingernails was a solution, a solution that the Greek physician, Hippocrates suggested.

The 12th century Jewish physician Moses Maimonides wrote a seven-chapter treatise on hemorrhoids and disagreed with the use of surgery, instead prescribing the most common treatment used to this day: the sitz bath. (Photo by: McKinney Collection)

Highlights from the Christian Menu of Death

 1. For tearing apart and quartering by four horses  … 5 Thaler, 26 Albus

4. For hanging the four quarters in four corners, the necessary rope, nails, chains, and the transport included   … 5,26

5. For beheading and burning, everything included … 5,26

9. For burning alive   … 4,0

11. For breaking alive on the wheel  … 4,0

17. For beheading and tying the body on the wheel   … 4,0

19. For cutting off a hand or several fingers and for beheading, all together  … 3, 26

20. The same: in addition, for burning with a hot iron  … 1,26

24. For beheading and tying the body on the wheel and for sticking the head on a pole, all together  … 5,0

28. Before the actual execution starts, for squeezing the delinquent with red-hot tongs, apart from the above-mentioned fee for hanging, for every application  … 0,26

29. For cutting out the tongue entirely, or part of it, and afterwards for burning the mouth with a red-hot iron  … 5,0

31. For nailing to the gallows a cut-off tongue or a chopped-off hand  … 1,26

38. For putting in the pillory, branding, and whipping, including coals, rope, and rods, also the branding ointment   … 2,0

41. For terrorizing by showing the instruments of torture   …1,0

Quotes from the Bible;

Puerile God

"If ye will not give glory unto my name saith the LORD ... I will spread dung upon your faces."
– Malachi 2.2,3.

 


Making "every thought captive."

"For the weapons of our warfare are casting down imaginations ... and bringing into captivity every thought to the obedience of Christ."

– St Paul, 2 Corinthians 10.4,5.

 


"If a man abide not in me, he is cast forth as a branch, and is withered; and men gather them, and cast them into the fire, and they are burned"

John (15:6)

How many people did God kill in the Bible?

It's impossible to say for sure, but plenty. How many did God drown in the mentioned flood or burn to death in Sodom and Gomorrah? How many first-born Egyptians did he kill? There's just no way to count them all.

But sometimes the Bible tells us exactly how many were killed by God. The below numbers were taken directly from the Old Testament and do not include the billions killed in God's, Ali's, name!

So far I come up with a total of 2,301,427 (not including, at least in some cases, women and children).
Verse Number killed Cumulative total
1 Lot's wife for looking back Genesis 19:26 1 1
2 Er who was "wicked in the sight of the Lord" Genesis 38:7, 1 Chronicles 2:3 1 2
3 Onan for spilling his seed Genesis 38:10 1 3
4 Pharaoh and 600 chariot captains (plus his entire army) Exodus 14:8-26 600 603
5 Israelites for dancing naked around Aaron's golden calf Exodus 32:27-28, 35 3000 3603
6 Aaron's sons for offering strange fire before the Lord Leviticus 10:1-3; Numbers 3:4, 26:61 2 3,605
7 A blasphemer Leviticus 24:10-23 1 3,606
8 God killed ten scouts with a plague.. Numbers 14:35-36 10 3,616
9 A man who gathered firewood on the sabbath Numbers 15:32-36 1 3,617
10 Kora, Dathan, and Abiram (and their families) Numbers 16:27 9 3,626
11 Burned to death for offering incense Numbers 16:35 250 3,876
12 For complaining Numbers 16:49 14,700 18,576
13 Israelites for "committing whoredom with the daughters of Moab" Numbers 25:9 24,000 42,576
14 Achan (and his his sons and daughters) for taking the accursed thing Joshua 7:10-12, 24-26 5 42,581
15 The city of Ai Joshua 8:1-25 12,000 54,581
16 Joshua kills 5 kings and hangs their dead bodies on trees Joshua 10:24-26 5 54,586
17 God delivers the Caananites and Perizzites Judges 1:4 10,000 64,586
18 Ehud delivers a message from God: a knife in the belly Judges 3:15-22 1 64,587
19 God delivers the Moabites Judges 3:28-29 10,000 74,587
20 God forces Midianite soldiers to kill each other Judges 7:22, 8:10 120,000 194,587
21 The spirit of the Lord comes on Samson Judges 14:19 30 194,617
22 The spirit of the Lord comes mightily on Samson Judges 15:14-15 1,000 195,617
23 Samson's God-assiste act of terrorism Judges 16:27-30 3,000 198,617
24 "The Lord smote Benjamin." Judges 20:35-37 25,100 223,717
25 God smites more Benjamites Judges 20:44-46 25,000 248,717
26 For looking into the ark of the Lord 1 Samuel 6:19 50,070 298,787
27 God delievered Philistines to Jonathan 1 Samuel 14:12 20 298,807
28 Samuel hacks Agag to pieces before the Lord 1 Samuel 15:32-33 1 298,808
29 "The Lord smote Nabal." 1 Samuel 25:38 1 298,809
30 Uzzah for trying to keep the ark from falling 2 Samuel 6:6-7, 1 Chronicles 13:9-10 1 298,810
31 David and Bathsheba's baby boy 2 Samuel 12:14-18 1 298,801
32 The seven sons of Saul hung up before the Lord 2 Samuel 21:6-9 7 298,818
33 God sends a plague to punish David for his census 2 Samuel 24:15, 1 Chronicles 21:14 70,000 368,818
34 A lion is sent by God to kill a prophet for believing another prophet's lie 1 Kings 13:1-24 1 368,819
35 Religious leaders killed in a prayer contest 1 Kings 18:22-40 450 369,269
36 God delivers the Syrians into the Israelites' hands 1 Kings 20:28-29 100,000 469,269
37 God makes a wall fall on Syrian soldiers 1 Kings 20:30 27,000 496,269
38 God sent a lion to eat a man for not killing a prophet 1 Kings 20:35-36 1 496,270
39 Ahaziah is killed for talking to the wrong god 2 Kings 1:2-4, 17; 2 Chronicles 22:7-9 1 496,271
40 Burned to death by God 2 Kings 1:9-12 102 496,373
41 God sends two bears to kill 42 children for making fun of Elisha's bald head 2 Kings 2:23-24 42 496,415
42 An unbeliever is trampled to death 2 Kings 7:17-20 1 496,416
43 Jezebel 2 Kings 9:33-37 1 496,417
44 God sent lions to kill "some" foreigners for not fearing him 2 Kings 17:25-26 3 496,420
45 Sleeping Assyrian soldiers 2 Kings 19:35; Isaiah 37:36 185,000 681,420
46 Saul for not inquiring of the Lord 1 Chronicles 10:14 1 681,421
47 God delivers Israel into the hands of Judah 2 Chronicles 13:15-17 500,000 1,181,421
48 Jeroboam 2 Chronicles 13:20 1 1,181,422
49 "The Lord smote the Ethiopians." 2 Chronicles 14:9-14 1,000,000 2,181,422
50 God kills Jehoram by making his bowels fall out 2 Chronicles 21:14-19 1 2,181,423
51 Judean soldiers killed for forsaking God 2 Chronicles 28:6 120,000 2,301,423
52 Job's chidren Job 1:1-19 10 2,301,433
53 Ezekiel's wife Ezekiel 24:15-18 1 2,301,434
54 Ananias and Sapphira Acts 5:1-10 2 2,301,436
55 Herod Acts 12:23 1  Total people God Killed as detailed in the Old Testimoney.2,301,437

Violence in the Bible, cont.

Genesis

# Lot refuses to give up his angels to the perverted mob, offering his two "virgin daughters" instead. He tells the bunch of angel rapers to "do unto them [his daughters] as is good in your eyes." 19:7-8

# God kills everyone (men, women, children, infants, newborns) in Sodom and Gomorrah by raining "fire and brimstone from the Lord out of heaven." Well, almost everyone -- he spares the "just and righteous" Lot and his family. 19:24

# Dinah, the daughter of Jacob, is "defiled" by a man who seems to love her dearly. Her brothers trick all of the men of the town and kill them (after first having them all circumcised), and then take their wives and children captive. 34:1-31

# The sons of Jacob trick Shechem into getting circumcised. Then they murder him, his sons, and all the males of the city, while taking their wives captive. 34:24-29

# "The terror of God was upon the cities that were round about them." 35:5

# A child who hits or curses his parents must be executed. 21:15, 17

# An eye for an eye and a tooth for a tooth. 21:24-25

# If an ox gores someone, "then the ox shall surely be stoned." 21:28

# If an ox gores someone due to the negligence of its owner, then "the ox shall be stoned, and his owner shall be put to death.". 21:29

# If an ox gores a slave, the owner of the ox must pay the owner of the slave 30 shekels of silver, and "the ox shall be stoned." 21:32

# "Thou shalt not suffer a witch to live." Thousands of innocent women have suffered excruciating deaths because of this verse. 22:18

# Wash up or die. 30:20-21

# Whoever puts holy oil on a stranger shall be "cut off from his people." 30:33

# Those who break the Sabbath are to be executed. 31:14

# Whoever works, or even kindles a fire, on the Sabbath "shall be put to death." 35:2-3 Leviticus

# Moses does it all for God. First he kills an animal; wipes the blood on Aaron's ears, thumbs, and big toes. Then he sprinkles blood round about and waves the guts before the Lord. Finally he burns the whole mess for "a sweet savour before the Lord." 8:14-32

# More killing, sprinkling of blood, waiving animal parts, and burning carcasses "before the Lord." 9:2-21

# "Whosoever shall commit any of these abominations ... shall be cut off from among their people." 18:29, 19:8

# Don't eat sacrifices on the third day or God will cut you off from among your people. 19:6-8

# Kill anyone who "gives his seed" to Molech. If you refuse, God will cut you and your family off. 20:2-5

# "For every one that curseth his father or his mother shall surely be put to death." Couldn't we try spanking first? 20:9

# Both parties in adultery shall be executed. 20:10

# If a man has sex with his father's wife, kill them both. 20:11

# If a man "lies" with his daughter-in-law, then both must be killed. 20:12

# If a man has sex with another man, kill them both. 20:13

# A man curses and blasphemes while disputing with another man. Moses asks God what to do about it. God says that the whole community must stone him to death. "And the children of Israel did as the Lord and Moses commanded." 24:10-23

# Anyone who blasphemes or curses shall be stoned to death by the entire community. 24:16

# God tells the people to expel from camp "every leper, every one that hath an issue, and whoever is defiled by the dead." So by God's instructions, the sick are abandoned and left to suffer and die alone. 5:1-4

 Christianity, cont.
The majority of the early Christian Church Fathers saw the sacrifice of Jepthah's virgin daughter as foreshadowing, like Isaac, the death of Jesus Christ not least because Jepthah's vow in the biblical account was made whilst under the influence of the Holy Spirit (Judges 11:29).

In the Christian religion the belief developed that the story of Isaac's binding was a foreshadowing of the sacrifice of Jesus, whom Christians believe was God's only son and simultaneously God Himself, and who gave up his life so that sins could be forgiven. There is a tradition that the site of the binding of Isaac, Moriah, was also the city of Jesus' future crucifixion, i.e. Jerusalem. However no archaeological or historical evidence supports this assertion. The beliefs of most denominations of Christianity hinge upon a single, specific human sacrifice: that of the Christ. Most Christians believe, at least nominally, that in order to gain access to paradise in the afterlife each individual person must somehow become a partaker in that all-important human sacrifice for the atonement of their personal sins. Some Christians, including Orthodox and Roman Catholics, believe they participate in the sacrifice of Calvary through the Eucharist which they believe is really the body and blood of Jesus Christ. Many Protestants, however, reject this, and rather believe that the bread and wine of communion are merely symbolic, trusting that it is their faith in Christ's finished work on the cross that atones for their sins.

Exorcism is the practice of evicting demons or other evil spiritual entities from a person or place which they are believed to have possessed (taken control of). The practice is quite ancient and still part of the belief system of many religions, though it is seen mostly in the Roman Catholic and Eastern Orthodox Churches.

Solemn exorcisms, according to the Canon law of the church, can only be exercised by an ordained priest (or higher prelate), with the express permission of the local bishop, and only after a careful medical examination to exclude the possibility of mental illness. The Catholic Encyclopedia (1908) enjoined: “Superstition ought not to be confounded with religion, however much their history may be interwoven, nor magic, however white it may be, with a legitimate religious rite."

  • "The vestiges of pagan religion in Christian symbology are undeniable. Egyptian sun disks became the halos of Catholic saints. Pictograms of Isis nursing her miraculously conceived son Horus became the blueprint for our modern images of the Virgin Mary nursing Baby Jesus. And virtually all the elements of the Catholic ritual - the miter, the altar, the doxology, and communion, the act of "God-eating" - were taken directly from earlier pagan mystery religions."

  • "Nothing in Christianity is original. The pre-Christian God Mithras - called the Son of God and the Light of the World - was born on December 25, died was buried in a rock tomb, and then resurrected in three days. By the way, December 25 is also the birthday or Osiris, Adonis, and Dionysus. The newborn Krishna was presented with gold, frankincense, and myrrh. Even Christianity's weekly holy day was stolen from the pagans."

The Truth About the Dark Ages

We gain tremendous power by understanding the truth about the past and the present. The truth does set us free from ignorance and suicidal acquiescence to present policies which are destroying the very fabric of our culture.

We'll examine what actually happened in the time called "the Dark Ages" -- nullifying the false histories of Christian apologists who would have us believe that this era of retrogression was caused solely by the "heathen barbaric hordes." As more honest historians such as Gibbons have discovered, the Dark Ages was largely brought on by the corruption of a counterfeit Christianity.

As is made clear in my recently published book The Perennial Tradition, only a few persons associated with Jesus of Nazareth truly understood his message. Paul had experienced Jesus in a mystical encounter. Peter and other of the disciples completely misunderstood Jesus' intentions, turning their brand of Christianity into a neo-Judaism, requiring converts to undergo circumcision and follow the Jewish law.

The true dissemination of Jesus' teaching proceeded with Paul, Clement of Alexandria, Origen, Marcion, Valentinus, and others, while the so-called apostles began to turn Christianity into a sacerdotal religion of dogma and ritual.

Within a few years, the leaders of what was called the Christian church were nothing more than bosses of vicious gangs who murdered their rivals for power and position. We can trace the rapid degeneration of these so-called Christians, as they helped to destroy the Roman Empire and plunge the Western world into the Dark Ages.

In 198 CE a cleric named Zephyrinus became Bishop of one of the Christian factions in Rome. During Zephyrinus's long tenure as Bishop from 198 - 217 CE, factional rivalry in the city became endemic. A group of soothsayers led by Montanus built a strong following, even among the bishop's own followers, and a third group, led by Sabellius, rejected ridiculous dogmas that were being put forward.

Zephyrinus was succeeded as "Christian" Bishop by a young man named Callistus. As a youth, Callistus had been the slave of a Christian master named Carpophorus, a freedman in the imperial household. Callistus had stolen funds collected by fellow-Christians for the care of widows and orphans. When Callistus tried to make a run for it, he was apprehended aboard a ship in the port of Portus. He was imprisoned and forced to work on a hand-mill. After being released, Callistus was arrested again, this time because of a brawl in a synagogue where he had tried to extract money from a group of Roman Jews.

Commodus Dragged before city prefect Fuscianus, Callistus was denounced by Carpophorus and sentenced to a penal colony, the silver mines of Sardinia. But during his checkered career, Callistus had somehow gained friends in high places. He had been a "counselor" to Bishop Victor and also a friend of a certain Marcia, a concubine of Emperor Commodus, the dissolute son of Marcus Aurelius. Marcia had been "brought up" by the presbyter Hyacinthus before being passed on to Commodus. This young "Christian" woman named Marcia was party to the conspiracy that ultimately strangled Commodus.

During his reign as Roman Emperor, Diocletian had divided the empire into the eastern and western provinces. In 306 CE, on the death of the western Augustus (province ruler), Constantius I, his son Constantine quickly claimed his father's throne. Constantine wanted to seize power in the east as well as the west, and he saw the Christian cult as the means to his goal.

Constantine
The Christians constituted only about five per cent of the total population of the Roman Empire, but they were concentrated in enclaves in the key cities of the east. The eastern Christians were an organized cult of fanatics, in many cities holding important positions in state administration. Some held posts even within the imperial entourage. The main body of the church confronted the Roman State as a "Republic within the Republic," with its own treasury, laws, magistrates and command structure.

The ambitious thug-ruler of the west, Constantine, realized that he could use the "Christian" fanatics and their hierarchical structure, as part of his plan to become Emperor of a united Rome. He declared Christianity as the official religion of his regime. By championing the cause of the Christians, Constantine put himself at the head of a "fifth column" in the eastern province, through which he was able to seize power.

By 330 CE Constantine had taken control of both the western and eastern provinces and declared himself supreme Caesar over all of the Roman Empire. He appointed one of the rival "Christian" chieftains Lucius Lactantius as his official Latin theologian, propagandist, and tutor to his son Crispus. Lactantius soon lost the job of tutor when Constantine had his son murdered for adultery with his stepmother. Lactantius praised Constantine as "a model of Christian virtue and holiness" (De Mortibus Persecutorum).

Among many other insane policies that Constantine enacted--leading to the fall of the Roman Empire--was that of disbanding the praetorian guard and replacing them with a special imperial guard, an elite cavalry regiment of 500 soldiers, mainly Germans. This left Rome essentially defenseless, and within a century the Visigoths were sacking Rome and other imperial cities.

"Constantine abolished security by removing the greater part of the soldiery from the frontiers to the cities that needed no auxiliary forces. He thus deprived of help the people who were harassed by the barbarians and burdened tranquil cities with the pest of the military, so that several straightway were deserted. Moreover he softened the soldiers, who treated themselves to shows and luxuries. Indeed (to speak plainly) he personally planted the first seeds of our present devastated state of affairs."

Zosimus, sixth century CE Greek historian, Historia Nova

Succeeding "Christian" leaders influenced the Caesars of the Roman state, assuring a position of power for themselves in this deteriorating empire. In 370 CE, the Emperor Valens ordered a total persecution of non-Christian peoples throughout the Eastern Empire. The philosopher Simonides was burned alive and the philosopher Maximus was decapitated. The twilight of civilization was fast approaching.

The ruins of Eleusis In 380 CE, Christianity became the exclusive religion of the Roman Empire by an edict of the Emperor Flavius Theodosius. The Roman Empire was now a "Christian" theocracy. The corrupt "Christian" leaders were ecstatic at the prospect of being able to loot all the "pagan" temples and monuments. Ambrosius, bishop of Milan, began the destruction of pagan temples throughout his area. "Christian" priests led a vicious mob against the temple of the goddess Demeter in Eleusis and attempted to lynch the hierophants Nestorius and Priskus. The ninety-five year old hierophant Nestorius terminated the Eleusinian Mysteries and announced "the predominance of mental darkness over the human race."

From that time on, pagan temples throughout the Roman empire were torn down or refurbished as "Christian" churches. The fourth Church Council of Carthage in 398 CE prohibited everybody, including "Christian" bishops, from studying pagan (non-Christian) books--on penalty of death. Illiteracy became official Christian policy. Roman society by the fifth century was becoming ever more rigid and hierarchical, with eroding social and geographic mobility and an immense and widening gulf between rich and poor. Rome's urban middle class was being taxed out of existence, freedmen were being confined in indentured labor and slavery and the soldiery was being reduced to a peasant-farmer militia.

In Alexandria in 415 CE, a "Christian" mob, incited by the bishop Cyril, attacked a few days before the Judeo-Christian Pascha (Easter) and cut to pieces the famous and beautiful female philosopher Hypatia. 1 The "Christian" mob carried pieces of her body through the streets of Alexandria, finally burning her remains together with her books in a place called Cynaron.

In 429 CE depraved "Christian" mobs sacked the world-famous Parthenon, the temple of the goddess Athena on the Acropolis of Athens. From 440 to 450 CE, the "Christians" demolished all the monuments, altars and temples of Athens, Olympia, and other Greek cities.

Roman emperor Theodosius II in 448 CE ordered all non-Christian books to be burned. In 529 CE emperor Justinian ordered the Platonic Academy in Athens closed and its property confiscated. The bonfires set by Christian zealots reduced the science of a millennium to ash. In the new Christian tyranny all scientific thought which contradicted the Bible was suppressed. If rationality and observation contradicted the "revealed Word of God" then it was rationality and the observer who were in error.

"For the Christian, it is enough to believe that the cause of all things, whether in heaven or on earth, whether visible or invisible, is nothing other than the goodness of the Creator."

Augustine, Enchiridion, 3.9

Ammianus Marcellinus, Rome's last great historian (died in 395 CE) lamented that

"Those few buildings which were once celebrated for the serious cultivation of liberal studies, now are filled with ridiculous amusements of torpid indolence. . . The libraries, like tombs, are closed forever."

The "Christian" church had no interest in preserving the Roman Empire; it now had its own empire to build. As the Roman Empire crumbled, career opportunities now lay exclusively within the hierarchy of the church and a Christianized state bureaucracy--for those few bright and privileged enough to be able to seek education. With the active cooperation of the imperial court the Church had seized complete control over education and now restricted instruction to potential priests. Initially, rhetoric and grammar remained in the syllabus but knowledge which did not serve the purposes of the Church was suppressed.

Some classic writers such as Homer (in whose work Christians saw allegories), Plato and Aristotle (philosophies which were said to have "anticipated" Christianity), and some poetic and rhetorical works (Juvenal, Ovid and Horace) were seen as useful as teaching aids. But Christian hostility to general learning and practical knowledge was so pervasive that access to scripture itself was forbidden to any lay-person who might happen to be literate.

Preoccupied with ceremonial and propagandistic pageants, within a few generations most priests could not even read the Bible. Ritual had replaced reading, iconography had replaced language. The scientific method--empirical observation and the testing of hypotheses--had no place in an age in which eternal truth was made known to man by the revealed Word of God. In the Christian world-view, "Nature" was now seen as the domain of evil, not a realm worthy of respect and exploration.

As Christianity led humankind into a mindless life of obedience to its dogmas and leaders, the light of human intelligence began to go out. Christendom lost the art of brick and tile making, of bridge building and public sanitation. A despotic theocracy did not want people to think or to examine the world about them.

One of the major parts of pseudo-history created by Christian propagandists, is the myth that Christianity won over the barbaric hordes to Christ. We are given the unbelievable image of the heroic priest, armed only with his Bible and Christian courage, who subdues the savage warriors with homilies from the Good Book.

Barbarian groups became "Christian" whenever their chiefs felt it was to their advantage to take on the nominal title of Christian. Power in a barbarian clan was fragile and leadership changed often and violently. Barbarian tribes raided neighboring territories out of military and economic necessity, By acquiring "prestige goods"--such as slaves, jewelry, gold pieces, fine weapons, Christian titles--the barbarian ruling elite preserved its rule and raised its social status. Success at raiding strengthened the link between a chief and his warriors.

From the third to the fifth centuries, the barbarian tribes migrated constantly; territories were ill-defined, ever-changing, tribal alliances were continuously made and remade, and warriors of the same tribe fought both for and against the Romans.

Contact with leaders of the Roman Empire--both civil and religious--brought prestige to tribal chieftains. They saw the Roman Empire as everything barbarian society was not: stable, universal, and eternal. By emulating Roman characteristics the barbarian aristocracy gained a semblance of "civilization" and power.

"Every Goth wishes to be like a Roman, " said Theodoric, "but only the humblest Roman wants to be like a Goth."

So strong was barbarian desire to establish a "Roman" legitimacy for their new kingdoms that the illiterate Charlemagne, centuries later, styled himself "King of Franks and Lombards and Patrician of the Romans." He was crowned Emperor and Augustus.

Once a warrior king embraced "Christianity"--an adoption of form and formality with basically no regard to content--the warrior aristocracy followed its king. Thus, for example, when Clovis accepted Christ as his new god, he compelled 3,000 of his retainers to follow him into the baptismal font. Among the common tribesmen religious allegiance was not an issue of conscience. This was not an age of individual opinion or preference. When the tribal leadership adopted a new god the tribe followed suit. Not to have done so would have been tantamount to rebellion. When Charlemagne insisted on baptism as the sign of submission, he punished with appalling barbarity any resistance, as when, in cold blood, he beheaded, in a single day, 4,500 Saxons at Verden, in 782 CE.

The barbarian kings sought marriage into the Roman imperial bloodlines. And they wanted Roman patricians in their entourage, men who could advise them in the governance of their newly acquired lands and peoples. Everywhere, the indigenous "Romans" outnumbered their warrior overlords. The outstanding example is the court of Theodoric, Ostrogothic king of Italy. His administration was modeled on that of his imperial predecessors and was staffed by Romans. Among "men of letters" at his court was Aurelius Cassiodorus, senator, statesman, monk and writer. As the local "statesmen," the pseudo-Christian Bishops "spoke" for the native people and served as "administrators" of cities and districts on behalf of the barbarian king. Theodoric's reign can best be judged by his vicious murder of Boethius, with the collaboration of his "Christian" advisers.

Thus arose the Dark Age elite--a fusion of ex-pagan chiefs who were in awe of all things Roman (including its Christianity), and degenerate Roman landowners who survived by foisting Christianity on superstitious tribesmen. The very heart of this veneer of legitimizing romanitas was the pseudo-Christian religion by which the emperors had legitimized and made "divine" their own rule. Hence the rise of the Christian bishops and in particular the Bishop of Rome--the custodian of the corpse of the empire and self-styled bestowal of its legacy.

With his book of Christian spells and the inheritance of more than a thousand years of Roman "gravitas" behind him, the patrician-bishop easily swayed the untutored mind of a barbarian king.

As well as "Christ magic" (salvation through mere belief in the "founder" of the Roman church, Christ) the head of the Roman church offered "legitimacy" and the power of the written word as a kingly imprimatur. With his help, an upstart king's authority could now be proclaimed everywhere. With bribes and baubles, he gained access; he took on the role of ambassador and agent; he lent support to one side against another in fratricidal conflict; he advised; he provided "virgin brides" and officiated at royal weddings and ceremonials; he governed the locals on behalf of his barbarian overlord.

Through it all, the wealth and authority of the "Christian" leader grew. And the nonsense he peddled - pseudo-Christianity - became official dogma. Before the closing years of the fifth century the Christian Church showed no interest in converting barbarians. God, it seems, had chosen the Roman Empire to spread his Word. Yet when the fierce tribesmen arrived at the city gates, that event was "God's Judgement" and the Christian bishops were all too ready to abandon the empire and throw in their lot with the invader.

Despite the "3-day wonder" of the sack of Rome in 410 CE by the Visigoths, it was Gaul that was in dire straits in the fifth century, not Italy (which enjoyed a late 'Indian summer' under its Gothic king.) In the late fifth century, Salian Franks under Clovis began three centuries of expansion by absorbing the other Frankish tribes. In 486 CE Clovis defeated the Roman general Syagrius and the last Gallo-Roman region of Gaul--Soissons--was overrun. Subjugation of the Thuringians and Bavarians followed.

The Franks were a heathen German tribe, almost the only one untouched by Arianism (the belief that Jesus was not a God), spreading from the east. While the primitive Franks continued to give homage to their old Germanic gods, other, more Romanized, tribes had adopted Arian Christianity as a "national" religion.

Backward and barbarous they may have been but for the beleaguered Catholic bishops the Franks were the great hope. In the Franks, the papal agents found a fierce but malleable tribe and they spared nothing to bring the Frankish overlords under their sway. The dominion of the Franks in the west ensured the triumph of Roman Catholicism.

The "conversion" of Clovis was a crucial event, comparable to the "conversion" of Constantine--and equally surrounded by the same fanciful mythology. Clovis's conversion, like Constantine's, was no "inward experience of grace" but was a military matter. He was convinced that victory in battle lay in the gift of the god of the Christians. Christ for him was a talismanic war god.

According to the myth, in 496 CE, after a close call against the Alamanni, the day had been "saved" by a prayer either from Clovis himself, or the Catholic Bishop Gregory of Tours (or maybe both). A grateful Clovis took baptism to become the first "Catholic" ruler in the west. Of course, he had been softened up somewhat by marriage in 493 CE to a Catholic princess, the Burgundian Clotilda, put forward as his bride "on account of her beauty and wisdom" (and no doubt her Catholicism). Clovis, like Constantine a century and a half earlier, was also aware of the political advantage of posing as a liberator of "those oppressed by religious heresy."

"It grieves me," he said, "to see that the Arians possess the fairest portion of Gaul. Let us march against them, vanquish the heretics, and share out their fertile lands."

In 507 CE Clovis took Aquitaine from the weak Visigothic king Alaric II, and then subjugated Burgundy. Both areas were forcibly converted to Catholicism--to the delight of the local bishops. At Clovis' death in 511 CE, Clotilda went into a monastery at Tours where she stayed until her death in 545 CE. It can be no surprise that a grateful Roman Catholic Church made her a saint.

The weakened and demoralized Roman troops who remained on the frontiers were re-grouped into small units of 1,000 men (compared to 5,000 of the former legions), with limited cavalry support under the command of a "dux." These small detachments were stationed in hill-top forts, where, essentially they avoided any engagement with an enemy they were not expected to defeat.

Training for these demoralized and irregularly paid troops seriously declined. Expensive body armour was abandoned, and simple leather caps replaced the iron helmet. Under such conditions, traditional Roman infantry tactics, driven by harsh discipline and constant training, simply disappeared. The luckless frontier troops, dependent upon payment in rations and only the occasional cash bonus, degenerated into a peasant militia, spending more time in growing food than on the parade ground.

The Light of Truth

To see to what depths the human mind is currently devolving, we must understand the true history of what has been called the Dark Ages. Only by going behind the falsifications of historians prejudiced by their Christian beliefs is it possible for us to understand how degraded people's minds had become during the fifth through sixteenth centuries in Europe: The earlier Dark Ages.

Europe languished in intellectual and cultural retrogression during the Middle Ages, while the light of wisdom was preserved and advanced by those they labeled "the infidel Saracen." The reintroduction of the Classical (Greek) Tradition and the Perennial Tradition through the confluence of European and Muslim thought, beginning around 1000 CE, revitalized earlier conceptions of knowledge as derived from experience--participation in reality. (Pic. on left of Medieval Castle)

As d'Alembert states in his introduction to the French Encyclopedia,

"Most of the great minds during those dark ages . . . were preoccupied with a thousand frivolous questions about abstract and metaphysical being instead of thoroughly investigating Nature or studying man."

During her lifetime, Hypatia was one of the world's leading scholars in mathematics and astronomy. Her knowledge, modesty, and public speaking ability were legendary. Hypatia taught in Alexandria during the era of the Great Library in that city. Hypatia helped to develop the astrolabe, an instrument used to determine earth location by measuring relationships between heavenly bodies. She taught: "Reserve your right to think, for even to think wrongly is better than not to think at all. To teach superstitions as truth is a most terrible thing."
 


Gregory
Pope Gregory
'God's Consul' in Rome
(540-604)
Legacy: – Concentrated power in the hierarchs of the Church. Papal Supremacy supported by secular authority given to the clergy, who supplant the imperial civil service – Clergy given regalia and 'privilegia'. – Accumulation of vast papal wealth and landed estates. – Secularization of the Church. Wealthy noblemen chose the pope, usually from among themselves.  Popes with no training as priest. – Illegitimate papal children appointed cardinals – Fantastic, miracle-filled 'Lives of Saints' (Gregory had no mind for theology). – Veneration and sale of 'relics' to gullible pilgrims. – Hostility to secular learning and culture; book burning. – Purgatory embellished (foundation of sale of indulgences): His words of damnation!
"Unbaptised babies go straight to Hell and suffer there for all eternity."
– Demonology. – Forced conversion of 'pagans' and sequestering of their shrines. – Rome's 'missionaries' take over from local clerics, enforce Roman sacraments. – 'Plain song' (chanting) introduced, even as a cure for plague. – Unloving view of sex:

"Covering The Earth With Darkness"
Three centuries of persecution of the pagan


In the year 314; Immediately after its full legalization, the Christian Church attacks non-Christians. The Council of Ancyra denounces the worship of Goddess Artemis.


In 324 The emperor Constantine declares Christianity as the only official religion of the Roman Empire. In Dydima, Minor Asia, he sacks the Oracle of the god Apollo and tortures the pagan priests to death. He also evicts all non-Christian peoples from Mount Athos and destroys all the local Hellenic temples.

325 Nicene Council. The godman gets a promotion: 'Christ is Divine'


326 Constantine, following the instructions of his mother Helen, destroys the temple of the god Asclepius in Aigeai Cilicia and many temples of the goddess Aphrodite in Jerusalem, Aphaca, Mambre, Phoenicia, Baalbek, etc.


330 Constantine steals the treasures and statues of the pagan temples of Greece to decorate Constantinople, the new capital of his Empire.


335 Constantine sacks many pagan temples in Asia Minor and Palestine and orders the execution by crucifixion of “all magicians and soothsayers.” Martyrdom of the neoplatonist philosopher Sopatrus.


341 Constantius II (Flavius Julius Constantius) persecutes “all the soothsayers and the Hellenists.” Many gentile Hellenes are either imprisoned or executed.


346 New large scale persecutions against non-Christian peoples in Constantinople. Banishment of the famous orator Libanius accused as a “magician”.


353 An edict of Constantius orders the death penalty for all kind of worship through sacrifice and “idols”.


354 A new edict orders the closing of all the pagan temples. Some of them are profaned and turned into brothels or gambling rooms.

Execution of pagan priests begins.

A new edict of Constantius orders the destruction of the pagan temples and the execution of all “idolaters”.

First burning of libraries in various cities of the empire.

The first lime factories are organized next to the closed pagan temples. A major part of the holy architecture of the pagans is turned into lime.


357 Constantius outlaws all methods of divination (astrology not excluded).


359 In Skythopolis, Syria, the Christians organize the first death camps for the torture and executions of the arrested non-Christians from all around the empire.


361 to 363 Religious tolerance and restoration of the pagan cults is declared in Constantinople (11th December 361) by the pagan emperor Julian (Flavius Claudius Julianus).


363 Assassination of Julian (26th June).


364 Emperor Jovian orders the burning of the Library of Antioch.

An Imperial edict (11th September) orders the death penalty for all those that worship their ancestral gods or practice divination (“sileat omnibus perpetuo divinandi curiositas”).

Three different edicts (4th February, 9th September, 23rd December) order the confiscation of all properties of the pagan temples and the death penalty for participation in pagan rituals, even private ones.

The Church Council of Laodicea (Phrygia – western Asia Minor) orders that religious observances are to be conducted on Sunday and not on Saturday. Sunday becomes the new Sabbath. The practice of staying at home and resting on Saturday declared sinful and anathema to Christ.


365 An imperial edict from Emperor Valens, a zealous Arian Christian (17th November), forbids pagan officers of the army to command Christian soldiers.


370 Valens orders a tremendous persecution of non-Christian peoples in all the Eastern Empire. In Antioch, among many other non-Christians, the ex-governor Fidustius and the priests Hilarius and Patricius are executed. The philosopher Simonides is burned alive and the philosopher Maximus is decapitated. All the friends of Julian are persecuted (Orebasius, Sallustius, Pegasius etc.).

Tons of books are burnt in the squares of the cities of the Eastern Empire.


372 Valens orders the governor of Minor Asia to exterminate all the Hellenes and all documents of their wisdom.


373 New prohibition of all divination methods is issued. The term “pagan” (pagani, villagers, equivalent to the modern insult, “peasants”) is introduced by the Christians to demean non-believers.


375 The temple of Asclepius in Epidaurus, Greece, is closed down by the Christians.


380 On 27th February Christianity becomes the exclusive religion of the Roman Empire by an edict of the Emperor Flavius Theodosius, requiring that:


"All the various nations which are subject to our clemency and moderation should continue in the profession of that religion which was delivered to the Romans by the divine Apostle Peter."


The non-Christians are called “loathsome, heretics, stupid and blind”.

In another edict, Theodosius calls “insane” those that do not believe to the Christian God and outlaws all disagreement with the Church dogmas.

Ambrosius, bishop of Milan, begins the destruction of pagan temples of his area. The Christian priests lead the hungry mob against the temple of goddess Demeter in Eleusis and try to lynch the hierophants Nestorius and Priskus. The 95 year old hierophant Nestorius ends the Eleusinian Mysteries and announces "the predominance of mental darkness over the human race."


381 At the Council of Constantinople the 'Holy Spirit' is declared 'Divine' (thus sanctioning a triune god). On 2nd May, Theodosius deprives of all their rights any Christians who return to the pagan religion. Throughout the Eastern Empire the pagan temples and libraries are looted or burned down. On 21st December, Theodosius outlaws visits to Hellenic temples.

In Constantinople, the Temple of Aphrodite is turned into a brothel and the temples of the Sun and Artemis to stables.


382 “Hellelujah” (“Glory to Yahweh”) is imposed in the Christian mass.


384 Theodosius orders the Praetorian Prefect Maternus Cynegius, a dedicated Christian, to cooperate with local bishops and destroy the temples of the pagans in Northern Greece and Minor Asia.


385 to 388 Prefect Maternus Cynegius, encouraged by his fanatic wife, and bishop 'Saint' Marcellus with his gangs, scour the countryside and sack and destroy hundreds of Hellenic temples, shrines and altars. Among others they destroy the temple of Edessa, the Cabeireion of Imbros, the temple of Zeus in Apamea, the temple of Apollo in Dydima and all the temples of Palmyra.

Thousands of innocent pagans from all sides of the empire suffer martyrdom in the notorious death camps of Skythopolis.


386 Theodosius outlaws the care of the sacked pagan temples.


388 Public talks on religious subjects are outlawed by Theodosius. The old orator Libanius sends his famous epistle “Pro Templis” to Theodosius with the hope that the few remaining Hellenic temples will be respected and spared.


389 to 390 All non-Christian calendars and dating-methods are outlawed. Hordes of fanatic hermits from the desert flood the cities of the Middle East and Egypt and destroy statues, altars, libraries and pagan temples, and lynch the pagans. Theophilus, Patriarch of Alexandria, starts heavy persecutions against non-Christian peoples, turning the temple of Dionysius into a Christian church, burning down the Mithraeum of the city, destroying the temple of Zeus and burlesques the pagan priests before they are killed by stoning. The Christian mob profanes the cult images.


391 On 24th February, a new edict of Theodosius prohibits not only visits to pagan temples but also looking at the vandalized statues. New heavy persecutions occur all around the empire. In Alexandria, Egypt, pagans, led by the philosopher Olympius, revolt and after some street fights they lock themselves inside the fortified temple of the god Serapis (the Serapeion). After a violent siege, the Christians take over the building, demolish it, burn its famous library and profane the cult images.


392 On 8th November, Theodosius outlaws all the non-Christian rituals and names them “superstitions of the gentiles” (gentilicia superstitio). New full scale persecutions are ordered against pagans. The Mysteries of Samothrace are ended and the priests slaughtered. In Cyprus the local bishop “Saint” Epiphanius and “Saint” Tychon destroy almost all the temples of the island and exterminate thousands of non-Christians. The local Mysteries of goddess Aphrodite are ended. Theodosius’s edict declares:

“The ones that won’t obey pater Epiphanius have no right to keep living in that island.”

The pagans revolt against the Emperor and the Church in Petra, Aeropolis, Rafia, Gaza, Baalbek and other cities of the Middle East.


393 The Pythian Games, the Aktia Games and the Olympic Games are outlawed as part of the Hellenic “idolatry”. The Christians sack the temples of Olympia.


395 Two new edicts (22nd July and 7th August) cause new persecutions against pagans. Rufinus, the eunuch Prime Minister of Emperor Flavius Arcadius directs the hordes of baptized Goths (led by Alaric) to the country of the Hellenes. Encouraged by Christian monks the barbarians sack and burn many cities (Dion, Delphi, Megara, Corinth, Pheneos, Argos, Nemea, Lycosoura, Sparta, Messene, Phigaleia, Olympia, etc.), slaughter or enslave innumerable gentile Hellenes and burn down all the temples. Among others, they burn down the Eleusinian Sanctuary and burn alive all its priests (including the hierophant of Mithras Hilarius).


396 On 7th December, a new edict by Arcadius orders that paganism be treated as high treason. Imprisonment of the few remaining pagan priests and hierophants.


397 “Demolish them!” Flavius Arcadius orders that all the still standing pagan temples be demolished.


398 The 4th Church Council of Carthage prohibits everybody, including Christian bishops, from studying pagan books. Porphyrius, bishop of Gaza, demolishes almost all the pagan temples of his city (except nine of them that remain active).


399 With a new edict (13th July) Flavius Arcadius orders all remaining pagan temples, mainly in the countryside, be immediately demolished.


400 Bishop Nicetas destroys the Oracle of Dionysus in Vesai and baptizes all the non-Christians of this area.


401 The Christian mob of Carthage lynches non-Christians and destroys temples and “idols”. In Gaza too, the local bishop “Saint” Porphyrius sends his followers to lynch pagans and to demolish the remaining nine still active temples of the city.

The 15th Council of Chalcedon orders all the Christians that still keep good relations with their non-Christian relatives to be excommunicated (even after their death).


405 John Chrysostom sends hordes of grey-dressed monks armed with clubs and iron bars to destroy the “idols” in all the cities of Palestine.


406 John Chrysostom collects funds from rich Christian women to financially support the demolition of the Hellenic temples. In Ephesus he orders the destruction of the famous temple of Artemis. In Salamis, Cyprus, “Saints” Epiphanius and Eutychius continue the persecutions of the pagans and the total destruction of their temples and sanctuaries.


407 A new edict outlaws once more all the non-Christian acts of worship.


408 The emperor of the Western Empire, Honorius, and the emperor of the Eastern Empire, Arcadius, order all the sculptures of the pagan temples to be either destroyed or to be taken away. Private ownership of pagan sculpture is also outlawed. The local bishops lead new heavy persecutions against the pagans and new book burning. The judges that have pity for the pagans are also persecuted. “Saint” Augustine massacres hundreds of protesting pagans in Calama, Algeria.


409 Another edict orders all methods of divination including astrology to be punished by death.


415 In Alexandria, the Christian mob, urged by the bishop Cyril, attacks a few days before the Judeo-Christian Pascha (Easter) and cuts to pieces the famous and beautiful philosopher Hypatia. The pieces of her body, carried around by the Christian mob through the streets of Alexandria, are finally burned together with her books in a place called Cynaron.

On 30th August, new persecutions start against all the pagan priests of North Africa who end their lives either crucified or burned alive. Emperor Theodosius II expels the Jews from Alexandria.


416 The inquisitor Hypatius, alias “The Sword of God”, exterminates the last pagans of Bithynia. In Constantinople (7th December) all non-Christian army officers, public employees and judges are dismissed.


423 Emperor Theodosius II declares (8th June) that the religion of the pagans is nothing more than “demon worship” and orders all those who persist in practicing it to be punished by imprisonment and torture.


429 The temple of goddess Athena (Parthenon) on the Acropolis of Athens is sacked. The Athenian pagans are persecuted.

431 Council of Ephesus ("Robber Synod"). Promotion for the godman – "Christ is complete God and complete man."


435 On 14th November, a new edict by Theodosius II orders the death penalty for all “heretics” and pagans of the empire. Only Judaism is considered a legal non-Christian religion.


438 Theodosius II issues an new edict (31st January) against the pagans, incriminating their “idolatry” as the reason of a recent plague!


440 to 450 The Christians demolish all the monuments, altars and temples of Athens, Olympia, and other Greek cities.

book burning 448 Theodosius II orders all non-Christian books to be burned.
450 All the temples of Aphrodisias (the City of the Goddess Aphrodite) are demolished and all its libraries burned down. The city is renamed Stavroupolis (City of the Cross).
451 Council of Chalcedon. New edict by Theodosius II (4th November) emphasizes that “idolatry” is punished by death. Assertion of orthodox doctrine over the 'Monophysites' – 'JC has single, divine nature.'

457 to 491 Sporadic persecutions against the pagans of the Eastern Empire. Among others, the physician Jacobus and the philosopher Gessius are executed. Severianus, Herestios, Zosimus, Isidorus and others are tortured and imprisoned. The proselytiser Conon and his followers exterminate the last non-Christians of Imbros Island, Northeast Aegean Sea. The last worshippers of Lavranius Zeus are exterminated in Cyprus.


482 to 488 The majority of the pagans of Minor Asia are exterminated after a desperate revolt against the emperor and the Church.


486 More “underground” pagan priests are discovered, arrested, burlesqued, tortured and executed in Alexandria, Egypt.

full body baptism
 515; full body Baptism becomes obligatory even for those that already say they are Christians.

The emperor of Constantinople, Anastasius, orders the massacre of the pagans in the Arabian city Zoara and the demolition of the temple of local god Theandrites.
 

523 Emperor Justin I outlaws the Arian heresy and campaigns to suppress Arianism everywhere.
 

528 Emperor Justinian outlaws the “alternative” Olympian Games of Antioch. He also orders the execution—by fire, crucifixion, tearing to pieces by wild beasts or cutting to pieces by iron nails—of all who practice “sorcery, divination, magic or idolatry” and prohibits all teachings by the pagans (“the ones suffering from the blasphemous insanity of the Hellenes”).


529 Justinian outlaws the Athenian Philosophical Academy and has its property confiscated.


532 The inquisitor Ioannis Asiacus, a fanatical monk, leads a crusade against the pagans of Minor Asia.


542 Justinian allows the inquisitor Ioannis Asiacus to forcibly convert the pagans of Phrygia, Caria and Lydia in Asia Minor. Within 35 years of this crusade, 99 churches and 12 monasteries are built on the sites of demolished pagan temples.


546 Hundreds of pagans are put to death in Constantinople by the inquisitor Ioannis Asiacus.


556 Justinian orders the notorious inquisitor Amantius to go to Antioch, to find, arrest, torture and exterminate the last non-Christians of the city and burn all the private libraries down.


562 Mass arrests, burlesquing, tortures, imprisonments and executions of gentile Hellenes in Athens, Antioch, Palmyra and Constantinople.


578 to 582 The Christians torture and crucify Hellenes all around the Eastern Empire, and exterminate the last non-Christians of Heliopolis (Baalbek).


580 The Christian inquisitors attack a secret temple of Zeus in Antioch. The priest commits suicide, but the rest of the pagans are arrested. All the prisoners, the Vice Governor Anatolius included, are tortured and sent to Constantinople to face trial. Sentenced to death they are thrown to the lions. The wild animals being unwilling to tear them to pieces, they end up crucified. Their dead bodies are dragged in the streets by the Christian mob and afterwards thrown unburied in the dump.


583
 New persecutions against the gentile Hellenes by Emperor Maurice.


590
 In all the Eastern Empire the Christian accusers “discover” pagan conspiracies. New storm of torture and executions.

The melodrama is familiar enough: barbarians "pouring in" ... Rome sacked ... havoc wreaked everywhere. Words like "horde" and "onslaught" are bandied about, conjuring up images of a human flood of bloodthirsty and predatory warriors, hell-bent on rape and pillage. The only light, we are asked to believe, comes from the flickering lamps of Christian monks in remote fastnesses, keeping alive the dim flame of civilization until a bright new dawn, centuries into the future.

To put things in perspective, in 410, the Visigoths of Alaric (a Christian) actually pillaged Rome for three days before withdrawing. A generation later, in 455, Gaiseric (a Christian) and his Vandals spent just fourteen days in the city, taking what they could.

The conventional 'wisdom' is a travesty, written by the winning side. The barbarians in the 3rd and 5th centuries AD – like the barbarians of the 1st century AD or 2nd century BC – had wanted a share of the good life, not the common ruination of everyone.

What was different in the age of Constantine and Theodosius, compared to the age of Augustus and Hadrian, was the degenerate nature of the Roman state which opposed them.

The barbarians, in the passage of centuries, had learnt from the empire: the practical skills of agriculture and horticulture; the value of armour; the exercise of power within a framework of law; even a version the new Christian religion of the Romans.

But the empire, for its part, had turned in on itself, had wasted its energies on the indulgences of a theocratic tyranny, had narrowed its vision, had ruined itself – a process that began with Constantine and his plans of a Christian dynasty.

 Christianity and the Dark Age:

Rome had been able to resist, defeat and conquer barbarians for a thousand years.
What was different after the triumph of Christianity?


Thanks to Constantine's "religious revolution" and the establishment of a state-endorsed Christian Church, the manpower that might have defended the empire was drawn increasingly into the ranks of the priesthood. The Church offered "the officer class" an alternative career to that of the marching camp or frontier garrison, one superior in rewards of status, wealth and power – and all in safety and comfort. Not for nothing did the Church model its hierarchy on that of the army; it was a fine career for a bright young Roman who preferred to fight the hordes of Satan to the horsemen of Germany or Asia.

The example was set from the top, where the Christian bishops established mind control over the weak and superstitious scions of dynastic monarchy. Most of the 4th century emperors had little in common with the military strongmen who had frequently seized power a century earlier. The feeble sons of Constantine were followed by the equally feeble sons of Valentinian and Theodosius. Tutored from infancy by scheming churchmen, these vicious and 'pious' adolescent emperors essentially waged civil war on their own subjects. The one bright exception – Julian – who jettisoned his purported Christianity the moment he became Augustus, was assassinated (probably by a Christian soldier) within three years.

The Roman patrician class moved wholesale into the higher ranks of the Church when financial penalties made it prudent, and penal legislation made it imperative, to abandon paganism. By and large, the bishops of western Europe were the old Roman aristocracy wearing a new hat. With imperial approval, the Church expropriated for its own purposes more and more of the wealth of the empire – yet ultimately it became indifferent to the fate of the empire; Holy Mother Church was all that mattered.

With the willingness of the Roman elite to engage the invader seriously eroded, the only alternative defender was the hired barbarian, one under increasingly autonomous tribal chiefs. When these mercenaries failed, the enemy was bribed into a temporary quiescence. A degenerate age used the accumulated wealth of a millennium to buy time – and then spent that time on building a plethora of churches, on convening protracted councils to resolve hairsplitting nuances of theology, and to the persecution of internal dissent.

19th century view of Vandals sacking Rome 455.

Too Convenient to be True...

Classic image of "rape and pillage". The melodrama hides the insidious and corrosive influence of the Church on several generations of weak-minded Roman princes.

It is now clear that the migrating tribes, often desperate and on the verge of starvation, had a code of morality and humanity superior to the degenerate Romans. With wagons and cattle, their movement was less of an "onslaught" than a pitiful trek.


Blaming the Barbarians

Hardy perennial: "Real-life barbarians (were) eager to settle down and savor the fruits of civilization: to defeat the enemy, tax him, visit his doctors, marry his daughters." R. Wright (Nonzero: The Logic of Human Destiny)

The Christians have always lied – and one of their biggest lies remains that of "blaming the barbarians" for the destruction of ancient civilization which they themselves caused.

The Assault upon Paganism

Most of the 5th century emperors were remarkably young – an inevitable consequence of combining the notion of hereditary monarchy with the principal that violence was a legitimate instrument of policy.

Spending their days at court, replete with wig and face make-up, the simple-minded young monarchs – with a bishop at their ear– displayed their 'martial prowess' by issuing increasingly vindictive edicts against heretics and unbelievers. At a time when a regeneration of the legions was most urgent, the Church/State apparatus devoted ever more resources to the persecution of its own people.

Bishop Ambrose, in particular, "guided" no fewer than four monarchs, all of whom were complicit in the disintegration of the western empire. As they laboured tirelessly (but in luxury) over such pressing issues as to whether Christ was actually God and just how virtuous was virginity, the provinces were taxed into destitution, the soldiers went unpaid, and barbarian raids went unopposed.

Throughout the 4th and 5th centuries, seemingly limitless funds poured into the coffers of the Church – though actually that revenue was extracted from a diminishing tax-base as citizens fled the towns to avoid the rapacious tax collectors.

The "bonanza" intensified the ferocious infighting that had always characterized Christianity – Catholic versus Arian, Donatist versus Orthodox, Alexandria versus Constantinople, Milan versus Rome. In every imperial court – and there were now several – a coterie of bishops, female regents and eunuchs vied for influence and power.

Christianity, far from unifying the Roman world with a single faith, rent division and civil conflict throughout the empire. Yet the fanatical intolerance rampaged on, with increasingly more severe rescripts.

Again and again, the pagan religions and the 'philosophies' (that is rational thought and science) were criminalized with the severest of penalties. The repetition of the legislation itself gives evidence that the populace of the empire had to be brought kicking and screaming to the Church of Christ.

Yet every measure designed to crush and stamp out non-Christian belief met with renewed resistance, disaffection from the imperial cause and civil commotion.

In time, many would prefer the more tolerant rule of a barbarian king to the adolescent fanatics in Milan, Ravenna or Constantinople.

The campaign to wipe out heterodox opinion realized its zenith with the reign of Theodosius I late in the 4th century. Barely a decade later, the city of Rome fell to the barbarians. The parasitic Christian religion had fatally weakened the host body; yet as the western empire died, the psychosis of "Christian Faith" had already migrated to the newcomers.

The Assault upon Paganism Cont.'

A triumphant Christian Church, far from unifying the Roman world with a single faith, rent division and civil conflict throughout the empire. Every measure designed to crush and stamp out non-Christian belief met with renewed resistance, disaffection from the imperial cause and civil commotion. Yet the fanatical intolerance rampaged on, with increasingly more severe rescripts from the imperial court. The campaign to wipe out heterodox opinion realized its zenith with the reign of Theodosius I late in the 4th century.

Theodosius - Murdering Fanatic Arrives from Spain

“The statesmanlike decision of Gratian to elevate to the purple the competent son of a convicted traitor was of great significance in Roman history. Ultimately the dynasty of Theodosius presided over the dismemberment of the Roman Empire in the West.” (Ferrill, p68)

Theodosius, one of those luminaries of the Church accorded the honorific “Great”, showed that a Christian Emperor could best any pagan emperor for folly, indulgence and cruelty. While a Caligula or a Nero could unleash murder and mayhem on his family and entourage, Theodosius criminalized and punished a large part of the population of the whole empire, of which his treatment of Thessalonica is one notable example.

In 390 the Romano/Greek population of the city was involved in a riot over the intimidating presence of the local Gothic garrison. In the tumult, Botheric, the garrison commander, died. Enraged, Theodosius ordered his Gothic mercenaries to massacre spectators who happened to be trapped in the circus. Records Theodoret (393-466 AD) in his Ecclesiastical History:

“Thessalonica is a large and populous city, in the province of Macedonia. In consequence of sedition there, the anger of the Emperor rose to the highest pitch, and he gratified his vindictive desire for vengeance by unsheathing the sword most unjustly and tyrannically against all, slaying the innocent and guilty alike. It is said seven thousand perished without any forms of law, and without even having judicial sentence passed upon them; but that, like ears of wheat in the time of harvest, they were alike cut down.”

– ( W. S. Davis, ed., Readings in Ancient History)

Unlike earlier tyrants, by the late 4th century – thanks largely to the reforms of Diocletian and Constantine – emperors had at their disposal a formidable and costly state apparatus. Draconian laws now could be energetically enforced.

The world’s earliest totalitarianism – of Catholic Christianity – was inaugurated by Theodosius. No wonder to Christian scribes he became ‘the Great.’ In short order, the Roman world was compelled to be Christian – on pain of death! The fall of empire in the west was an acceptable price for the triumph of the Church of Christ.

Theodosius had, in his privileged youth, been military governor of Moesia. But after a charge of cowardice and his father’s execution for conspiracy he had languished in enforced early retirement in Spain. Yet when disaster hit the Roman world at Adrianople in 378, the debacle led Gratian – an inexperienced and 'pious' nineteen-year-old – to appoint the thirty-two year old Theodosius as Augustus for the east.

It was a reign almost cut short. After falling dangerously ill in 380 (in Thessalonica) Theodosius was baptized by the local Catholic Bishop, Acholius. Unfortunately for the fate of civilization, thereafter Theodosius was more concerned with religious correctness than with the safety of the empire which now fell into his hands.  

Power behind the throne

The women set-to while Theodosius ponders the nature of Christ ...

The elder sister of Theodosius II, the Empress Pulcheria did much to advance the cult of "imperial mystique", and in her brother's name banned pagans from public and military posts, and ordered destruction of synagogues and temples. She also deposed Nestorius and returned John Chrysostom's bones to Constantinople.

Pulcheria receiving 'sacred bones' into Constantinople. Pic. on left
In June 423 Pulcheria declared that the religion of the pagans was nothing more than “demon worship” and ordered all those who persisted in practicing it to be punished by imprisonment and torture.

Her rival, the emperor's wife Eudoxia , not to be outflanked in piety, went off to the Holy Land in 439 and returned with "important relics" to boost her own prestige.
Eudoxia was eventually forced into exile in Jerusalem, where, in a new tactic, she embraced the cause of "monophysitism" later adopted by Theodosius II.
The Menace Behind the ThroneBishop Ambrose
"Nothing can be found in this world more exalted than priests or more sublime than bishops."
Bishop Ambrose

Since the days of Constantine Bishops had inveigled their way into the imperial entourage (compare this to the position of Stoic philosophers at an earlier date). Ambrose famously brought Theodosius to heel (and "penitence") over the massacre in Thessalonica, an incident carefully written up by Christian scribes to give maximum credit to the Church. Yet the true character of the ambitious Ambrose was shown in his power struggle a few years earlier with the Empress Justina (regent for the young monarch Valentinian II ) whose authority and faith he rejected out of hand – and used Christian mobs to back up his position.

At the moment when it seemed that the mob might have been seen off by the imperial guard, Ambrose "miraculously" discovered "martyrs' bones" in the besieged churchyard and mob-rule prevailed. The creation of saints and miracles now became a staple weapon in the Christian armoury.

Ambrose, having asserted his authority over the feeble-minded youths Gratian and Valentinian, was not inclined to cede power to the new "Catholic" monarch Theodosius – nor was Theodosius the man to stand up to the senior churchman. In a notable incident, Ambrose, to his horror, learnt that the emperor had ordered Christian arsonists rebuild a destroyed synagogue. The bishop defended the zealots and censured the emperor – who meekly rescinded his decision.

Theodosius maintained an imperial court in both Milan and Constantinople. The year 394 was the last in which a single monarch ruled the Roman world. Yet with Ambrose as the Grey Eminence that "unity" merely amplified the insidious influence of the Catholic bishop. He saw off the challenge of the Arians and successfully propagated the notions of the "Trinity", discipline and regimentation; anti-Semitism became encoded in Theodosius's vast catalogue of intolerant laws; and women were made more subordinate than ever. The prison of the late Roman world now became dark and forbidding.

"Christ," assured Bishop Ambrose, "was now at the head of the legions."

Winning Hearts and Minds – by Capital Punishment!

'It is our will and pleasure that none of our subjects, whether magistrates or private citizens, however exalted or however humble may be their rank and condition, shall presume in any city or in any place, to worship an inanimate idol by the sacrifice of a guiltless victim.'

With these words of an imperial edict, in 384 AD Theodosius made divination from the entrails of a chicken a crime of high treason which could be expiated only by the death penalty. All the many – and popular – manifestations of pagan worship were criminalized: torch bearing processions, the wearing of garlands, the burning of frankincense, the offering of libations of wine. Even harmless household gods were proscribed. Whereas earlier laws enacted against the pagans had often been mitigated or ignored by local magistrates who were themselves pagans or secular 'philosophers', now a magistrate who failed to rigorously enforce the draconian laws would himself become a criminal.

To the delight of the Christian priesthood their 'pious' emperor set the entire machinery of the state against the pagan establishment.

It was the clergy itself, however, who made up the vigilante 'brown-shirts', desecrating temples and destroying idols. At every level the old religions were to be rooted out and – joy of joy! – the accumulated wealth of a thousand shrines and temples, amassed over a millennium, expropriated for the Christian Church.

Once engorged on the wealth of the pagan world, the Church, in an act of sublime cynicism, moved rapidly to reintroduce the rituals and practices it had so assiduously extirpated.

In 381 Theodosius issued the first of 15 edicts directed against heretics and pagans. His edicts supported the destruction of non-Christian temples and places of worship, the burning of heterodox writings and the exile or execution of those holding heterodox or heathen belief and being unwilling to correct or convert. The above is exactly what American settlers did to the natives! MS.07-30-09

Folly & Religious War – Goths and Pagans

Theodosius, entrusted initially with the defense of Thrace, bought peace with the Goths by ceding large tracts of the Balkans for their settlement. Rather than hunt down and defeat the victors of Adrianople Theodosius decided to accept them as allies (“foedesati”). Indeed, when the Gothic King Athanaric died in 382 he was honoured with a state funeral in Constantinople. Unlike most Roman citizens, however, the Goths were armed and ignored Roman law with impunity. Ruled by their own chieftains and not subject to crippling imperial taxation these ‘Christianised tribesmen’ lived off the local populace as conquering heroes.

Having thus accommodated the enemy within the empire, Theodosius then recruited whole regiments of the barbarians – under their own officers – into the army, where they became the dominant influence. Barbarianization of the army went hand-in-hand with the enfeeblement of the legions. Starved of funds which Theodosius instead directed into the church to support a growing army of parasitic clergy, the demoralized troops were forced into part-time farming to feed themselves. The greater part of the legions were downgraded to ‘border guards’. As such, they lacked the pan-continental mobility of an earlier age. Allowed to marry local women, the troops spent much of their time in ‘market gardens’ and the barter economy.

In such circumstances the tight discipline and continuous drill which had allowed the Romans to defeat every barbarian enemy from the Scottish highlands to the Syrian desert had to be abandoned. The troopers also set aside their protective armour, which had become burdensome and expensive – ironically at the very time the barbarian cavalries were adopting a simplified version of Roman armour. The ‘border guards’ as a matter of policy avoided pitch battles with the enemy, a task now assigned to a few elite units of a ‘mobile field army,’ which increasingly became little more than an overblown imperial bodyguard.

For the eastern front, Theodosius adopted a cowardly policy of ceding four fifths of Roman Armenia to the Persians (387). Having thus secured his rear and ‘barbarianised’ his legions, Theodosius used them to intervene in the 'religious politics' of the west, where Gratian had been deposed by another Spanish Catholic, his general Magnus Maximus. Gratian was executed in August 383 in Gaul, leaving his hapless 12 year old young half-brother Valentinian II taking instruction from Milan's city boss Bishop Ambrose. The bishop, wary of the rival Arian Christianity, widespread in the east and among the Gothic tribesmen, wrote a tract clarifying the new doctrine of the Trinity for the guidance and edification of the young prince,

It was ostensibly on behalf of Valentinian II, Theodosius used his mercenaries to bring to an end the reign of Maximus (388) using an army mainly composed of Goths, Huns and Alans at the battle of Aquileia.

A few years later, Valentinian was sent packing by another usurper – Eugenius (392-394), a former teacher of grammar and rhetoric – and Theodosius massed his barbarian Christian mercenaries against the regular pagan legions of the west.

The battle of the Frigidus River (6 September 394), on the border of Italy and Slovenia, proved to be the last serious attempt of the senatorial class to resist the Christianization of the empire. Fighting at the head of 20,000 barbarians on the side of Theodosius was the Gothic chieftain Alaric, who sixteen years later would sack Rome itself.

Those Sexually Hung-up Christians

Thieves in Hell
Christ Porn!
Thieves in Hell (Le Trésor de Sapience, Chantilly, Musée Condé – 15th century) 
Bishops of the Christian Church commissioned blatantly pornographic images of Hell.
Such depictions mirrored their own psycho-sexual obsessions, as witnessed by the perverse sexual disposition of the "Fathers of the Church". 

 
 
 
 

 

John Chrysostom (347-407)

ChrysostomHoly Hierarch of Constantinople
Legacy:

– Demagogic oratory.
– Mobs of Gothic 'catechumen' and armed monks, used to destroy pagan shrines.
– Anti-intellectualism:
"Empty your minds of secular knowledge." – Chrysostom
– 'Plain' (literal) interpretation of scripture.
– Anti-sex, prudish, kill-joy morality:
"There ought to be a wall inside this church to keep you apart ... The women have learned the manners of the brothel, and the men are no better than maddened stallions."
– Chrysostom (Lane, Pagans & Christians, p374)
– Morbid solemnity in liturgy. Christian songs replace bawdy folk ballads.
– Anti-semitism:
'The pitiful and miserable Jews ... Certainly it is the time for me to show that demons dwell in the synagogue, not only in the place itself but also in the souls of the Jews ... And this is what happened to the Jews: while they were making themselves unfit for work, they grew fit for slaughter.

– Chrysostom (Against the Jews, Homily I)
           Defense of slavery: "The slave should be resigned to his lot ... in obeying his master he is obeying God."
10th Century Obscenities
Vile Princes of the Papacy
"Popes maimed & were maimed, killed & were killed... Without question, these pontiffs constitute the most despicable body of leaders, clerical or lay, in history. They were, frankly, barbarians. Ancient Rome had nothing to rival them in rottenness."
– Peter de Rosa (Vicars of Christ, p48)
John XII (955-964).
Born from an incestuous relationship between Pope Sergio III and his 13-year-old daughter Marozie. John, in turn, took his mother as his own mistress.
Pope at 18, he turned the Lateran into a brothel. He was accused by a synod of "sacrilege, simony, perjury, murder, adultery and incest" and was temporarily deposed.
He took his revenge on opponents by hacking off limbs. He was murdered by an enraged husband who caught him having sex with his wife.
11th Century Horror
Church lords over ignorant squalor of millions
1095 - Pope Urban II calls upon the Franks to invade the more civilized Muslim world. Begins five centuries of warfare.
"Let those who have hitherto been robbers now become soldiers."
– Urban II addresses his gangsters.
 1009: Rivalry from Islam prompts eastern churches to break with idolatry. This 'iconoclasm' begins breach with idol-worshipping Catholic west. Centuries of bloodshed ensue.
1079: The Council of Rome: Persecution of Berengarius & his followers who cannot stomach the dogma of 'transmutation of bread & wine into Christ.'
12th Century Criminality
Christian Church ally of murderous kings & rogue princes
"Warrior Monks" - Muslim heads catapulted into the besieged city of Antioch by Christian Knights (Illumination from Les Histoires d'Outremer by William of Tyre 12th century, Bibliotheque Nationale, Paris). 
1118: Christian fanatics captured Saragossa; the beginning of the decline of Muslim civilization in Spain.
1184 Council of Verona condemns Waldensians for witchcraft. The charge is later extended to condemn heretics.
 

13th Century Wickedness
Vile Crusaders Plunder & Murder for God

1204 Christian crusaders sack & ruin greatest Christian city, Constantinople.
1209 Pope Innocent III launches Albigensian Crusade against Christian Cathars of southern France. 7000 massacred in La Madeleine Church alone.
1211 Burning of Waldenses heretics at Strasbourg begins several centuries of persecution.   
German Teutonic Knights butcher their way through the Baltic lands, savage Catholic Poles & Orthodox Russians.
1231: Pope Gregory IX authorizes Inquisition for dealing with heretics.
1277 Pope John XXI, alarmed by rumors of pagan heresy among “scholars of arts in the faculty of theology" pressurizes Stephen Tempier, Bishop of Paris, to prohibit 219 philosophical and theological theses. The "Condemnations of Paris" is the first of 16 lists of censorship.
14th Century Catastrophe
Church hostility to medicine allows plague to decimate Europe


Burning of the Jews of Cologne –
blamed by Christians for the Black Death (Liber Chronicarum Mundi).
World Domination?
"We declare, say, define, and pronounce that it is absolutely necessary for the salvation of every human creature to be subject to the Roman pontiff."

– Pope Boniface VIII, Bull Unun Sanctum, 1302
1311-12: Ecumenical Council of Vienne. It authorizes the brutal suppression of the Knights Templar (mercenaries of the church who have outlived their usefulness).
 1316-1334: Pope John XXII, world's richest man and first pontiff to promote theory of witchcraft. Sanctions bull allowing heresy charges to be brought against dead people. In 1320 he instructs French Inquisition to confiscate all property belonging to blasphemers or dabblers in black arts.
 1347-50: The Black Death sweeps across Europe, killing one-third of the population.
"Jews were burnt all the way from the Mediterranean into Germany... under torture confessing to have spread the plague by poisoning wells... the poison made from the skin of a basilisk (a kind of mythical serpent)..."

– N. Cantor (In the Wake of the Plague)
1411 Dominican Vincente Ferrer revives anti-Jewish hysteria in Spain: "cohorts of the Devil and Anti-Christ, clever, warped and doomed."
1415 John Huss of Bohemia, critic of papal corruption but guaranteed personal safety, burned at the stake. "When dealing with heretics, one is not obligated to keep his word." – Pope Gregory XII.
1415 Pope John XXIII deposed: "The most scandalous charges were suppressed; the Vicar of Christ was only accused of piracy, murder, rape, sodomy and incest." – Gibbon (Decline & Fall)
15th Century Malevolence
Tortured Bodies by Sadists of the Lord

1478: Pope Sixtus IV, in alliance with King Ferdinand of Spain, establishes the Spanish Inquisition. Jews, Moors and heretics will be imprisoned, tortured and murdered for centuries.
The bisexual Sixtus, though suffering from syphilis, fathers children from his elder sister.
This unsurpassed nonsense rests on the bench of every magistrate and judge in Europe for three centuries and leads to tens of thousands of judicial murderers.
1498 Dominican reformer, Savonarola – burner of books & ornaments of 'pagan immorality' – is himself burned for criticizing the degenerate Pope Alexander VI.


 

16th Century Mayhem
Pogroms & civil wars in the name of Jesus
 

"My advice... is: First, that their synagogues be burned down, and that all who are able toss sulphur and pitch; it would be good if someone could also throw in some hellfire.."

Martin Luther ("On the Jews and their lies" 1543)
1517: Martin Luther posts 95 theses at Wittenberg. The Reformation will turn Europe into a battleground.
1517 A Dominican monk Johann Tetzel swells papal coffers by selling indulgences ('souls freed from purgatory'!)
1524: Luther – no friend of the downtrodden – encourages savagery of German princes in putting down the two-year Peasants’ Revolt.
 
Book Burners for Christ–
Dominican monks in the service of Ferdinand proudly consign the wisdom of Moorish Spain to the flames (Berruguete, Prado Museum, Madrid)
 

                                     

 

 


 

 

1553 John Calvin, the "Protestant Pope" of Geneva proves his Christian credentials by having Michael Servetus, the Spanish physician, burned at the stake for heresy. Servetus had opposed Trinitarianism and infant baptism.

Servetus, the discoverer of pulmonary blood circulation (an advance on Galen) had fled the Inquisition and had thought himself safe among Protestants. Oh dear.


1559 Introduction of Index of Forbidden Books (lasts until 1966)
 
1563 Following the Council of Trent, Jesuit Order becomes 'Defender of the Faith'. Huguenots are persecuted in France.
 17th Century Barbarity
Burning Witches for Christ


Urbain Grandier, burned in Loudun, 1634. Cardinal Richelieu orchestrated his murder.
1600 After a seven year trail before the Inquisition, Giordano Bruno, who had the audacity to suggest that space was boundless and that the sun and its planets were not unique, is condemned and burned at the stake.


 

 

 

1605: The Gunpowder Plot. Catholic fanatics attempt to blow up James I of England.

1633 Galileo is brought before the Inquisition. Under threat of torture and death, he is forced from his knees to renounce all belief in Copernican theories. He is sentenced to life imprisonment. He dies in 1642 and the charges against him stand for another 350 years.
 
  1618-1648 Central Europe devastated by Thirty Years' War between Catholics and Protestants
1411 Dominican Vincente Ferrer revives anti-Jewish hysteria in Spain: "cohorts of the Devil and Anti-Christ, clever, warped and doomed."
1415 John Huss of Bohemia, critic of papal corruption but guaranteed personal safety, burned at the stake. "When dealing with heretics, one is not obligated to keep his word." – Pope Gregory XII.
1415 Pope John XXIII deposed: "The most scandalous charges were suppressed; the Vicar of Christ was only accused of piracy, murder, rape, sodomy and incest."
– Gibbon (Decline & Fall)
1478: Pope Sixtus IV, in alliance with King Ferdinand of Spain, establishes the Spanish Inquisition. Jews, Moors and heretics will be imprisoned, tortured and murdered for centuries.
The bisexual Sixtus, though suffering from syphilis, fathers children from his elder sister.
This unsurpassed nonsense rests on the bench of every magistrate and judge in Europe for three centuries and leads to tens of thousands of judicial murderers.
1498 Dominican reformer, Savonarola – burner of books & ornaments of 'pagan immorality' – is himself burned for criticizing the degenerate Pope Alexander VI.
18th Century Scandal
Christian Church endorses Slavery, Racism & subordination of women
"And Noah awoke from his wine, and knew what his younger son had done unto him. And he said, Cursed be Canaan; a servant of servants shall he be unto his brethren. And he said, Blessed be the LORD God of Shem; and Canaan shall be his servant."
Genesis 9.24-26

 




"As for your male and female slaves whom you may have: you may buy male and female slaves from the nations that are round about you. You may also buy from among the strangers who sojourn with you and their families that are with you, who have been born in your land; and they may be your property."
Leviticus 25:44-45

More from Leviticus.

"For everyone who curses his father or his mother shall surely be put to death. He has cursed his father or his mother. His blood shall be upon him." (Leviticus 20:9)

"If a man lies with a woman during her sickness and uncovers her nakedness, he has discovered her flow, and she has uncovered the flow of her blood. Both of them shall be cut off from her people." (Leviticus 20:18)

"If a man lies with a male as he lies with a woman, both of them have committed an abomination. They shall surely be put to death. Their blood shall be upon them." (Leviticus 20:13)

"...and the swine, though it divides the hoof, having cloven hooves, yet does not chew the cud, is unclean to you." (Leviticus 11:7)

"But all in the seas or in the rivers that do not have fins and scales, all that move in the water or any living thing which is in the water, they are an abomination to you." (Leviticus 11:10)

Jesus said; Think not that I am come to destroy or change my fathers laws, or the prophets: I am not come to destroy, but to fulfill them. For verily I say unto you, Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be fulfilled.' (Mathew 5:17-18)

Summary of the Above Biblical Contradictions;

We have a non-ethical morality that depends for its grounding on the word of god only and which clearly contradicts our moral instincts. It won't do to say that the differences between what we naturally feel to be right and biblical law are a result of our being unguided or misguided, as if that were true then Christians, for example, would be following the above passages to the letter, stoning children and adulterers every Sunday in the park (or I guess maybe Monday, Sunday being the sabbath and all). No, the only conclusion, and the point of this essay, is that we use our extant morality to determine which bits of religious texts are those we should follow and which bits are those we should ignore. Religion uses the morality we already have to try and buttress its claims to deep truths. The mismatch between natural and biblical morality is a consequence of the attempt to mold our existing feelings of what is right and wrong into a power structure that wants to hijack our own nature and claim it for itself - it is parasitic on our naturally evolved sense of morality.

738: Freemasonry is condemned by Clement XII and Catholics are forbidden to join.

1793: Last 'witch' burning at Poznen in Germany

19th Century Evil

Christian Church Rejects Science & social reform; Christian 'missions' go hand-in-hand with colonialism.


1814: Society of Jesus, suppressed since 1773, is restored. The Inquisition continues until 1834, Church-sanctioned torture until 1917.
1844: 'Protection of Children Act' allows Church missionaries in Australia to kidnap aboriginal children.
1854: Pius IX proclaims the dogma of the Immaculate Conception in the bull Ineffabilis Deus. Lourdes shrine introduced.

1864: Pius IX issues the encyclical Quanta cura and the Syllabus of Errors. It condemns some 80 propositions derived from scientific method and rationalism. Liberalism & socialism are denounced.

1870: Vatican Council declares the Pope "infallible".

'Bible Societies' & 'Missions' in European colonies destroy indigenous cultures

20th Century Iniquity
Christian Church allies itself with Fascism; opposes advances of science & personal freedom
1907 Pius X condemns Modernism in the decree Lamentabili and the encyclical Pascendi.
 
 
Hitler's Pope - Pius XII (1939-1958)
Hitler, a Roman Catholic, is never excommunicated for causing the death of millions; whereas Martin Luther was excommunicated for criticism of the papal system.
Friends of Fascists Everywhere:

Germany

Spain

Croatia
21st Century Menace

Churches the Stalking Ground of Pedophiles & Sex Offenders
On March 12, 2000 Pope John Paul II attempted to purify the soul of the Catholic Church by apologizing for 2000 years of "sins" committed by the church – quite some compensation for twenty centuries of terrorism, extortion and murder!
And yet – September 2000 – the same John Paul II issues "Dominus Jesus (Lord Jesus)", reaffirming intolerance: "Only one path to God – the Roman Catholic Church."
And the story does not end:
Still the evil continues...
 

Child sex abuse scandal rocks the Catholic Church
"The Roman Catholic Church has removed 218 priests from their positions this year because of child sexual abuse allegations, but at least 34 known offenders remain in church jobs"- Reuters (June 9 2002) Never met a Priest or Rabbi that wasn't a nut-case! MS. 09-08-09
Anti-abortion
Anti-birth control
Creator of "saints"
31 July, 2003 "Congregation for the Doctrine of the Faith" condemns same sex deviants who seek marriage. In contrast, no Vatican condemnation of priestly pedophiles.

Pagan Orgies to Human Sacrifice: The Bizarre Origins of Christmas
By Kristi Harrison.

Christmas was not, as it turns out, miraculously handed down as a fully formed holiday, complete with wrapped gifts and blinking lights. Rather, it is a rich tapestry woven from countless inexplicable and pointless customs. (Above photo of Pagan Orgy)

Why December 25th? The Bible doesn't give a lot of clues as to what time of the year the supposed birth of Jesus happened (i.e., "they met many travelers along the way, for it was just three days before the final game of the NFL Season") So, why December 25th? No one knows for sure. One likely explanation is that early church leaders needed a holiday to distract Christians from the many pagan revelries occurring in late December. One of the revelries was The Saturnalia, a week-long festival celebrating the Romans' favorite agricultural god, Saturn. From December 17 until December 23, tomfoolery and pagan hijinks ensued, and by hijinks we mean gluttonous feasting, drunkenness, gambling and public nudity.

The Romans would also switch roles between masters and slaves for the occasion, so not only did the slaves get to pathetically lower their own sense of self-worth by participating in the charade of freedom, they also got to wear a Pileus (roughly translated, "Freedom Hat").
One other pagan celebration that might have given Christmas its date was Natalis Solis Invincti, which roughly translates to "Birthday of the Invincible Sun God," giving it officially the most awesome holiday name ever.

Our favorite morbidly obese, undiagnosed diabetic trespasser is actually a bastardization of the Dutch Sinterklaas, which was actually a bastardization of Saint Nikolas, the holier-than-thou Turkish bishop for whom the icon was named.

By the 12th century, the Christian Church had incorporated a few of the less-sinful pagan traditions into the 12 days of Christmas. We only wish the public nudity could have been left in ... maybe on the 10th or 11th day. Along with the gambling. And the drinking. Then again, it appears everyday is Saturnalia in Vegas so maybe we'll just go there instead. Our favorite morbidly obese, undiagnosed diabetic trespasser is actually a bastardization of the Dutch Sinterklaas, which was actually a bastardization of Saint Nikolas, the holier-than-thou Turkish bishop for whom the icon was named.

The actual saint was not, in fact, famous for making dispirited public appearances at shopping malls. Rather, he was known for throwing purses of gold into a man's home in the cover of night so that the man wouldn't have to sell his daughters into prostitution.

Later, Martin Luther invented his own Christmas symbol, Kristkindl, as part of his rejection of all things Catholic. What he came up with is by far the gayest of all Christmas symbols, as Kristkindl is portrayed as a "blond, radiant veiled child figure with golden wings, wearing a flowing white robe and a sparkling jeweled crown, and carrying a small Christmas tree or wand." This is why you sometimes hear Santa referred to as "Kris Kringle."

Not surprisingly, most of the world has rejected his weird-ass version and over the years we've cobbled together our own Santa Claus: part Saint Nikolas, part Sinterklaas and part Norse god Odin. By the 19th century American writers were describing Santa as wearing a red sash with a skin-tight red suit with white spotted fur at the fringes. Writers at the time were still calling Santa an "elf," including Clement Clark Moore in his famous poem The Night Before Christmas. Perhaps the image of a dwarf-sized intruder seemed less threatening than a Chris Farley-sized version, but we're pretty sure we'd be more likely to piss our pants if an overly jolly costumed dwarf magically appeared and started hopping around our living room floor. The little person might just end up with a bullet in the head. Not that there's anything wrong with frolicking little people with a propensity for wearing elf garb, of course. Except that there totally is.

Some of you are disappointed that we explained Santa without mentioning that the modern image of him was invented for a Coca-Cola ad, as the Internet has probably told you. That's because it isn't true. Come on, guys. Not everything in the Western World is based on some crass marketing campaign.

Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer, however, is; This signature character in Christmas folklore, with his own song and movies and a mountain of yearly merchandise, was slapped together by the Montgomery Ward marketing team for a coloring book they were giving out. Prior to inventing Rudolph, they used to just buy the books and hand them out each Christmas, but in 1939 they figured it'd be cheaper to have one of their guys draw one up in his spare time. It's not like toddlers are great at detecting quality in these things.

So copywriter Robert L. May wrote it up, and created what turned out to be a marketing bonanza ... of which he didn't get paid a penny. A few years later the company actually let May have the rights to Rudolph, which was either an act of amazing corporate generosity or else they just assumed the Rudolph fad was over. After that, May's brother-in-law wrote up the song that you've no doubt heard every Christmas since you were born. It became a huge hit and the Rudolph marketing empire was born, along with a permanent addition to the Santa legend.

That's right; Europe brought their real-life saints, Norse gods and rich cultural traditions to the table, and America slapped on a promotion from a department store. Who knows, maybe 300 years from now Santa's sleigh will be towed by Energizer Bunnies, long after society has forgotten what an "Energizer" is. And, maybe Santa will sport a cheap cardboard crown and a creepy frozen grin.

Question: What customary Christmas holiday decoration bases its origins in ritualistic human sacrifice?

Answer: The Christmas tree!

Back in the pagan day, all inanimate objects were fair game for worship. Trees, rocks, mountains, funny shaped sticks that look like phalluses, whatever. So supposedly some of the Norsemen got it in their heads to worship a thunder god named Thor by ritualistically sacrificing humans and animals at the tree they designated "Thor's Oak."

However the tree did not, according to legend, spring out of the ground with little blinking lights and tin foil on it's branches. The thing with decorating the tree goes as far back as the 16th century, when people in Germany used to decorate their trees with apples, a tradition we can only assume stemmed from some crooked tree salesman who ran out of apple trees one year and wouldn't admit it. Other decorations included nuts and cheeses which again appears to be the same salesman testing the gullibility of his clients.

A guy brought the tradition to America in the 1800s, and when we say "a guy" we literally know who it was: a German immigrant named August Imgard. He was the first to stick little candy canes on it, and to put a star at the top. Whatever German strand of mental imbalance caused him to do that, this guy's spur-of-the-moment decoration idea now utterly pervades the imagery of the holiday. He was just a very bored German dude that needed a place to hang his candy canes.

We can go on and on about how different Christmas would be without him, but of course his contribution pales in comparison to St. Boniface. Without him, when little Timmy runs down the stairs this Christmas the only present he would find would be the gift of human sacrifice.

Merry Christmas! Or as Timothy O'Leary always says...Merry Fucking Christmas!

Christianity Cont.'

A Former Nun's Memoirs Rock India's Catholic Church

After 26 years as a nun, Jesme Raphael gave up her robes and walked out of the Congregation of the Mother of Carmel, the Catholic order in Kerala, India, that had been her home for three decades. Two years later, Raphael, now 53, has come out with her memoirs, Amen: An Autobiography of a Nun, cataloging lurid details of bullying, sexual abuse and homosexuality in the oldest Catholic women's order in the idyllic coastal state in southern India. Shocking as it is, the book is only the latest in a long series of accusations and scandals afflicting the Catholic Church in the state with the largest population of Christians in India.

"All the brothers here send you greetings. Greet one another with a holy kiss [1 Corinthians 16:20]," Raphael quotes a priest as telling her, after she confronted him with allegations that "he kissed almost everyone who went for one-on-one meetings." In other episodes, she tells of a coerced lesbian encounter, being forced to strip in front of a naked priest who then masturbated and being accused of mental instability after she complained to her superiors. (See pictures of young nuns in the U.S. who have taken their vows.)

Since the book's release on Jan. 30, publishers DC Books have already sold all 3,000 copies, and a reprint has been ordered. The Catholic Church is miffed. "There is no dearth of anti-religion people in Kerala society," said Stephen Alathara, deputy secretary of the Kerala Catholic Bishops Council. "They are using this for their antisocial, antichurch activities." In 1957 Kerala voted in the world's first democratically elected communist government, and it has been under communist rule since the last state elections in 2006.

A spokesman for the Syro-Malabar order of the Catholic Church, Father Paul Thelakkat, said Raphael's allegations stem from "some wounded feelings," which Raphael should have raised with the church instead of "maligning the life of religious nuns." He added that Raphael's allegations are "not especially serious." "The church never claims there's no sin within the church," he said. "We're not angels — we're human beings of flesh and blood — so some omissions and failures can happen. But the church is perennially on a path of renewal and reformation. We're trying to deal with these problems and such allegations."

There has been no shortage of them in recent months. On Feb. 11, Sister Josephine, a nun in the Daughters of Mary congregation in Trivandrum, Kerala's state capital, was found dead in her room in an apparent suicide. Members of the congregation said the 38-year-old nun had been under treatment for depression. After news of the incident spread, a crowd gathered around the house and shouted slogans alleging that harassment had led Sister Josephine to kill herself. The police had to intervene, and an inquiry into the case was later ordered. Six months earlier, on Aug. 11 of last year, 23-year-old Sister Anoopa Mary had been found hanging in her room in St. Mary's Convent in Kollam, north of the capital. In what was purportedly her suicide note, she had said she could no longer withstand the senior nuns' harassment. Her father, a cook in the local bishop's house, charged that sexual exploitation had led his daughter to take her life. The convent has denied the allegations, though a court investigation is still ongoing.

Even the world renown Mother Theresa had written in her diaries, in regard to the world's unceasing suffrage, that she had ceased to believe in God decades before her death and continued her work for her love of children and the sick!

The cost to humanity of fifteen centuries of Christian savagery – of hundreds of millions of lives brutalized and truncated, sacrificed to war, torture, pogrom, burning, pestilence and plague – is incalculable.

Christianity is the worst disaster in human history!!

The Bizarre Religion of Scientology

by Dennis Pollock

It happened during the filming of a quickly forgotten horror film, The Devil’s Rain, in 1975. John Travolta had come down with a severe cold and sore throat. Actress Joan Prather told young Travolta that she could help him, using a technique known as “touch assist.” Travolta declared later, “The sore throat went away, so then I knew something was really working here … I needed to find out more about it.”

Such was John Travolta’s introduction to the doctrine of Scientology. It turned out to be more than a passing fad. Over twenty years later, Travolta still holds to the doctrines enunciated by Science Fiction writer L. Ron Hubbard. “I don’t know why people are afraid of it,” he said. “It’s given me a better quality of life and a hope for mankind.”

Scientology has received a lot of free publicity in recent days due to the proportionately high incidence of celebrity converts. Along with Travolta, Tom Cruise and his former wife Nicole Kidman, Sharon Stone, Mimi Rogers, Shirley Maclaine, Kirstie Alley, Demi Moore, Priscilla Presley and daughter Lisa Marie have all been reported to have been involved in this mysterious “church.” When Germany tried to crack down on Scientology, Hollywood rallied around the faith of its box office brethren, taking out a full page advertisement in the International Herald Tribune. It was addressed to Chancellor Helmut Kohl, and likened the government’s restrictions on Scientology to the Nazi’s persecution of the Jews in the 1930’s. The ad was signed by Goldie Hawn, Dustin Hoffman, Oliver Stone, Aaron Spelling, and 30 other Hollywood luminaries.

THE MESSAGE

So what is Scientology? Founder Ron Hubbard was convinced that the answer to all life’s problems and pressures could be found in the principles of “dianetics” (a word he coined first in a science fiction novel). Dianetics is a type of therapy which weaves pop psychology with eastern mysticism. One of the primary means of applying the principles of dianetics to one’s problems is by use of an “E-meter.” This consists of a small box with two electrodes attached that passes a current of 1.5 volts through the body and registers the result on a needle that swings all over the place in a manner similar to a lie detector. A more experienced Scientologist listens as the participant is encouraged to discuss their past failures and problems. When the subject can talk about these without causing the needle to careen across the gauge, they are said to be “clear” (freed from all bondage).

The theology that is behind all of this is almost too incredible to be believed. According to Hubbard, seventy-five million years ago a tyrant named Xenu ruled the Galactic Confederation, an alliance of 76 planets, including Earth. To control overpopulation and solidify his power, Xenu instructed his loyal officers to capture beings of all shapes and sizes from the various planets, freeze them in a compound of alcohol and glycol, and fly them by the billions to Earth in planes resembling DC-8s.

These beings were deposited or chained near 10 volcanoes scattered around the planet. After hydrogen bombs were dropped on them, the spirit beings that inhabited their bodies (called body thetans or en-grams) were captured by Xenu’s forces and implanted with sexual perversion, religion, and other notions to obscure their memory of what Xenu had done. Soon after, however, a revolt erupted and Xenu was imprisoned in a wire cage within a mountain where he remains today. These body thetans that he had perverted have been running rampant ever since attaching themselves to human bodies and bringing about all sorts of miseries and bondage.

Thus, in the gospel according to Hubbard, all our problems have to do with these twisted little spirit critters that attach themselves to our body. By means of the principles of dianetics, and the use of the “E-meter” we can be freed from these engrams and join the enlightened ones. That anyone would believe such nonsense is surprising; that sophisticated Hollywood types would buy such bizarre ideas is amazing. When many of their secret writings got posted on the Internet, Scientology leaders went ballis-tic. Lawsuits flew in every direction, along with dire warnings that anyone reading some of their deep teachings without proper training could die. One Internet denizen quipped about their threats, “This may be true … while reading OT (Advanced Technology or Operating Thetan manuscript) I almost died laughing.

The Church of Euthanasia
"Save the Planet, Kill Yourself"

The Church of Euthanasia (CoE) is a Dadaist organization started by Rev. Chris Korda in the Boston, Massachusetts area of the United States. According to the church's website, it is "a non-profit educational foundation devoted to restoring balance between Humans and the remaining species on Earth." The CoE uses sermons, music, culture jamming, publicity stunts and direct action combined with an underlying sense of satire and black humor to highlight Earth's unsustainable population. The CoE is notorious for its conflicts with anti-abortion Christian activists.

According to the church's website, the one commandment is "Thou shalt not procreate". The CoE further asserts four principle pillars: suicide, abortion, cannibalism ("strictly limited to consumption of the already dead"), and sodomy ("any sexual act not intended for procreation"). The church stresses population reduction by voluntary means only. Therefore murder, rape and involuntary sterilization are strictly forbidden by church doctrine.

Slogans employed by the group include "Save the Planet, Kill Yourself", "Six Billion Humans Can't Be Wrong", and "Eat a Queer Fetus for Jesus", all of which are intended to mix inflammatory issues to unnerve those who oppose abortion and homosexuality.

The Church gained early attention in 1995 because of its affiliation with paranoia.com which hosted many sites that were controversial or skirted illegality. Members later appeared on an episode of The Jerry Springer Show titled "I Want to Join a Suicide Cult".

Following the September 11, 2001 attacks, the CoE posted to its website a four-minute music video titled I Like to Watch, combining hardcore pornographic video with footage of the World Trade Center collapse. The montage featured an electronic soundtrack recorded by Korda and the lyrics, "People dive into the street/ While I play with my meat." Korda described the project as reflecting his "contempt for and frustration with the profound ugliness of the modern industrial world."

The church's website previously had instructions on "how to kill yourself" by asphyxiation using helium. These pages were removed in 2003 after a 52-year-old woman used them to commit suicide in St. Louis County, Missouri, resulting in legal threats against the church.

Nation of Yahweh:
"Black people are the true Jews"

Nation of Yahweh is a predominately African American religious group that is an offshoot of the Black Hebrew Israelites line of thought. They were formed in the late 1970s in Miami-Dade county. While the Nation of Yahweh falls under the umbrella of Black Hebrew Israelites, their beliefs are unique and distinct from that of other known Black Hebrew Israelite groups. The founder and creator of the religion is Yahweh ben Yahweh. The group has engendered controversy due to legal issues of its founder. It also faced accusations of being a black supremacist cult by the Southern Poverty Law Center and The Miami Herald.

The SPLC criticized the beliefs of the Nation of Yahweh as racist for the following reason. They state the group believed blacks are "the true Jews" and that whites were "white devils." In addition to this they claim the group believed Yahweh ben Yahweh had a Messianic mission to vanquish whites and that they held views similar to the Christian Identity movement. They quote Tom Metzger of White Aryan Resistance as saying groups like theirs are "the black counterpart of us."

Despite the recent death of their leader (see Yahweh ben Yahweh), the Nation of Yahweh is still active. Its members also claim to have abandoned their past racism; the leader's daughter has apparently stated that all people are children of God. An attorney and member of the group, Wendelyn Rush, insists their current war with the U.S. government is a non-violent verbal battle. The group is currently spread throughout the US and is no longer concentrated in one location (formerly Miami-Dade county). Their present literature downplays and has nearly erased all past racism.

Despite some of these present changes, much of the same rhetoric and codes of behavior have remained essentially the same as when the group began. Most still insist that Yahweh ben Yahweh is "Grand Master of All, the God of the Universe, the Grand Potentate, the Everlasting Father and the persecuted Messiah." A few elderly members consider 9-11 to have been a punishment from God for his imprisonment. Pledges of devotion to him and war against infidels allegedly still exist.

Raëlism
"Scientifically advanced humanoid extraterrestrials created humans"

Raëlism is the religious, naturalist belief system promoted by the Raëlian Movement, an atheist UFO religion founded in 1970s which focuses on the social ideas of sexual self-determination, individualism, and humanitarianism in the spirit of sharing and responsibility, which, they claim, will bring a new age of wealth and peace guided by those with greater intelligence, as predicted by main religions. They also believe in scientifically advanced humanoid extraterrestrials known by our primitive ancestors as Elohim (or "those who came from the sky"). Raëlism espouses belief that Elohim synthesized life on Earth through mastery of genetic engineering, and that human cloning and "mind transfer" are mechanisms by which eternal life may be achieved.

According to Raël, a message explaining our origins and future was dictated to him in December 1973, during personal meetings with a 25,000-year-old extraterrestrial named Yahweh who came in a UFO. The story goes that after terraforming the Earth, human beings from another planet — the "Elohim" (Hebrew for the word "God" as found in the Hebrew Old Testament, which the extraterrestrial himself translated as meaning those who came from the sky in ancient Hebrew) — created humans and all life on earth using DNA manipulation and genetic engineering. The message dictated to Raël during his encounter with the Elohim states that the Elohim contacted about forty people to act as their prophets on Earth, among which are those who founded the world's major religions (Moses, Buddha, Jesus, Muhammad, etc.)

The Raëlians believe, furthermore, that the Elohim will visit the earth officially when enough of its population is peaceful and come to know about them. They believe this is foretold in all religious texts - the predicted "Age of Apocalypse" or "Revelation" (unveiling of the truth).

Heaven's Gate:
Committed suicide to take their souls to a spaceship behind Comet Hale-Bopp

Founders of Heaven's Gate, M. Applewhite and B. Truesdale, claimed to have arrived via UFO from another dimension (a "level above human") and would return via a secretive "Process", which was taught to cult members. One of the group's publications, "How To Build A U.F.O." purported to describe an interplanetary spacecraft built out of materials such as old tires.

The cult's end coincided with the appearance of Comet Hale-Bopp in 1997. In 2007, Applewhite convinced thirty-eight followers to commit suicide so that their souls could take a ride on a spaceship that they believed was hiding behind the comet carrying Jesus. All 39 were dressed in identical black shirts and sweat pants, brand new black-and-white Nike tennis shoes, and armband patches reading "Heaven's gate away team".

Aum Shinrikyo

Aum Shinrikyo was a Japanese religious group created by Shoko Asahara. In 1995 the group was reported as having 9,000 members in Japan, and as many as 40,000 worldwide. The core of Aum doctrine are Buddhist scriptures included in the Pali Canon of Theravada Buddhism.

The cult started attracting controversy in the late 1980's with accusations of deception of recruits, and of holding cult members against their will and forcing members to donate money. A murder of a cult member who tried to leave is now known to have taken place in February 1989. The cult is known to have considered assassinations of several individuals critical of the cult.

On the morning of 20th March 1995, Aum members released Sarin gas in a coordinated attack on five trains in the Tokyo subway system, killing 12 commuters, seriously harming 54 and affecting 980 more. Prosecutors allege that Asahara was tipped off about planned police raids on cult facilities by an insider, and ordered an attack in central Tokyo to divert attention away from the group. At the cult's headquarters in Kamikuishiki on the foot of Mount Fuji, police found explosives, chemical weapons and biological warfare agents, such as anthrax and Ebola cultures, and a Russian MIL Mi-17 military helicopter. There were stockpiles of chemicals which could be used for producing enough Sarin gas to kill four million people. After Asahara's arrest and trial, the cult re-grouped under the new name of Aleph in February 2000.

Creativity Movement
"Inferior colored races are our deadly enemies"

The Creativity Movement is a racialist, and White-supremacist organization that advocates a "White Religion" called Creativity. Though "Anti-Christian" in a contemporary sense, the Creativity Movement is a surrogate of Positive Christianity, and is guided by elements of a pseudo-Christian racial Manichaeanism. The group also denies the Holocaust, embraces racial neo-eugenics with a religious mission that is dedicated to the "survival, expansion and advancement of the White Race exclusively."

The organization was initially founded as the Church of the Creator by Ben Klassen in early 1973. In the summer of 1993, Klassen committed suicide. It was later led by Matthew F. Hale until his incarceration on January 8, 2003 for plotting with FBI informant Anthony Evola to murder a federal judge. On July 22, 2002, two members of the organization were found guilty in federal court of plotting to blow up Jewish and Black landmarks around Boston, in what prosecutors said was a scheme to spark a "racial holy war."

Some of the "16 Commandments of Creativity": It is our sacred goal to populate the lands of this earth with White people exclusively.

Inferior colored races are our deadly enemies, and that the most dangerous of all is the Jewish race.

Destroy and banish all Jewish thought and influence from society.

The Body of Christ
Founder's son was not fed and died; they were "waiting for a sign from God to feed him"

The Body of Christ is a small authoritarian group that relies on "direct revelation" and not the Bible for its direction. This small cult has been in the news because it is believed that two children have died unnecessarily. Samuel Robidoux, the ten month old son of the cult founder's son, Jacques, died of malnutrition. He was not fed because they were waiting for a sign from God to feed him. Rebecca Corneau's child, Jeremiah, died shortly after childbirth reportedly due to the lack of basic medical care. Corneau is now eight and one half months pregnant (as of September, 15th, 2000) and the courts have intervened to try to protect it. The American Civil Liberties Union and other Pro-Choice Advocates worry that this case might set a dangerous legal precedent by showing more concern for an unborn child than the wishes of the mother.

Former member Dennis Mingo left the group after ten years, and gave a diary that described the deaths of the two children to police. Despite months of effort, police have not been able to locate the children's bodies. The group denounces the ''seven systems'' of mainstream society, including education, government, banking, religion, medicine, science and entertainment. Consequently, members of the group have refused to cooperate with all authorities and have refused legal counsel. They have even refused to assert their basic constitutional right against self-incrimination. This Millennial group expects the world will erupt in violence and turmoil at any moment, and that they alone will be saved.

The Church of Maradona

Iglesia Maradoniana (Spanish "Maradonian Church") was created by fans of the retired Argentine football player Diego Maradona, who they believe to be the best player of all time. It was founded on October 30, 1998 (Maradona's 38th birthday) in the city of Rosario. But it wasn't until the year of 2001 that they had their first gathering. They now reportedly count 80,000 members from more than 60 countries around the world.

It could be seen as a type of syncretism. It's clear that the passion between the different members is what glues them together. Supporters of the Maradonian Church, supposedly from all parts of the world, count the years since Maradona's birth in 1960. It is popular, among the followers of this religion (and also among other football fans), the use of the neo-Tetragrammaton D10S as one of the names of Maradona: D10S is a portmanteau word which fuses 10 (diez in Spanish), Maradona's shirt number, and dios, the Spanish word for god.

The Religious Obsessed

Accused Murderer, Decapitator & Cannibal; Vince Li
Winnipeg, Canada March 04, 2009

Vince Weiguang Li, who immigrated to Canada from China in 2004, is charged with second-degree murder while riding a bus  in last Wednesday's slaying of 22-year-old carnival worker Tim McLean -- an attack which witnesses aboard the bus said appeared to be unprovoked. He has yet to enter a plea.

WINNIPEG — He claims voices in his head from God caused him to single out a perfect stranger, stab him multiple times and then decapitate, defile and cannibalize the body in front of dozens of horrified witnesses. But despite committing one of the most gruesome crimes in Canadian history, Vincent Li could be rehabilitated enough to return to the streets one day, according to his doctor. It's an assessment that's frustrating members of Tim McLean's family, who were in court Tuesday to see the man accused of brutally killing their 22-year-old son. Psychiatrist Stanley Yaren told Li's second-degree murder trial the admitted killer has a very strong chance to recover from the major mental illness and extreme psychosis that triggered last summer's slaying of McLean on board a Greyhound bus. He said he could make a significant recovery in the next few years under rigorous treatment and medication. (Oh yeah, give this sick fuck a second chance, but what about the young 22 year old man that was murdered, beheaded and cannibalized in his sleep...does he get a second chance...The murderer is sick and so are those wanting to rehabilitate this lunatic) MS. 09-08-07

Officers at the scene of the bus attack discovered a plastic bag containing an ear, nose and part of a mouth in Li's pocket, according to a police report submitted by prosecutor Joyce Dalmyn as evidence supporting a request for the psychological test.

Solar Temple: killed a baby who was "the Anti-Christ"

 The Order of the Solar Temple was a secret society based upon the new age myth of the continuing existence of the Knights Templar. According to historians, OTS was started by Joseph Di Mambro and Luc Jouret in 1984 in Geneva. The two convinced their followers that they were members of the 14th Century Christian Order of the Knights Templar during a previous life, and that Di Mambro's daughter Emanuelle was "the cosmic child", and that she was the result of a virgin birth. She would lead them after death to a planet which was said to orbit around the star Sirius, but in order to do so they would have to die in a fire, as was prophesied for the end of the world.

In October 1994 an infant, aged three months, was killed at the group's centre in Morin Heights, Quebec. The baby had been stabbed repeatedly with a wooden stake. It is believed that Di Mambro ordered the murder, because he identified the baby as the Anti-Christ described in the Bible. He believed that the Anti-Christ was born into the cult in order to prevent Di Mambro from succeeding in his spiritual aim.

A few days later, Di Mambro and twelve followers performed a ritual Last Supper. A few days after that, apparent mass suicides and murders were conducted at two villages in Switzerland, and at Morin Heights — 15 inner circle members committed suicide with poison, 30 were killed by bullets or smothering, and 8 others were killed by other causes. Many of the bodies when found were drugged, possibly to prevent the members from objecting. The buildings were then set on fire by timer devices, purportedly as one last symbol of the group's purification. In western Switzerland, 48 members of a sect died in another apparent mass murder-suicide. Many of the victims were found in a secret underground chapel lined with mirrors and other items of Templar symbolism. The bodies were dressed in the order's ceremonial robes and were in a circle, feet together, heads outward, most with plastic bags tied over their heads; they had each been shot in the head. It is believed that the plastic bags were a symbol of the ecological disaster that would befall the human race after the OTS members moved on to Sirius.

How about the Ohio Black Women Cooking her 1 month old baby in a Microwave?

DAYTON, Ohio  —  A prosecutor says an Ohio mother intentionally put her month-old baby in a microwave oven and cooked the child to death. Voices told her to do it!

Assistant Montgomery County prosecutor Daniel Brandt leveled the charge Thursday during closing arguments in the retrial of 28-year-old China Arnold. Her infant daughter, Paris Talley, died in 2005. Brandt says Arnold could have stopped the microwave but didn't.

 Summary. Religion in general is a belief based in the mysteries of doubt and suffering along with the reunification of spirits. This is in itself a bizarre orthodox, as that in a universe without virtual end that an all knowing and all powerful God would exist only for our redemption, but only if we follow a broken script written by people living an isolated existence in a barren world with no science or concepts of physics and then edited a million times by those with desire for control and power, such as church and state. Yet, even today, in a world of science there remains billions of people believing in this paradox. It is definitely a basic primitive human desire of self-redemption in some archaic belief that we are worthy of universal love, eternal life and bliss. We have been taught to believe that we are the center of the universe and are unique. As that we are the only species on the planet with self awareness...wouldn't that explain, at least to a few, why the weak cling to these beliefs? (If there were a God he would come down and give the planet a shot of antibiotics to get rid of us!) MS. 07-26-09

Religious or just nuts?

San Antonio, Texas; On July 26, 2009; A Spanish Mother Kills, Beheads and Cannibalizes her 3 1/2 week old son!

By PAUL J. WEBER, Associated Press Writer Paul J. Weber, Associated Press Writer –

SAN ANTONIO TEXAS – The father of a newborn baby who was allegedly mutilated, killed and cannibalized by his mother says he wants to see her executed for her crimes.

Scott W. Buchholtz told The Associated Press on Tuesday that Otty Sanchez, the mother of 3 1/2-week-old Scotty Wesley Buchholtz-Sanchez, seemed fine in the days before the killing even though she had told him she had been diagnosed with postpartum depression and was going to be admitted to a hospital for depression.

Relatives of Sanchez say she had been diagnosed with schizophrenia and postpartum psychosis. Buchholtz says he, too, has been diagnosed with schizophrenia.

Sanchez has been charged with capital murder and is being held on $1 million bail. She is recovering from self-inflicted stab wounds at a hospital

Officers called to Sanchez's house at about 5 a.m. Sunday, July 26, 2009 found her sitting on the couch screaming "I killed my baby! I killed my baby!" San Antonio Police Chief William McManus said.

McManus described the crime scene as so grisly that police officers barely spoke to each other while looking through the house.

Sanchez was hospitalized Tuesday with self-inflicted stab wounds and was being held on $1 million bail. Police have said she does not have an attorney. Authorities found the baby with three of his toes chewed off, his face torn away and his head was severed.

Hong Kong man gets life for 'barbaric' murder

 AFP - 07/28/2009

HONG KONG: A Hong Kong man who killed a teenage prostitute before cutting up her body, peeling and flushing her face down a toilet and leaving some of the remains at a butcher’s has been sentenced to life, a judicial spokeswoman said Tuesday. The court heard that Ting dismembered Wong's body, tossed her head in the sea and flushed some of her remains down a toilet in April last year.

Transportation worker Ting Kai-tai, 24, was found guilty by a unanimous verdict at the High Court on Monday of murdering the 16-year-old high school drop-out, a spokeswoman for the Judiciary said.

The judge stated; "It would be no exaggeration to say your conduct was barbaric. You killed a 16-year-old and you disposed of her body in a most horrendous way. The fact we had to sit and listen to what you did was the worst experience ever imaginable,” the judge was quoted as saying in the newspaper.

Ting told police following his arrest last year that he had killed Wong Ka-Mui after having sex with her in his flat in April 2008.

In a bid to hide his crime, Ting spent hours cutting up the body and flushed some pieces down the toilet. He later disposed of Wong's bones in a basket of pig remains at a butcher's stall and dumped her head in the sea.

Ting's lawyer, Finny Chan Fei-nai, told the court at a previous hearing that Ting claimed he had consumed drugs the previous night and that morning, and had passed out before finding Wong dead on the afternoon of April 27.

Testimony at the trial, however, revealed telephone records showing Ting had received a telephone call on his mobile phone that afternoon.

Jailing Ting, Judge Alan Wright described the crime as “barbaric”, English daily The Standard reported.

Foolish beliefs and comments by zealous Christians.

It seems that praying will even heal your car's problems; That explains why so many innocent children die daily around the world...God is busy healing cars and trucks. MS. 07-24-09

Suricou Raven, I wandered around the web site for a while, and under Testimonies found this entry under Healings:

Hello brethren. About a couple months ago, our truck was having strange wear on its tires. A Christian friend, who was a tire expert, concluded that there was a problem with the front-end of the vehicle. So we scheduled an appointment for the Toyota auto shop. After listening to David's testimonies from his Wilderness DVD as well as other UBM testimonies, we decided to command the truck to be healed in the Name of Jesus. Well, soon after this prayer, the Lord reminded me about the appointment I had already made. So, our works needed to follow our faith. I called and cancelled the appointment. We considered it a done deal. Well, yesterday, our friend who originally looked at the tires said that the wear was now gone AND in fact there was smooth wear distribution on the tires. The Lord fixed the front-end perfectly! Our friend was praising the Lord too! What an awesome God we have!!!

So, God heals hives, hay fever, cancer, multiple sclerosis, and uneven tire wear. Amazing. Just. Amazing.

Christian Superstitions! Smoking out the demons...cough...cough! MS. 07-27-09

Purification Ritual using Smudging

Smudging with smudge sticks is one of the best ways to remove negativity, negative forces, and unwanted spirits and energies from your home.

There are many different ways you can perform a smudging ritual or ceremony on your home that is quick, safe, and effective, however this post will go into just one general ritual that basically anyone can do and use as long as they have the proper smudging materials needed to perform it.

Smudge Sticks

The most important thing you will need to begin a smudging ritual for your home will be a smudge stick. Smudge sticks are normally hand made and rolled, and tightly tied together by yarn or string. There many different variations, scents, and herbs that are used in the making of a smudge stick, however, sage is the most common one used because sage is one of the most potent negativity killers out there today and has been for hundreds of years.

Incense Smudging Rituals

Another added benefit you can have while you are performing your smudging ceremony would be to obtain some incense. Incense comes in many different scents and varieties like smudge sticks, including cones, sticks, and pure natural granular incense. Any of the three will do, however we find that the more natural the better. Natural granular incense however will need to be burned different then cone or sticks. If you are going to use granular incense you will need some charcoal and an incense burner. You light the charcoal first outside the incense burner holding the charcoal with a pair of tongs so you don't get burned. Once the charcoal is lit make sure it is smoking regularly and then place it into your incense burner. Next, place your granular incense on top of the charcoal and then if you have some sand, or gravel, or small pebbles, you can place this over the charcoal and the incense in a mound shape but ensure the smoke can rise from it.

Some scents you can use along with your smudge stick for incense would be sage, cedar, banishing, purification, water (element incense), sweet-grass, copal, dragon's blood, and lavender are some of the most effective.

Before you work with your smudge stick, it is best to place whatever incense you are using into each room of the home and let it burn with the windows open if there are windows in that room.

Gemstones

Another tool you can use along side your incense and smudge stick would be some gemstones. Gemstones are a powerful tool in cleansing. The energies within the stones can be potent, and depending on the size of the gemstone (the larger the more energy it will have) you can have an amazing purifying source in the gemstones. Some gemstones for purification and cleansing purposes are quartz, citrine, amethyst, and malachite. If you happen to have enough stones place one into every room of your home along side the incense. If you only have one stone or only have the means to have one, then you can carry it with you while you perform the smudging ritual.

Begin your Smudging Ritual

The first step with this ritual if you have incense in every room would be to light all the incense and make sure they are burning with all the windows you have in your wide open, the curtains and blinds up.

The next step is to make sure your gemstones are in place next to your incense.

Whenever this particular ritual is performed, it is performed during the day, preferably on a sunny day. The sun and light will help you in this ritual to purge the dark energies and negative forces out of the home.

When you have that all completed, the next step is to go to your front door and hold your smudge stick in your dominate hand. Next, light the smudge stick and let it smolder and smoke real good. The best way to light a smudge stick is to use an elongated lighter that you would use to light candles or pilot lights in stoves.

Once your smudge stick is smoldering and smoking really good, keep that lighter on you (and your gemstone if you only have one, keep it in a pocket or in your hand whichever you prefer as long as it is close to you) and begin to walk around the first room closest to your front door. As you walk through each room say a prayer and say it with POWER and STRENGTH. One such prayer to use is:

"Negativity that invades my sacred place
I banish you away with the light of my grace
You have no hold or power here
For I stand and face you with no fear
Be gone forever, for this I will say
This is my sacred place and you will obey"

Again this is just an example, you can use your own or this one, whichever you prefer. Once you are done with that room, go on to the next room, and the next, until every room in your house is fully covered. Ensure that you hit every corner of each room, and make sure the smudge stick is smoldering and smoking. If it begins to die out then relight it with your lighter. You being the smudging ritual at the front door of your home, and you end it at the back door. If you wish once you have finished going from front to back, you can go back through again starting at the back door and then going to the front door.

Closing Your Smudging Ritual

This is important. Properly closing out your ritual can be vital to ensure the energy you put into it worked. For this ritual the proper way to close would be to first put out the smoldering smudge stick or you can let it burn itself out. One way of putting out a smoking smudge stick would be to get an ash tray, or ceramic plate, or something similar and gently dab the lit end onto it like putting out a cigarette. Another way would be to simply place it onto something where it won't fall and let it burn out on its own (they usually do).

Once your smudge stick is out, let your incense burn out on its own naturally. If you are using gemstones an idea to close the ritual with even more positive energy would be to take an altar bell(or any bell if you have one) and gently ring it right above the stone. The ringing of the bell will send vibrations into the stone and this will trigger the gemstone to release it's energies into the room. If you do not have an altar bell, you can get a glass and a fork and gently ding the glass with the fork over the gemstone as well.

If you do not have gemstones in every room and only have the one you were carrying around with you, take the gemstone and perform the above with the chiming technique and then place the stone by your bed or under your pillow.

If you have performed everything mentioned within this post you will have yourself one purified and blessed home for quite a while. You can re-do this ritual every six months or as needed. The incense and stones are just extra benefits to the ritual, however the smudge stick is essential. If you cannot or do not want to use the incense or gemstones, ensure you walk through your home and say the prayer with your smudge stick as mentioned.

Spanish Castilian Empire

History 1450-1789: Spanish Colonies

A Self-Righteous Spread of Religious Terrorism

Toledo, Spain

The skyline of Toledo, Spain, at sunset, with the Alcázar on the left and Cathedral on the right. The city, a UNESCO World Heritage Site, is the capital of the province of Toledo and of the autonomous community of Castile-La Mancha. It is one of the former capitals of the Spanish Empire and a place of coexistence of Christian, Jewish and Moorish cultures.

In 1513, Balboa crossed the Isthmus of Panama, and led the first European expedition to see the Pacific Ocean from the west coast of the New World. In an action with enduring historical import, Balboa claimed the Pacific Ocean and all the lands adjoining it for the Spanish Crown.


 

 

 

 


Religious Totalitarianism
 theodius

Theodosius I
The Christian monarch who introduced the world to religious totalitarianism.
"The first Spanish Inquisitor"

 


 


The Origins of The Spanish Empire
1402 to 1521

19th Enero 2009 by admin

The Spanish Empire was established most notably to the Americas, then spread to Africa and Asia Pacific with the expansion of the Spanish Empire between the fifteenth and nineteenth centuries.

Why was it considered necessary for the Spanish Crown to justify and legitimize the conquest of the Americas and what arguments and means did it employ for this purpose? In the name of their religion, the Spaniards killed, tortured and murdered millions of the SA. natives and did so with callousness and self-righteousness. The high fatality does not include the millions dead from the Spaniards infectious diseases.

At this time in history every colonial country needed an idea to base its conquest and Spain was no different. The ideology behind the Spanish conquest of the Americas was the spread of Catholicism, while stealing land and resources. This fantasized belief in the conversion of the Indians is what drove the Spanish to conquer, settle and govern the New World.

The Castilians modeled their Catholic empire on the Holy Roman Empire of old. They viewed themselves as successors to the Romans. The Castilians regarded themselves as the superior race, who were on a divine mission to achieve a universal Catholic empire. The Castilians felt obligated to extend the faith and conveniently this proved to justify their colonization of the Americas. They understood that by giving the natives the protection of the crown, they would lead a better life. This better life would also arise due to the absence of slavery and the spiritual guidance provided for those "ignorant of Christianity."

If the spreading of the faith was the sole reason for the conquest of the Americas then we must understand how religion was spread. The devout Castilia.

The Spanish Crown had great ecclesiastical power in the newly conquered kingdom. The influx of bureaucratic control gives the illusion that the Spanish were running a civil society and had tamed the �barbaric� Aztec and Inca races. This made the whole exercise pointless in practice but perfect in the Castilians view of fairness. Was this to protect Spanish or Amerindian interests? In truth it helped the natives little, while benefited the Spanish as it provided stability which encouraged other colonists to venture and colonize the Americas.

(Left-Religious Painting/Execution of the Comuneros of Castile)

Further justification arose from the Spanish substituting a diet of human flesh with that of beef, pork, chicken and mutton. These councils had strong judicial and executive authority. This is a contributing factor to the massive decline in population in America due to disease, colonial savagery and war.

This socio-economic viewpoint enables us to see that the Castilians hid their true mission under the arguments of civil and social reform. If this was without the force and mindless pillaging of the land, it would be a legitimate theory.

Did the Spanish Crown wish to use legislative foundations to their conquest to ensure protection against dissident conquistadors? This question is based around morals, loyalty and trust. Unfortunately, I feel this is the case for the Castilians. The Royal Crown put forward "The Requirement" which was a legal obligation and had to be read before battle.

In my opinion the ideology of religious conversions as the basis of conquest is a sound idea considering the savagery of the natives religion. This form of taxation was justified by the need to finance the spread of Catholicism. This legislature clearly did not aid the natives against the ruthless warfare yet merely showed Spanish ignorance.

Having lived and traveled throughout South America I am fully aware of this time in history. I visited every museum and library, heard the tales, read the old Spanish memoirs and learned of their cruelty towards the simple natives of the 14th and 15th century. The Spaniards would force the young native children to watch their supplies and if caught dozing they would have their eyelid cut off...so as never to do so again. Rape, incense, murder, slavery, thievery and mayhem...all carried out in the name of Jesus. They also made necklaces from the nipples of young local girls. MS. 06-18-08

By what right did Castile lay claim to the sovereignty over the Americas? Religion and cruelty. The very sad conclusion is that there was never a conclusion...Central and South America are still bearing the extremely heavy weight of the Catholic Cross. MS. 07-30-09

Did you know that Venezuela was named by one of Columbus' men that thought the coastline villages and homes on stilts reminded him of Venice...thus...Venezuela.

Insurrection Within The Church

Picture on left; On June 28, 1578, five Catholic monks were burnt to death in Ghent for homosexuality. The five holy men being prepared for execution, in this drawing by Franz Hogenberg.

At our scene in the Spanish-controlled Low Countries, the revolt that would become known as the Eighty Years’ War and secure Dutch independence still had about 70 of those years to run.

Stadtholder William of Orange, aka William the Silent, has his hands full with the Habsburg forces determined to crush their disobedient subjects.

Half civil war, half proto-nationalist revolution, this conflict overlaid disputes over both political and religious authority, complicated by a catastrophic Spanish bankruptcy.

Of this compelling history much beyond our scope, the piece of most moment for our unfortunate monks was a grudging agreement to chill out the sectional suppression as part of a temporary truce between the warring sides. Said “slackening of persecution inspired Reformed public worship and attempts to topple the Catholic stewpot.”

Late in 1577, a political coup in the commercial powerhouse of Ghent did just that, part of a mini-Renaissance of Calvinist city-republics that Spanish arms would truncate in the 1580’s. But here in the 1570’s, the newly elevated slate of Calvinists implemented a “Reform” agenda that included aggressive moves against Catholic authority.

On 18-22 May [1578], the Reformed launched an attack on the four mendicant monasteries. Their churches were purified and made ready for Reformed worship. On 1 June the first public preaching was organized in the Dominican and Carmelite churches.

Rumors of homosexuality in the religious orders swept the overheated city (assuming they were not put about intentionally), and this day opened a summer’s terror that saw 14 monks burned for the love that dare not speak its name.

Kenneth Borris translates the inscription on the Franz Hogenberg image linked above thus: “Fve monks are being burned in Flanders, in the city of Ghent. Four are Franciscans (Minnenbruder*) and the fifth Augustinian. Also three have been quickly flogged with switches on the market square as they deserve, because of their outrageous sexual offenses (unzuchtt) that greatly offended the authorities. That is why the four mendicant orders have now been driven out of Ghent.”

William the Silent, made of more statesmanlike stuff than these zealots, would actually enter Ghent himself the next year to disarm the ruling clique, realizing that firebrands were driving Catholic cities back into Spanish arms.

But he could not contain the schism. Spain ultimately kept the Catholic-leaning territories that today comprise Luxembourg and Belgium (including Ghent), while the Protestant Netherlands fought onward to independence.

* “Minnenbroder,” Borris explains, “may be a satiric pun on the word minne (which had come to mean debauchery), suggesting ‘brothers in lust’ as opposed to brotherly love. Hogenberg connects sodomy with ‘godlessness,’ as was common.”

Spain's S. America Catholicism Cont'.

1781: Tupac Amaru II, Incan insurgency against The Castillo's

On this date in 1781, the last name in Incan rebellion met a horrible end in the ancient Incan capital of Cusco.

Picture on right of; José Gabriel Condorcanqui, rechristened Tupac Amaru II, as he was a distant descendant of the last Incan king — was a member of the privileged indigenous population depended upon by the Spanish to administer the forced and extorted labor that made its New World empire worth having.

(Pic. on left, the execution of of both Tupac Amaru and his wife and family)

Condorcanqui evidently had an epiphany. In November 1780, he launched a well-planned rebellion by engineering the public execution of a hated corregidor Antonio de Arriaga at the hands of his own servant.

“From this day, no longer shall the Spanish feast on our poverty!”

This attention-grabbing entry onto the political chessboard was followed with an exemplary victory over Spanish forces. His revolt rapidly metastasized into an ethno-religious crusade, with all the accumulated bitterness of the Indians’ two-plus centuries maltreatment ferociously visited upon the Spanish. It was a heady moment - but only a moment; within a few months, the Spanish had rallied and Tupac Amaru was betrayed into their hands.

The rebel had seized Incan symbology for his own purposes — speaking at ancient shrines, for instance — and the Spanish sentence against him included not only the inevitably horrific execution (of both Tupac Amaru and his wife and family) but a comprehensive and explicit programme of cultural annihilation to consign the Incan identity to the past. This lengthy sentence is well worth the read.

The Eventual Fall of the Spanish Empire;

The Spanish Empire (Spanish: Imperio Español) was one of the largest empires in world history, and one of the first global empires. It included territories and colonies in Europe, the Americas, Africa, Asia and Oceania, from the 15th century through - in the case of its African holdings - the latter portion of the 20th century. Spain had emerged as a unified monarchy in 1492 following the reconquista of the Iberian peninsula; that very year, Christopher Columbus commanded the first Spanish exploratory voyage across the Atlantic Ocean, leading to Europe's eventual colonial engagement with the Americas. The Western Hemisphere thereby became the focus of this new Spanish Empire.

During the Age of Discovery, Spain began to settle the Caribbean islands and conquistadors soon toppled native empires such as the Aztecs and Incas on mainland America. Later expeditions established an empire that stretched from present-day Canada in North America to Tierra del Fuego in South America. The Spanish expedition of world circumnavigation started by Ferdinand Magellan in 1519, and completed by Juan Sebastian Elcano in 1522, achieved what Columbus had longed for, a westward route to Asia, and brought the Far East to Spain's attention, where it established colonies in Guam, the Philippines and surrounding islands. During its Siglo de Oro, the Spanish Empire comprised the Netherlands, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Italy, parts of Germany, parts of France, territories in Africa, Asia and Oceania, as well as large areas in the Americas. By the 17th century Spain controlled an empire on a scale and world distribution that had never been approached by its predecessors.

Trade flourished across the Atlantic between Spain and her colonies; all kinds of goods including precious metals from America were brought back to Spain in annual galleon fleets. The Manila Galleon also linked the Philippines to America through regular convoys across the Pacific. Much of the Spanish trade was used to strengthen the Spanish Navy and protect the Spanish realms in Europe and the Mediterranean. Some of Spain's European possessions were given up at the conclusion of the War of the Spanish Succession in 1713, but it retained its vast overseas empire.

The French occupation of Spain in 1808 under Napoleon cut off its American colonies temporarily, and a number of independence movements between 1810 and 1825 resulted in a chain of newly independent Latin American republics in South and Central America. The remainder of Spain's then–four hundred year empire, namely Cuba, Puerto Rico, the Philippines, and the Spanish East Indies, continued under Spanish control until the end of the 19th century, when most of these territories were annexed by the United States after the Spanish-American War. The remaining Pacific islands were sold to Germany in 1899.

By the early 20th century Spain only held territories in Africa, namely Spanish Guinea, Spanish Sahara and Spanish Morocco. Spain withdrew from Morocco in 1956 and granted independence to Equatorial Guinea in 1968. When Spain abandoned Spanish Sahara in 1976, the colony was annexed by Morocco and Mauritania at first, and wholly by Morocco in 1980, though according to the United Nations it is still technically under Spanish administration. Today, the Canary Islands and two enclaves on the North African coast, Ceuta, and Melilla, are administrative divisions of Spain.

Caucasian Turks

In ancient times, it was known as Turan (by the Caucasian Turks) and Tolan or Tulan (by the Mongol or Hunnish Turks).

The following pictures of gold artifacts, which archeologists recently uncovered in Bulgaria, give an indication of how highly Central Asia was in ancient times. As you look at these pictures, keep in mind that they date from 6,000 B.C.- one thousand years before Noah and the Great Flood!

 

[Above photos;. The Bulgarian civilization that created these masterpieces of golden artifacts was in its heyday before Egypt was in its infancy-even before Noah and the Great Flood. The people who developed this civilization were known as Kurs (Turks), Turs or Tuls (Turks), and Aryans. Even today, the Turks are known as Kurustan, Turanian, Tulanian, and Ari.]

The Ottoman Empire

The Ottomans are one of the greatest and most powerful civilizations of the modern period. Their moment of glory in the sixteenth century represents one of the heights of human creativity, optimism, and artistry. The empire they built was the largest and most influential of the Muslim empires of the modern period, and their culture and military expansion crossed over into Europe. Not since the expansion of Islam into Spain in the eighth century had Islam seemed poised to establish a European presence as it did in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Like that earlier expansion, the Ottomans established an empire over European territory and established Islamic traditions and culture that last to the current day (the Muslims in Bosnia are the last descendants of the Ottoman presence in Europe).

The Ottoman empire lasted until the twentieth century. While historians like to talk about empires in terms of growth and decline, the Ottomans were a force to be reckoned with, militarily and culturally, right up until the break-up of the empire in the first decades of this century. The real end to the Ottoman culture came with the secularization of Turkey after World War II along European models of government. The transition to a secular state was not an easy one and its repercussions are still being felt in Turkish society today, nevertheless, secularization represents the real break with the Ottoman tradition and heritage.

The Ottoman Empire was a vast state founded in the late 13th century by Turkish tribes in Anatolia and ruled by the descendants of Osman I until its dissolution in 1918. Modern Turkey formed only part of the empire, but the terms ³Turkey² and ³Ottoman Empire² were often used interchangeably.

In 1389, the Turkish Ottoman Empire vanquished a Serb army at the Battle of Kosovo and pushed its borders to Croatia, which was part of the Hungarian empire. Many Serbs and some Croatians converted to Islam under Turkish occupation. Their descendants are ...Once, Serbs and Croatians had neighboring kingdoms along the Adriatic coast. But in 1389, the Turkish Ottoman Empire vanquished a Serb army at the Battle of Kosovo and pushed its borders to Croatia, which was part of the Hungarian empire. Many Serbs and some Croatians converted to Islam under Turkish occupation. Their descendants are today's Bosnian Muslims. By the early 19th century, Serb fighters had expelled most Ottoman forces from their territory and formed a new ...

1453 - Islam continued to grow in the east, and at the height of the Turkish Ottoman empire, Constantinople fell to the them in 1453. Scriptures The Qur'an as revealed to Mohammed is the final revelation of God to mankind, and corrects all errors in the Bible. Islam continued to grow in the east, and at the height of the Turkish Ottoman empire, Constantinople fell to the them in 1453. Scriptures The Qur'an as revealed to Mohammed is the final revelation of God to mankind, and corrects all errors in the Bible. Tradition has it that people wrote down the words of the prophet on leather, stones, wood and even the shoulder blades of camels. Soon after Mohammed's death there were no less than five collections of his sayings in use.

1517 - Salah ad-Din enlisted Mamluks (Turkish mercenaries), but they ended up overthrowing his dynasty and ruled for two and a half centuries before Egypt fell to the Turks in 1517. Since most of the Mamluks were of Turkish descent, the Turkish Ottoman sultans, based ...Salah ad-Din enlisted Mamluks (Turkish mercenaries), but they ended up overthrowing his dynasty and ruled for two and a half centuries before Egypt fell to the Turks in 1517. Since most of the Mamluks were of Turkish descent, the Turkish Ottoman sultans, based in Constantinople, largely left the Mamluks alone, as long as they paid their taxes.

Oct 7, 1571 - The Battle of Lepanto was fought between the Holy League, a coalition of Catholic Mediterranean states, and the Turkish Ottoman Empire on 7th October 1571. The Holy League force, led by Don Juan de Austria (1547-78), were victorious against the Ottoman ...The Battle of Lepanto was fought between the Holy League, a coalition of Catholic Mediterranean states, and the Turkish Ottoman Empire on 7th October 1571. The Holy League force, led by Don Juan de Austria (1547-78), were victorious against the Ottoman force including Barbary Corsairs led by Muezzinzade Ali Pasha. This was the last great sea battle involving oared vessels and the largest battle of galleys since Actium in 30BC. Casualties: 8000 Christians, 25000 Turks.

1683 - From the 15th-19th centuries, the Austrian Habsburg and Turkish Ottoman Empires competed for dominance in Europe. In 1683, the Ottomans besieged Vienna, the Habsburg capital. The Viennese sent Georg Kolschitzky to the Habsburg troops who forced an Ottoman ...From the 15th-19th centuries, the Austrian Habsburg and Turkish Ottoman Empires competed for dominance in Europe. In 1683, the Ottomans besieged Vienna, the Habsburg capital. The Viennese sent Georg Kolschitzky to the Habsburg troops who forced an Ottoman retreat. When asked to name his reward, Kolschitzky requested bags of strange beans the Turks had abandoned. Kolschitzky had traveled in the East and knew that these were coffee beans. And so the “Blue Bottle” opened ...

Mar 25, 1821 - In all, 31 colorful groups marched, and city police estimated that more than 10000 observers turned out for the parade commemorating Greece's independence from the Turkish Ottoman Empire on March 25, 1821. Sponsored by the Philadelphia Federation of American. In all, 31 colorful groups marched, and city police estimated that more than 10000 observers turned out for the parade commemorating Greece's independence from the Turkish Ottoman Empire on March 25, 1821. Sponsored by the Philadelphia Federation of American Hellenic Societies, the annual, daylong celebration began with a church service at the St. George Greek Orthodox Cathedral on Eighth Street and concluded with speeches and Greek folk dances in a Greek Freedom ...
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1878 - When Austrians took over the Turkish Ottoman Empire in 1878, they found many cases of people disinterring and burning people as vampires. Vampires were also blamed for diseases that swept through villages. "The first person to die was designated as a vampire ...Conrad said. "The body had to be burned, as well as succeeding victims who were considered to be infested with the vampire's condition." The lore of vampires lives on through movies, books and TV shows.

1914 - When World War I began in 1914, the Turkish Ottoman Empire joined with Germany. The only way the British could get Arab help in defeating the Turks was to promise them freedom when it was all over. This was where Lawrence of Arabia came on the scene and ...helped the Arabs and allies to defeat the Turks. Lawrence was much in favor of the Arabs ruling themselves. The British and French politicians agreed as long as they could appoint the kings and draw the boundaries.

1915 - Ambassador Sonmez Koksal was withdrawn in January, shortly after the French parliament passed a bill asserting that the Turkish Ottoman Empire had committed genocide in 1915. In a further sign of anger, Turkey cancelled a number of contracts with French companies, including a lucrative airports contract. "Turkish-French relations have been hurt by this incident," Mr. Koksal told reporters at Istanbul's Ataturk airport, before flying out to France on Sunday.

Jun 3, 1923 - The Allies want the Turks to put in the treaty the declaration that Turkey confirms the decree of Muharrem of IfeSO. recognizing all the obligations .of the Ottoman debt, but Ismet Pasha is not inclined to do this unless the Allies accept a clause offering some relief to the Turkish.

Origins   

The Ottoman state began as one of many small Turkish states that emerged in Asia Minor during the breakdown of the empire of the Seljuk Turks. The Ottoman Turks began to absorb the other states, and during the reign (1451-81) of Muhammad II they ended all other local Turkish dynasties. The early phase of Ottoman expansion took place under Osman I, Orkhan , Murad I , and Beyazid I at the expense of the Byzantine Empire, Bulgaria, and Serbia. Bursa fell in 1326 and Adrianople (the modern Edirne ) in 1361; each in turn became the capital of the empire. The great Ottoman victories of Kosovo (1389) and Nikopol (1396) placed large parts of the Balkan Peninsula under Ottoman rule and awakened Europe to the Ottoman danger. The Ottoman siege of Constantinople was lifted at the appearance of Timur , who defeated and captured Beyazid in 1402. The Ottomans, however, soon rallied.

The Period of Great Expansion 

The empire, reunited by Muhammad I , expanded victoriously under Muhammad's successors Murad II and Muhammad II . The victory (1444) at Varna over a crusading army led by Ladislaus III of Poland was followed in 1453 by the capture of Constantinople . Within a century the Ottomans had changed from a nomadic horde to the heirs of the most ancient surviving empire of Europe. Their success was due partly to the weakness and disunity of their adversaries, partly to their excellent and far superior military organization. Their army comprised numerous Christians not only conscripts, who were organized as the corps of Janissaries , but also volunteers. Turkish expansion reached its peak in the 16th cent. under Selim I and Suleyman I (Sulayman the Magnificent).

The Hungarian defeat (1526) at Mohács prepared the way for the capture (1541) of Buda and the absorption of the major part of Hungary by the Ottoman Empire; Transylvania became a tributary principality, as did Walachia and Moldavia . The Asian borders of the empire were pushed deep into Persia and Arabia. Selim I defeated the Mamluks of Egypt and Syria , took Cairo in 1517, and assumed the succession to the caliphate . Algiers was taken in 1518, and Mediterranean commerce was threatened by corsairs, such as Barbarossa , who sailed under Turkish auspices. Most of the Venetian and other Latin possessions in Greece also fell to the sultans.

During the reign of Sulayman I began (1535) the traditional friendship between France and Turkey, directed against Hapsburg Austria and Spain. Sulayman reorganized the Turkish judicial system, and his reign saw the flowering of Turkish literature, art, and architecture. In practice the prerogatives of the sultan were limited by the spirit of Muslim canonical law ( sharia ), and he usually shared his authority with the chief preserver ( sheyhülislam ) of the sharia and with the grand vizier (chief executive officer).

In the progressive decay that followed Sulayman's death, the clergy ( ulema ) and the Janissaries gained power and exercised a profound, corrupting influence. The first serious blow by Europe to the empire was the naval defeat of Lepanto (1571; see Lepanto, battle of ), inflicted on the fleet of Selim II by the Spanish and Venetians under John of Austria. However, Murad IV in the 17th cent. temporarily restored Turkish military prestige by his victory (1638) over Persia. Crete was conquered from Venice, and in 1683 a huge Turkish army under Grand Vizier Kara Mustafa surrounded Vienna. The relief of Vienna by John III of Poland and the subsequent campaigns of Charles V of Lorraine, Louis of Baden , and Eugene of Savoy ended in negotiations in 1699 (see Karlowitz, Treaty of ), which cost Turkey Hungary and other territories. Decline   

The breakup of the state gained impetus with the Russo-Turkish Wars in the 18th cent. Egypt was only temporarily lost to Napoleon's army, but the Greek War of Independence and its sequels, the Russo-Turkish War of 1828-29 (see Adrianople, Treaty of ), and the war with Muhammad Ali of Egypt resulted in the loss of Greece and Egypt, the protectorate of Russia over Moldavia and Walachia, and the semi-independence of Serbia. Drastic reforms were introduced in the late 18th and early 19th cent. by Selim III and Mahmud II , but they came too late. By the 19th cent. Turkey was known as the Sick Man of Europe.

Through a series of treaties of capitulation from the 16th to the 18th cent. the Ottoman Empire gradually lost its economic independence. Although Turkey was theoretically among the victors in the Crimean War , it emerged from the war economically exhausted. The Congress of Paris (1856) recognized the independence and integrity of the Ottoman Empire, but this event marked the confirmation of the empire's dependency rather than of its rights as a European power.

The rebellion (1875) of Bosnia and Hercegovina precipitated the Russo-Turkish War of 1877-78, in which Turkey was defeated despite its surprisingly vigorous stand. Romania (i.e., Walachia and Moldavia), Serbia, and Montenegro were declared fully independent, and Bosnia and Hercegovina passed under Austrian administration. Bulgaria, made a virtually independent principality, annexed (1885) Eastern Rumelia with impunity.

Sultan Abd al-Majid , who in 1839 issued a decree containing an important body of civil reforms, was followed (1861) by Abd al-Aziz , whose reign witnessed the rise of the liberal party. Its leader, Midhat Pasha , succeeded in deposing (1876) Abd al-Aziz. Abd al-Hamid II acceded (1876) after the brief reign of Murad V. A liberal constitution was framed by Midhat, and the first Turkish parliament opened in 1877, but the sultan soon dismissed it and began a rule of personal despotism. The Armenian massacres (see Armenia ) of the late 19th cent. turned world public opinion against Turkey. Abd al-Hamid was victorious in the Greco-Turkish war of 1897, but Crete, which had been the issue, was ultimately gained by Greece.

The Muslim Invasion of India & The Magnitude of Their Atrocities

(Ghazanavi to Amir Timur)


The world famous historian, Will Durant has written in his Story of Civilisation that "the Mohammedan conquest of India was probably the bloodiest story in history".

India before the advent of Islamic imperialism was not exactly a zone of peace. There were plenty of wars fought by Hindu princes. But in all their wars, the Hindus had observed some time-honoured conventions sanctioned by the Sastras. The Brahmins and the Bhikshus were never molested. The cows were never killed. The temples were never touched. The chastity of women was never violated. The non-combatants were never killed or captured. A human habitation was never attacked unless it was a fort. The civil population was never plundered. War booty was an unknown item in the calculations of conquerors. The martial classes who clashed, mostly in open spaces, had a code of honor. Sacrifice of honor for victory or material gain was deemed as worse than death.

Islamic imperialism came with a different code--the Sunnah of the Prophet. It required its warriors to fall upon the helpless civil population after a decisive victory had been won on the battlefield. It required them to sack and burn down villages and towns after the defenders had died fighting or had fled. The cows, the Brahmins, and the Bhikshus invited their special attention in mass murders of non-combatants. The temples and monasteries were their special targets in an orgy of pillage and arson. Those whom they did not kill, they captured and sold as slaves. The magnitude of the booty looted even from the bodies of the dead, was a measure of the success of a military mission. And they did all this as mujahids (holy warriors) and ghazls (kafir-killers) in the service of Allah and his Last Prophet.

Hindus found it very hard to understand the psychology of this new invader. For the first time in their history, Hindus were witnessing a scene which was described by Kanhadade Prabandha (1456 AD) in the following words:

"The conquering army burnt villages, devastated the land, plundered people's wealth, took Brahmins and children and women of all classes captive, flogged with thongs of raw hide, carried a moving prison with it, and converted the prisoners into obsequious Turks."

That was written in remembrance of Alauddin Khalji's invasion of Gujarat in the year l298 AD. But the gruesome game had started three centuries earlier when Mahmud Ghaznavi had vowed to invade India every year in order to destroy idolatry, kill the kafirs, capture prisoners of war, and plunder vast wealth for which India was well-known.


MAHMUD AND MASOOD GHAZNAVI

In 1000 AD Mahmud defeated Raja Jaipal, a scion of the Hindu Shahiya dynasty of Kabul. This dynasty had been for long the doorkeeper of India in the Northwest. Mahmud collected 250,000 dinars as indemnity. That perhaps was normal business of an empire builder. But in 1004 AD he stormed Bhatiya and plundered the place. He stayed there for some time to convert the Hindus to Islam with the help of mullahs he had brought with him.

In 1008 AD he captured Nagarkot (Kangra). The loot amounted to 70,000,000 dirhams in coins and 700,400 mans of gold and silver, besides plenty of precious stones and embroidered cloths. In 1011 AD he plundered Thanesar which was undefended, destroyed many temples, and broke a large number of idols. The chief idol, that of Chakraswamin, was taken to Ghazni and thrown into the public square for defilement under the feet of the faithful. According to Tarikh-i-Yamini of Utbi, Mahmud's secretary,

"The blood of the infidels flowed so copiously [at Thanesar] that the stream was discolored, notwithstanding its purity, and people were unable to drink it. The Sultan returned with plunder which is impossible to count. Praise he to Allah for the honor he bestows on Islam and Muslims."

In 1013 AD Mahmud advanced against Nandana where the Shahiya king, Anandapal, had established his new capital. The Hindus fought very hard but lost. Again, the temples were destroyed, and innocent citizens slaughtered. Utbi provides an account of the plunder and the prisoners of war:

"The Sultan returned in the rear of immense booty, and slaves were so plentiful that they became very cheap and men of respectability in their native land were degraded by becoming slaves of common shopkeepers. But this is the goodness of Allah, who bestows honor on his own religion and degrades infidelity."

The road was now clear for an assault on the heartland of Hindustan. In December 1018 AD Mahmud crossed the Yamuna, collected 1,000,000 dirhams from Baran (Bulandshahar), and marched to Mahaban in Mathura district. Utbi records:

    "The infidels...deserted the fort and tried to cross the foaming river...but many of them were slain, taken or drowned... Nearly fifty thousand men were killed."

Mathura was the next victim. Mahmud seized five gold idols weighing 89,300 missals and 200 silver idols. According to Utbi, "The Sultan gave orders that all the temples should be burnt with naptha and fire, and levelled with the ground." The pillage of the city continued for 20 days. Mahmud now turned towards Kanauj which had been the seat of several Hindu dynasties. Utbi continues: "In Kanauj there were nearly ten thousand temples... Many of the inhabitants of the place fled in consequence of witnessing the fate of their deaf and dumb idols. Those who did not fly were put to death. The Sultan gave his soldiers leave to plunder and take prisoners."

The Brahmins of Munj, which was attacked next, fought to the last man after throwing their wives and children into fire. The fate of Asi was sealed when its ruler took fright and fled. According to Utbi, ".... the Sultan ordered that his five forts should be demolished from their foundations, the inhabitants buried in their ruins, and the soldiers of the garrison plundered, slain and captured".

Shrawa, the next important place to be invaded, met the same fate. Utbi concludes:

    "The Muslims paid no regard to the booty till they had satiated themselves with the slaughter of the infidels and worshipers of sun and fire. The friends of Allah searched the bodies of the slain for three days in order to obtain booty...The booty amounted in gold and silver, rubies and pearls nearly to three hundred thousand dirhams, and the number of prisoners may be conceived from the fact that each was sold for two to ten dirhams. These were afterwards taken to Ghazni and merchants came from distant cities to purchase them, so that the countries of Mawaraun-Nahr, Iraq and Khurasan were filled with them, and the fair and the dark, the rich and the poor, were commingled in one common slavery."

Mahmud's sack of Somnath is too well-known to be retold here. What needs emphasizing is that the fragments of the famous Sivalinga were carried to Ghazni. Some of them were turned into steps of the Jama Masjid in that city. The rest were sent to Mecca, Medina, and Baghdad to be desecrated in the same manner.

Mahmud's son Masud tried to follow in the footsteps of his father. In 1037 AD he succeeded in sacking the fort of Hansi which was defended very bravely by the Hindus. The Tarikh-us-Subuktigin records: "The Brahmins and other high ranking men were slain, and their women and children were carried away captive, and all the treasure which was found was distributed among the army."

Masud could not repeat the performance due to his preoccupations elsewhere.


MUHAMMAD GHORI AND HIS LEUTENANTS

Invasion of India by Islamic imperialism was renewed by Muhmmad Ghori in the last quarter of the 12th century. After Prithiviraj Chauhan had been defeated in 1192 AD, Ghori took Ajmer by assault.

According the Taj-ul-Ma'sir of Hasan Nizami, "While the Sultan remained at Ajmer, he destroyed the pillars and foundations of the idol temples and built in their stead mosques and colleges and precepts of Islam, and the customs of the law were divulged and established."

Next year he defeated Jayachandra of Kanauj. A general massacre, rapine, and pillage followed. The Gahadvad treasuries at Asni and Varanasi were plundered. Hasan Nizami rejoices that "in Benares which is the centre of the country of Hind, they destroyed one thousand temples and raised mosques on their foundations".

According to Kamil-ut-Tawarikh of Ibn Asir, "The slaughter of Hindus (at Varanasi) was immense; none were spared except women and children, and the carnage of men went on until the earth was weary."

The women and children were spared so that they could be enslaved and sold all over the Islamic world. It may be added that the Buddhist complex at Sarnath was sacked at this time, and the Bhikshus were slaughtered.

Ghori's lieutenant Qutbuddin Aibak was also busy meanwhile. Hasan Nizami writes that after the suppression of a Hindu revolt at Kol (modern day Aligarh) in 1193 AD, Aibak raised "three bastions as high as heaven with their heads, and their carcases became food for beasts of prey. The tract was freed from idols and idol worship and the foundations of infidelism were destroyed."

In 1194 AD Aibak destroyed 27 Hindu temples at Delhi and built the Quwwat-ul-lslam mosque with their debris. According to Nizami, Aibak "adorned it with the stones and gold obtained from the temples which had been demolished by elephants".

In 1195 AD the Mher tribe of Ajmer rose in revolt, and the Chaulukyas of Gujarat came to their assistance. Aibak had to invite reinforcements from Ghazni before he could meet the challenge. In 1196 AD he advanced against Anahilwar Patan, the capital of Gujarat. Nizami writes that after Raja Karan was defeated and forced to flee, "fifty thousand infidels were dispatched to hell by the sword" and "more than twenty thousand slaves, and cattle beyond all calculation fell into the hands of the victors".

The city was sacked, its temples demolished, and its palaces plundered. On his return to Ajmer, Aibak destroyed the Sanskrit College of Visaladeva, and laid the foundations of a mosque which came to be known as 'Adhai Din ka Jhompada'.

Conquest of Kalinjar in 1202 AD was Aibak's crowning achievement. Nizami concludes: "The temples were converted into mosques... Fifty thousand men came under the collar of slavery and the plain became black as pitch with Hindus."

A free-lance adventurer, Muhammad Bakhtyar Khalji, was moving further east. In 1200 AD he sacked the undefended university town of Odantpuri in Bihar and massacred the Buddhist monks in the monasteries. In 1202 AD he took Nadiya by surprise. Badauni records in his Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh that "property and booty beyond computation fell into the hands of the Muslims and Muhammad Bakhtyar having destroyed the places of worship and idol temples of the infidels founded mosques and Khanqahs".


THE SLAVE (MAMLUK) SULTANS

Shamsuddin Iltutmish who succeeded Aibak at Delhi invaded Malwa in 1234 AD. He destroyed an ancient temple at Vidisha. Badauni reports in his 'Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh':

    "Having destroyed the idol temple of Ujjain which had been built six hundred years previously, and was called Mahakal, he levelled it to its foundations, and threw down the image of Rai Vikramajit from whom the Hindus reckon their era, and brought certain images of cast molten brass and placed them on the ground in front of the doors of mosques of old Delhi, and ordered the people of trample them under foot."

Muslim power in India suffered a serious setback after Iltutmish. Balkan had to battle against a revival of Hindu power. The Katehar Rajputs of what came to be known as Rohilkhand in later history, had so far refused to submit to Islamic imperialism. Balkan led an expedition across the Ganges in 1254 AD. According to Badauni,

    "In two days after leaving Delhi, he arrived in the midst of the territory of Katihar and put to death every male, even those of eight years of age, and bound the women."

But in spite of such wanton cruelty, Muslim power continued to decline till the Khaljis revived it after 1290 AD.


THE KHALJIS

Jalaluddin Khalji led an expedition to Ranthambhor in 1291 AD. On the way he destroyed Hindu temples at Chain. The broken idols were sent to Delhi to be spread before the gates of the Jama Masjid. His nephew Alauddin led an expedition to Vidisha in 1292 AD. According to Badauni in Muntakhab-ut-Tawarikh, Alauddin "brought much booty to the Sultan and the idol which was the object of worship of the Hindus, he caused to be cast in front of the Badaun gate to be trampled upon by the people. The services of Alauddin were highly appreciated, the jagir of Oudh (or Avadh - Central U.P.) also was added to his other estates."

Alauddin became Sultan in 1296 AD after murdering his uncle and father-in-law, Jalaluddin. In 1298 AD he equipped an expedition to Gujarat under his generals Ulugh Khan and Nusrat Khan. The invaders plundered the ports of Surat and Cambay. The temple of Somnath, which had been rebuilt by the Hindus, was plundered and the idol taken to Delhi for being trodden upon by the Muslims. The whole region was subjected to fire and sword, and Hindus were slaughtered en masse. Kampala Devi, the queen of Gujarat, was captured along with the royal treasury, brought to Delhi and forced into Alauddin's harem. The doings of the Malik Naib during his expedition to South India in 1310-1311 AD have already mentioned in earlier parts.


THE TUGHLAQS

Muslim power again suffered a setback after the death of Alauddin Khalji in 1316 AD. But it was soon revived by the Tughlaqs. By now most of the famous temples over the length and breadth of the Islamic occupation in India had been demolished, except in Orissa and Rajasthan which had retained their independence. By now most of the rich treasuries had been plundered and shared between the Islamic state and its swordsmen. Firuz Shah Tughlaq led an expedition to Orissa in 1360 AD. He destroyed the temple of Jagannath at Puri, and desecrated many other Hindu shrines. According to 'Sirat-i-Firoz Shahi' which he himself wrote or dictated,

"Allah who is the only true God and has no other emanation, endowed the king of Islam with the strength to destroy this ancient shrine on the eastern sea-coast and to plunge it into the sea, and after its destruction he ordered the image of Jagannath to be perforated, and disgraced it by casting it down on the ground. They dug out other idols which were worshipped by the polytheists in the kingdom of Jajnagar and overthrew them as they did the image of Jagannath, for being laid in front of the mosques along the path of the Sunnis and the way of the 'musallis' (Muslim congregation for namaz) and stretched them in front of the portals of every mosque, so that the body and sides of the images might be trampled at the time of ascent and descent, entrance and exit, by the shoes on the feet of the Muslims."

After the sack of the temples in Orissa, Firoz Shah Tughlaq attacked an island on the sea-coast where "nearly 100,000 men of Jajnagar had taken refuge with their women, children, kinsmen and relations". The swordsmen of Islam turned "the island into a basin of blood by the massacre of the unbelievers".

A worse fate overtook the Hindu women. Sirat-i-Firuz Shahs records: "Women with babies and pregnant ladies were haltered, manacled, fettered and enchained, and pressed as slaves into service in the house of every soldier."

Still more horrible scenes were enacted by Firuz Shah Tughlaq at Nagarkot (Kangra) where he sacked the shrine of Jvalamukhi. Firishta records that the Sultan "broke the idols of Jvalamukhi, mixed their fragments with the flesh of cows and hung them in nose bags round the necks of Brahmins. He sent the principal idol as trophy to Medina."


THE PROVINCIAL MUSLIM SATRAPS

In 1931 AD the Muslims of Gujarat complained to Nasiruddin Muhammad, the Tughlaq Sultan of Delhi, that the local governor, Kurhat-ul-Mulk, was practising tolerance towards the Hindus. The Sultan immediately appointed Muzzaffar Khan as the new Governor. He became independent after the death of the Delhi Sultan and assumed the title of Muzzaffar Shah in 1392 AD. Next year he led an expidition to Somnath and sacked the temple which the Hindus had built once again. He killed many Hindus to chastise them for this "impudence," and raised a mosque on the site of the ancient temple. The Hindus, however, restarted restoring the temple soon after. In 1401 AD Muzaffar came back with a huge army. He again killed many Hindus, demolished the temple once more, and erected another mosque.

Muzaffar was succeeded by his grandson, Ahmad Shah, in 1411 AD. Three years later Ahmad appointed a special darogah to destroy all temples throughout Gujarat. In 1415 AD Ahmad invaded Sidhpur where he destroyed the images in Rudramahalaya, and converted the grand temple into a mosque. Sidhpur was renamed Sayyadpur.

Mahmud Begrha who became the Sultan of Gujarat in 1458 AD was the worst fanatic of this dynasty. One of his vassals was the Mandalika of Junagadh who had never withheld the regular tribute. Yet in 1469 AD Mahmud invaded Junagadh. In reply to the Mandalika's protests, Mahmud said that he was not interested in money as much as in the spread of Islam. The Mandalika was forcibly converted to Islam and Junagadh was renamed Mustafabad. In 1472 AD Mahmud attacked Dwarka, destroyed the local temples, and plundered the city. Raja Jaya Singh, the ruler of Champaner, and his minister were murdered by Mahmud in cold blood for refusing to embrace Islam after they had been defeated and their country pillaged and plundered. Champaner was renamed Mahmudabad.

Mahmud Khalji of Malwa (1436-69 AD) also destroyed Hindu temples and built mosques on their sites. He heaped many more insults on the Hindus. Ilyas Shah of Bengal (1339-1379 AD) invaded Nepal and destroyed the temple of Svayambhunath at Kathmandu. He also invaded Orissa, demolished many temples, and plundered many places. The Bahmani sultans of Gulbarga and Bidar considered it meritorious to kill a hundred thousand Hindu men, women, and children every year. They demolished and desecrated temples all over South India.


AMlR TIMUR

The climax came during the invasion of Timur in 1399 AD. He starts by quoting the Quran in his Tuzk-i-Timuri: "O Prophet, make war upon the infidels and unbelievers, and treat them severely."

He continues: "My great object in invading Hindustan had been to wage a religious war against the infidel Hindus...[so that] the army of Islam might gain something by plundering the wealth and valuables of the Hindus." To start with he stormed the fort of Kator on the border of Kashmir. He ordered his soldiers "to kill all the men, to make prisoners of women and children, and to plunder and lay waste all their property". Next, he "directed towers to be built on the mountain of the skulls of those obstinate unbelievers". Soon after, he laid siege to Bhatnir defended by Rajputs. They surrendered after some fight, and were pardoned. But Islam did not bind Timur to keep his word given to the "unbelievers". His Tuzk-i-Timuri records:

    "In a short space of time all the people in the fort were put to the sword, and in the course of one hour the heads of 10,000 infidels were cut off. The sword of Islam was washed in the blood of the infidels, and all the goods and effects, the treasure and the grain which for many a long year had been stored in the fort became the spoil of my soldiers. They set fire to the houses and reduced them to ashes, and they razed the buildings and the fort to the ground."

At Sarsuti, the next city to be sacked, "all these infidel Hindus were slain, their wives and children were made prisoners and their property and goods became the spoil of the victors". Timur was now moving through (modern day) Haryana, the land of the Jats. He directed his soldiers to "plunder and destroy and kill every one whom they met". And so the soldiers "plundered every village, killed the men, and carried a number of Hindu prisoners, both male and female".

Loni which was captured before he arrived at Delhi was predominantly a Hindu town. But some Muslim inhabitants were also taken prisoners. Timur ordered that "the Musulman prisoners should be separated and saved, but the infidels should all be dispatched to hell with the proselytizing sword".

By now Timur had captured 100,000 Hindus. As he prepared for battle against the Tughlaq army after crossing the Yamuna, his Amirs advised him "that on the great day of battle these 100,000 prisoners could not be left with the baggage, and that it would be entirely opposed to the rules of war to set these idolators and enemies of Islam at liberty". Therefore, "no other course remained but that of making them all food for the sword".

Tuzk-i-Timuri continues:

    "I proclaimed throughout the camp that every man who had infidel prisoners should put them to death, and whoever neglected to do so should himself be executed and his property given to the informer. When this order became known to the ghazis of Islam, they drew their swords and put their prisoners to death. One hundred thousand infidels, impious idolators, were on that day slain. Maulana Nasiruddin Umar, a counselor and man of learning, who, in all his life, had never killed a sparrow, now, in execution of my order, slew with his sword fifteen idolatrous Hindus, who were his captives."

The Tughlaq army was defeated in the battle that ensued next day. Timur entered Delhi and learnt that a "great number of Hindus with their wives and children, and goods and valuables, had come into the city from all the country round".

He directed his soldiers to seize these Hindus and their property. Tuzk-i-Timuri concludes:

    "Many of them (Hindus) drew their swords and resisted...The flames of strife were thus lighted and spread through the whole city from Jahanpanah and Siri to Old Delhi, burning up all it reached. The Hindus set fire to their houses with their own hands, burned their wives and children in them and rushed into the fight and were killed...On that day, Thursday, and all the night of Friday, nearly 15,000 Turks were engaged in slaying, plundering and destroying. When morning broke on Friday, all my army ...went off to the city and thought of nothing but killing, plundering and making prisoners....The following day, Saturday the 17th, all passed in the same way, and the spoil was so great.that each man secured from fifty to a hundred prisoners, men, women, and children. There was no man who took less than twenty. The other booty was immense in rubies, diamonds, garnets, pearls, and other gems and jewels; ashrafis, tankas of gold and silver of the celebrated Alai coinage: vessels of gold and silver; and brocades and silks of great value. Gold and silver ornaments of Hindu women were obtained in such quantities as to exceed all account. Excepting the quarter of the Saiyids, the Ulama and the other Musulmans, the whole city was sacked.

    Muslim Slaughter of Hindu Afghanistan

    EARLY HISTORY OF HINDU KUSH REGION (UP TO 1000 AD)

    History of Hindu Kush and Punjab shows that two major kingdoms of Gandhaar & Vaahic Pradesh (Balkh of Bactria) had their borders extending far beyond the Hindu Kush. Legend has it that the kingdom of Gandhaar was established by Taksha, grandson of Bharat of Ayodhya (6). Gandhaar's borders extended from Takshashila to Tashkent (corruption of 'Taksha Khand') in the present day Uzbekistan. In the later period, Mahabharat relates Gaandhaari as a princess of Gandhaar and her brother, Shakuni as a prince and later as Gandhaar's ruler.

    In the well documented history, Emperor Chandragupt Maurya took charge of Vaahic Pradesh around 325 BC and then took over Magadh. Emperor Ashok's stone tablets with inscriptions in Greek and Aramaic are still found at Qandahar (corruption of Gandhaar?) and Laghman in eastern Afganistan(3). One such stone tablet, is shown in the PBS TV series 'Legacy with Mark Woods' in episode 3 titled 'India: The Spiritual Empire'. After the fall of Mauryan empire, Gandhaar was ruled by Greeks. However some of these Greek rulers had converted to Buddhism, such as Menander, known to Indian historians as Milinda, while some other Greeks became followers of Vishnav sects (Hinduism)(7). Recent excavations in Bactria have revealed a golden hoard which has among other things a figurine of a Greek goddess with a Hindu mark on its forehead (Bindi) showing the confluence of Hindu-Greek art (8). Later Shaka and KushaaN ruled Gandhaar and Vaahic Pradesh. KushaaN emperor Kanishka's empire stretched from Mathura to the Aral Sea (beyond the present day Uzbekistan, Tajikistan, and Krygzystan)(9).

    Kanishaka was a Buddhist and under KushaaN influence Buddhism flourished in Gandhaar. Two giant sandstone Buddhas carved into the cliffs of Bamian (west of Kabul) date from the Kushan period. The larger Buddha (although defaced in later centuries by Moslem invaders) is about 175 ft tall (10,11). The Kushan empire declined by 450 AD. The Chinese traveller Hsuan-Tsang (Xuan-zang) travelled thru the region in 7 th century AD and visited many Buddhist religious centers (3) including Hadda, Ghazni, Qonduz, Bamian (3,10,11), Shotorak and Bagram. From the 5 th thru 9 th cenury AD Persian Sasanians and Hepthalites ruled Gandhaar. During their rule Gandhaar region was again influenced by Hinduism. The Hindu kings (Shahiya) were concentrated in the Kabul and Ghazni areas. The last Hindu Shahiya king of Kabul, Bhimapal was killed in 1026 AD. The heroic efforts of the Hindu Shahiya Kings to defend the northwestern gates of India against the invaders are described by even al-Biruni, the court historian of Mahmud of Ghazni (12). Some excavated sites of the period include a major Hindu Shahiya temple north of Kabul and a chapel that contains both Buddhist and Hindu images, indicating that there was a mingling of two religions (3).

    Islamic invasions on Afganistan started in 642 AD, but over the next several centuries their effect was marginal and lasted only a short time after each raid. Cities surrendered only to rise in revolt and the hastily converted returned to their old religion (Hinduism or Buddhism) once the Moslem armies had passed (3).

    THUS TILL THE YEAR 1000 AD AFGANISTAN WAS A FULL PART OF HINDU CRADLE.


    HINDU KUSH AND THE HINDU GENOCIDE

    Now Afganistan is a Moslem country. Logically, this means either one or more of the following must have happened:

    a) original residents of Hindu Kush converted to Islam, or
    b) they were slaughtered and the conquerors took over, or
    c) they were driven out.

    Encyclopedia Britannica (3) already informs us above about the resistance to conversion and frequent revolt against to the Moslem conqueror's rule from 8 th thru 11 th Century AD. The name 'Hindu Kush' itself tells us about the fate of the original residents of Gandhaar and Vaahic Pradesh during the later period of Moslem conquests, because HINDU KUSH in Persian MEANS HINDU SLAUGHTER (13) (as per Koenraad Elst in his book 'Ayodhya and After'). Let us look into what other standard references say about Hindu Kush.

    Persian-English dictionary (14) indicates that the word 'Kush' is derived from the verb Kushtar - to slaughter or carnage. Kush is probably also related to the verb Koshtan meaning to kill. In Urdu, the word Khud-kushi means act of killing oneself (khud - self, Kushi- act of killing). Encyclopedia Americana comments on the Hindu Kush as follows: The name Hindu Kush means literally 'Kills the Hindu', a reminder of the days when (Hindu) SLAVES from Indian subcontinent died in harsh Afgan mountains while being transported to Moslem courts of Central Asia (15). The National Geographic Article 'West of Khyber Pass' informs that 'Generations of raiders brought captive Hindus past these peaks of perpetual snow. Such bitter journeys gave the range its name Hindu Kush - "Killer of Hindus"'(10). The World Book Encyclopedia informs that the name Kush, .. means Death ..(16). While Encyclopedia Britannica says 'The name Hindu Kush first appears in 1333 AD in the writings of Ibn Battutah, the medieval Berber traveller, who said the name meant 'Hindu Killer', a meaning still given by Afgan mountain dwellers who are traditional enemies of Indian plainsmen (i.e. Hindus)(2). However, later the Encyclopedia Britannica gives a negationist twist by adding that 'more likely the name is a corruption of Hindu-Koh meaning Hindu mountains'. This is unlikely, since the term Koh is used in its proper, uncorrupted form for the western portion of Hindu Kush, viz. Koh-i-Baba, for the region Swat Kohistan, and in the names of the three peaks of this range, viz. Koh-i-Langer, Koh-i-Bandakor, and Koh-i-Mondi. Thus to say that corruption of term Koh to Kush occurred only in case of Hindu Kush is merely an effort to fit in a deviant observation to a theory already proposed. In science, a theory is rejected if it does not agree with the observations, and not the other way around. Hence the latter negationist statement in the Encyclopedia Britannica must be rejected.

    IT IS SIGNIFICANT THAT ONE OF THE FEW PLACE NAMES ON EARTH THAT REMINDS US NOT OF THE VICTORY OF THE WINNERS BUT RATHER THE SLAUGHTER OF THE LOSERS, CONCERNS A GENOCIDE OF HINDUS BY THE MOSLEMS (13).

    Unlike the Jewish holocaust, the exact toll of the Hindu genocide suggested by the name Hindu Kush is not available. However the number is easily likely to be in millions. Few known historical figures can be used to justify this estimate. Encyclopedia Britannica informs that in December 1398 AD, Timur Lane ordered the execution of at least 50,000 captives before the battle for Delhi, .. and after the battle those inhabitants (of Delhi) not killed were removed (as slaves) (17), while other reference says that the number of captives butchered by Timur Lane's army was about 100,000 (18). Later on Encyclopedia Britannica mentions that the (secular?) Mughal emperor Akbar 'ordered the massacre of about 30,000 (captured) Rajput Hindus on February 24, 1568 AD, after the battle for Chitod' (19). Another reference indicates that this massacre of 30,000 Hindu peasants at Chitod is recorded by Abul Fazl, Akbar's court historian himself (20). These two 'one day' massacres are sufficient to provide a reference point for estimating the scale of Hindu genocide. The Afgan historian Khondamir records that during one of the many repeated invasions on the city of Herat in western Afganistan, 1,500,000 residents perished (11).

    Since some of the Moslem conquerors took Indian plainsmen as slaves, a question comes : whatever happened to this slave population? The startling answer comes from New York Times (May-June 1993 issues). The Gypsies are wandering peoples in Europe. They have been persecuted in almost every country. Nazis killed 300,000 gypsies in the gas chambers. These Gypsies have been wandering around Central Asia and Europe since around the 12 th Century AD. Until now their country of origin could not be identified. Also their Language has had very little in common with the other European languages. Recent studies however show that their language is similar to Punjabi and to a lesser degree to Sanskrit. Thus the Gypsies most likely originated from the greater Punjab. The time frame of Gypsy wanderings also coincides early Islamic conquests hence most likely their ancestors were driven out of their homes in Punjab and taken as slaves over the Hindu Kush.

    The theory of Gypsie origins in India was first proposed over two centuries ago. It is only recently theta linguistic and other proofs have been verified. Even the Gypsie leadership now accepts India as the country of their origin.

    Thus it is evident that the mountain range was named as Hindu Kush as a reminder to the future Hindu generations of the slaughter and slavery of Hindus during the Moslem conquests.

    DELIBERATE IGNORANCE ABOUT HINDU KUSH

    If the name Hindu Kush relates such a horrible genocide of Hindus, why are Hindus ignorant about it? and why the Government of India does not teach them about Hindu Kush? The history and geography curriculums in Indian Schools barely even mention Hindu Kush. The horrors of the Jewish holocaust are taught not only in schools in Israel and USA, but also in Germany. Because both Germany and Israel consider the Jewish holocaust a 'dark chapter' in the history. The Indian Government instead of giving details of this 'dark chapter' in Indian history is busy in whitewash of Moslem atrocities and the Hindu holocaust. In 1982, the National Council of Educational Research and Training issued a directive for the rewriting of school texts. Among other things it stipulated that: 'Characterization of the medieval period as a time of conflict between Hindus and Moslems is forbidden'. Thus denial of history or Negationism has become India's official 'educational' policy (21).

    Often the official governmental historians brush aside questions such as those that Hindu Kush raises. They argue that the British version is the product of their 'divide and rule' policy' hence their version is not necessarily true. However it must be remembered that the earliest reference of the name Hindu Kush and its literal meaning 'Hindu Killer' comes from Ibn Battutah in 1333 AD, and at that time British were nowhere on the Indian scene. Secondly, if the name indeed was a misnomer then the Afgans should have protested against such a barbaric name and the last 660 plus years should have been adequate for a change of name to a more 'civil' name. There has been no effort for such a change of name by the Afgans. On the contrary, when the Islamic fundamentalist regime of the Mujahadeens came to power in 1992, tens of thousands of Hindus and Sikhs from Kabul, became refugees, and had to pay steep ransom to enter into Pakistan without a visa.

    In the last 46 years the Indian Government also has not even once demanded that the Afgan Government change such an insulting and barbaric name. But in July 1993, the Government of India asked the visiting Jerusalem Symphony Orchestra to change its name because the word Jerusalem in its name is offensive to Moslem Fundamentalists.


    CONCLUSION

    It is evident that Hindus from ancient India's (Hindustan's) border states such as Gandhaar and Vaahic Pradesh were massacred or taken as slaves by the Moslem invaders who named the region as Hindu Kush (or Hindu Slaughter, or Hindu Killer) to teach a lesson to the future Hindu generations of India. Unfortunately Hindus are not aware of this tragic history. The Indian government does not want the true history of Hindu Moslem conflicts during the medieval ages to be taught in schools. This policy of negationism is the cause behind the ignorance of Hindus about the Hindu Kush and the Hindu genocide.


Turkish Muslim Atrocities In Armenia

The Tower of skulls - An artist's impression of the signature image of the Armenian Genocide at Turkish hands.

As part of their Jihad against the Christians, the Ottomans encouraged the unlawful transfer of property, the dispossession of the rural Armenian population and compelled their emigration from their homeland. In this the Turks (as do other Muslims) took inspiration and justification from the Quran.

The major portion of the Armenian population of the Middle East came under Ottoman rule after the conquest of Cilicia by the Seljuk Turks in 1071 that was a consequence of the Battle of Manzikert. This battle was followed by the occupation of the rest of Armenia by the successors to the Seljuk Turks ? the Ottoman Turks. This process of occupation went on up to the thirteenth century.

As part of their Jihad against the Christians, the Ottomans encouraged the unlawful transfer of property, the dispossession of the rural Armenian population and compelled their emigration from their homeland. In this the Turks (as do other Muslims) took inspiration and justification from the Quran and what Muslim theologians had to say on the methods of tyrannizing non-Muslims (Dhimmis) under Muslim tyranny.

Under repeated massacres and unrelenting Ottoman tyranny, many Armenians were compelled to embrace Islam at the pain of death, hence the former southern provinces of Armenia that include Van, Bitlis, Erzerum, Kharpert, Sivas, Trebizond, Konya, Kayseri, Adana, Izmir, Bursa, Edirne became Muslim majority provinces, that were eventually absorbed by Turkey.

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Frustrated in their designs by the European powers, the Turks tried to regain through wanton cruelty what they had lost on the battlefield and the negotiating table. The Armenians were easy meat for the Turks and they began a genocide of the civilian Armenian population.

Muslim theologians on tyrannizing Dhimmis (non-Muslim subjects) under Muslim occupation

Al-Ghazali (d. 1111), the famous theologian, philosopher, and paragon of mystical Sufism wrote the following about jihad: "one must go on jihad (i.e., warlike razzias or raids) at least once a year...one may use a catapult against them [non-Muslims] when they are in a fortress, even if among them are women and children. One may set fire to them and/or drown them...If a person of the Ahl al-Kitab [People of The Book ? Jews and Christians, typically] is enslaved, his marriage is [automatically] revoked? and his wife becomes the rightful property of a Muslim. One may cut down their trees...One must destroy their useless books. Jihadis may take as booty whatever they decide... the Jihadis may steal as much food as they need..."

European attempts to provide relief leads from Tyranny to Genocide

After successive defeats of the Ottomans by the Russians in the Russo-Turkish wars, succor came to the Armenians through the European Christian powers. Misrule in Armenia prompted the European Powers to obligate Ottoman Sultan Abdul-Hamid (Abdul Hamit) II to reform provincial administration according to the terms of the 1878 Treaty of Berlin. This was supposed to bring eight centuries of Muslim tyranny, to an end. But the reverse happened.

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These photos starkly capture on celluloid the crimes against humanity committed by the Muslim Turks (and all other Muslims against the non-Muslims). In 19th century Turkey there were two forces that opposed one another ? the Ottoman Sultan and the Young Turks. But they had one thing in common ? both the Young Turks and the Ottoman Sultan had an equal measure of hatred towards the Armenians. Like the Sultans, the Young Turks also massacred the Armenians with equal brutality, and with no less cruelty and savagery as did the Sultans.

The ensuing repression prompted Armenian revolutionary activity as the Ottomans reneged on their treaty obligations and resisted international pressure to introduce meaningful reform.

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To firmly secure and perpetuate Turkish rule in the remaining territories of the Ottoman state, the Ottoman Sultan Abdul-Hamid initiated a pogrom of ethnic cleansing through the mass slaughter of vast numbers of Armenians beginning in 1894.

These photos appear raw and disturbing. But imagine how disturbing would have been the actual atrocities that these photos mutely depict. These photos caution us the about oppression that can repeat itself if the Muslims get the upper hand ever again.

Hamidian autocracy also fostered the clandestine Young Turk movement dedicated to the cause of overthrowing the despotic sultan. But nevertheless even the Young Turks though opponents of the Ottoman Sultan, had an equal measure of hatred towards the Armenian. Like the Sultans, the Young Turks massacred the Armenians with equal brutality, and with no less cruelty and savagery as did the Sultans.

 Ethnic Cleansing of Armenians by the Ottomans

The decline of Ottoman Turkish power and the steady territorial losses in the face of Balkan revolts and Russian military advances isolated the Armenian Christians in a precarious situation. To firmly secure and perpetuate Turkish rule in the remaining territories of the Ottoman state, the Ottoman Sultan Abdul-Hamid initiated a program of ethnic cleansing through the mass slaughter of vast numbers of Armenians beginning in 1894.

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Turkish officers pose with beheaded Armenians. These photos are heart-wrenching and the webmasters of this site were in a dilemma whether to include them. But we decided to do so to educate our generation about the raw savagery of the Muslims. The Muslim mentality is not a thing of the past. They still behead their victims, as they did to Daniel Pearl. Muslims today are as savage as they were all through the 1400 years of their existence. So we need to realize the mentality of the enemy we are facing in the War on Terror and fight the Muslims to their extinction if we are not to face such atrocities in the future.

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In spite of international condemnation, and despite changes in government, these obnoxious policies started by Sultan Abdul-Hamid were applied with regularity over the course of the next thirty years. In a series of genocidal massacres repeated in 1895-1896, 1909, 1915-1918, and 1920-1922, the Armenian population of Turkey was mercilessly annihilated.

These massacres of the Armenians, also called Hamidian massacres of 1894-1896 affected all of historic Armenia and Constantinople. The 1909 or Adana massacre devastated Cilicia. The combined deportations and massacres during World War I acquired the dimensions of a total genocide and was implemented by the Young Turks who had removed Abdul-Hamid from the throne in 1909. So irrespective of who the rulers of the Ottomans was, the genocide of the non-Muslim Armenians continued relentlessly.

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These images are too graphic, and although grainy, they vividly capture the extent of Muslim brutality towards their non-Muslim subjects. The Armenians were the worst sufferers in recent times. And in the case of Armenia, photography was around to capture for posterity the crimes committed by the Muslims against humanity. The atrocities against the earlier victims of the Jihad were as brutal and blood-chilling, but we do not have them on celluloid, only the memory of the sufferings have been passed down to us through the descendants of those victims who survived this inhumane Muslim brutality.

The atrocities between 1920-1922 were committed by the Nationalist Turks who seized power in the Anatolian hinterland in the final years of the Ottoman Empire and created the Turkish Republic.

 Turkey's defeat in WW1 led to the exposure of the atrocities on Armenians

Most of these massacres were carried out with impunity and the majority of these Turkish criminal offenders escaped prosecution. Only in the aftermath of Turkey's defeat in World War I, through a series of military tribunals and parliamentarian investigations convened between 1919 and 1921 in Constantinople, the covert planning, secret organization, and brutal implementation of policies designed to destroy the Armenian population of the Ottoman Empire were uncovered.

The evidence was presented in court-martials and guilty verdicts were handed down by the thousands, confirming the mass scale state-sponsored policy of extermination of the Armenians.

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The net effect of the Ottoman era is summed up in the violent transformation of historic Armenia into Turkey. Thus what was once the homeland of Armenians from antiquity ruled by Armenian kings and chieftains from the sixth century B.C.E. till 1071, was finally purged of almost the entire Armenian population and was merged into Turkey. What is today Armenia is only one fourth of the north eastern part of historic Armenia. Till today, Armenians consider the Eastern provinces of today's Turkey to be Armenian's lost provinces. Provinces that have to be someday re-claimed by Armenians and reintegrated into Armenia..

The post-war Turkish government, however, balked at carrying out the sentences and the tribunals were closed under pressure from the Turkish Nationalists. Ironically, in spite of the secularization under Mustapha Kemal Pasha, the Turkish policy as regards the Armenians remained unchanged as it was under the Ottoman Turks.

In 1915 Armenians lived in all the major cities of the Ottoman Empire, Van, Bitlis, Erzerum, Kharpert, Sivas, Trebizond, Konya, Kayseri, Adana, Izmir, Bursa, Edirne, and many others. But after systematic genocides, by 1923 the Armenian population of Turkey had been reduced only to those living in Constantinople. Armenians had participated in all aspects of Ottoman life and had made major contributions to Turkish commerce, industry, architecture, and even music. Yet, in the final analysis, the centuries of Turkish rule resulted in the utter ruin of historic Armenia, the expulsion of the Armenians from Asiatic Turkey and the permanent exile of surviving Armenians only in mountainous regions of the Kavkaz (Caucasus).

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1915-1916, skulls, in various stages of decomposition, of Armenian deportees, some of whom may have been burned to death. Location: Ottoman empire, region Syria.

We are sorry to have to reproduce these gruesome images. We need to remind our shocked viewers, that these images only depict the shocking tale of Muslim Turkish brutality against the Armenian Christians. A brutality which all non-Muslims have suffered ? be they Christian, Buddhist, Jewish, Zoroastrian, Hindu, Copt, Maronite, Bahai, Druze or any other.

The Armenian experience under the Muslim Turks is one of the savagely bloodiest chapters in the bloodied history of Islam

Armenian suffering is as yet unrecorded in a large way and as yet unknown and unreported in the global media. But it survives in the hearts of many Armenians, who bide their time for justice which they will hopefully get after the War against Terror launched after 9/11, works its way through in the next two decades.

 Abducted Armenian women play the role of concubines of the Turkish Pasha's Harem

In the course of the ten centuries of Turkish tyranny, the Armenians like all non-Muslims under Muslim tyranny had to suffer from repeated waves of abductions of their womenfolk, the most beautiful among them who were made into concubines of the Turkish sultan and Turkish Beys and their camp followers. It is for this reason that the best of Armenia's beautiful women were forced to co-habit with the Turks till their descendants completely forgot, who they originally were.

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1915-1916, murdered Armenian male adult lying in a ditch as children stare at the corpse. Location: Ottoman empire, region Syria.

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There are no real Moderate Muslims...they are all savages!

 Some Muslims may appear to be moderate by the language they use, and their etiquette, but that is deception on their part. In fact such Muslims are more dangerous than those who openly declare their murderous intentions towards us. So we need to give up our delusion that there could be a moderate Muslim. We have to have a clear view that a Muslim is an enemy. He can become a friend only if he renounces Islam. If not, he remains a mortal enemy, and so is a legitimate target of destruction.

Ottoman Empire Collapse   

In 1908 the Young Turk movement, a reformist and strongly nationalist group, with many adherents in the army, forced the restoration of the constitution of 1876, and in 1909 the parliament deposed the sultan and put Muhammad V on the throne. In the two successive Balkan Wars (1912-13), Turkey lost nearly its entire territory in Europe to Bulgaria, Serbia, Greece, and newly independent Albania. The nationalism of the Young Turks, whose leader Enver Pasha gained virtual dictatorial power by a coup in 1913, antagonized the remaining minorities in the empire.

The outbreak of World War I found Turkey lined up with the Central Powers. Although Turkish troops succeeded against the Allies in the Gallipoli campaign (1915), Arabia rose against Turkish rule, and British forces occupied (1917) Baghdad and Jerusalem. In 1918, Turkish resistance collapsed in Asia and Europe. An armistice was concluded in October, and the Ottoman Empire came to an end. The Treaty of Sèvres (see Sèvres, Treaty of ) confirmed its dissolution. With the victory of the Turkish nationalists, who had refused to accept the peace terms and overthrew the sultan in 1922, modern Turkey's history began.

The Infamous Turkish Captain "Red Beard"

BARBAROSSA ("Redbeard"), the name given by the Christians to a family of Turkish admirals and sea rovers of the 16th century, - Arouj and Khizr (alias Khair-ed-Din) and Hassan the son of Khair-ed-Din. As late as 1840, Captain Walsin Esterhazy, author of a history of the Turkish rule in Africa, ventured the guess that "Barbarossa" was simply a mispronunciation of Bala Arouj, and the supposition has been widely accepted. But the prefix Bfiba was not applied to Arouj by contemporaries. His name is given in Spanish or Italian form as "Orux" or "Harrach" or "Ordiche." The contemporary Arab chronicle published by S. Rang and F. Denis in 1837 says explicitly that Barbarossa was the name applied by Christians to Khair-ed-Din. It was no doubt a nickname given to the family on account of their red or tawny beards (Lat. barba). The founder of the family was Yakub, a Roumeliot, probably of Albanian blood, who settled in Mitylene after its conquest by the Turks. He was a coasting trader and skipper, and had four sons - Elias, Isaak, Arouj and Khizr, all said to have been born after 1482. Khizr became a potter and Isaak a trader. Elias and Arouj took to sea roving. In an action with a galley of the Knights of Saint John, then established at Rhodes, Elias was killed and Arouj taken prisoner; the latter was ransomed by a Turkish pasha and returned to the sea. For some time he served the Mamelukes who still held Egypt.

During the conflict between the Mamelukes and the sultan Selim I., he considered it more prudent to transfer himself to Tunis. The incessant conflicts among the Berber princes of northern Africa gave him employment as a mercenary, which he varied by piratical raids on the trade of the Christians. At Tunis he was joined by Khizr, who took, or was endowed with, the name of Khair-ed-Din. Isaac soon followed his brothers. Arouj and Khair-ed-Din joined the exiled Moors of Granada in raids on the Spanish coast. They also pushed their fortunes by fighting for, or murdering and supplanting, the native African princes. Their headquarters were in the island of Jerba in the Gulf of Gabes. They attempted in 512 to take Bougie from the Spaniards, but were beaten off, and Arouj lost an arm, shattered by an arquebus shot. In 1514 they took Jijelli from the Genoese, and after a second beating at Bougie in 1515 were called in by the natives of Cherchel and Algiers to aid them against the Spaniards. They occupied the towns and murdered the native ruler who called them in. The Spaniards still held the little rocky island which gives Algiers its name and forms the harbour.

In 1518 Arouj was drawn away to take part in a civil war in Tlemcen. He promptly murdered the prince he came to support and seized the town for himself. The rival party then called in the Spaniards, by whom Arouj was expelled and slain while fleeing at the Rio Salado. Khair-ed-Din clung to his possessions on the coast and appealed to the sultan Selim I. He was named beylerbey by the sultan, and with him began the establishment of Turkish rule in northern Africa. For years he was engaged in subduing the native princes, and in carrying on warfare with the Christians. In 1519 he repelled a Spanish attack on Algiers, but could not expel his enemies from the island till 1529. As a combatant in the forefront of the war with the Christians he became a great hero in Islam, and dreaded by its enemies under his name of Barbarossa.

In 1534 he seized Tunis, acting as Capitan pasha for the sultan Suleiman. The emperor Charles V. intervened on behalf of the native prince, retook the town, and destroyed great part of Barbarossa's fleet. The corsair retaliated by leading what remained of his navy on a plundering raid to the Balearic Islands. During the remainder of his life - till 1547 - Barbarossa, though still Beylerbey of northern Africa, was mainly engaged as Capitan Pasha in co-operating with the armies of the sultan Suleiman in the east. He was absent from Algiers when it was attacked by Charles V. in 1541. In 1543-1544 he commanded the fleet which Suleiman sent to the coast of Provence to support Francis I. Barbarossa would not allow the bells of the Christian churches to be rung while his fleet was at anchor in the ports. He plundered the coast of Italy on his way back to Constantinople. When he died in his palace at Constantinople he was succeeded as beylerbey of Africa by his son Hassan. Hassan Barbarossa, like his father, spent most of his life in the Levant, but was occasionally in Africa when the influence of his family was required to suppress the disorders of the Turkish garrisons. He left it for the last time in 1567, and is said by Hammer-Purgstall to have been present at Lepanto in 1571. His last years are obscure.

Above picture of; Bodrum or Castle of St. Peter, Turkey, was built by St. Jean Christian Knights on a rocky ground peninsula next to the harbour. The castle has an English, French, German and Italian tower named after the countries of the knights who built these towers.

White European Slaves sold in Africa by Turks

The coastal villages and towns of Spain, Italy and the Mediterranean islands were frequently attacked by Barbary pirates from North Africa; the Formentera was even temporarily left by its population and long stretches of the Spanish and Italian coasts were almost completely abandoned by their inhabitants. The most famous corsair was the Turkish Barbarossa (”Redbeard”) According to Robert Davis between 1 million and 1.25 million Europeans were captured by North African pirates and sold as slaves in North Africa and Ottoman Empire between the 16th and 19th centuries.

Croats and Muslims in Bosnia and Herzegovina
by Darko Zubrinic, Zagreb (1995)

The aim of this article is to indicate deep connections between the Croats and Muslim Bosniaks (= Bosnjaci - Muslimani). In order to avoid misunderstanding we shall rather use their descriptive name - Muslim Slavs. The reason is that the Croats in Bosnia are also Bosniaks. Indeed, many of them bear Bosniak as their second name. The meaning of Bosniak is simply - a Bosnian.

In the Zagreb telephone book only (1994/95) you can see a long list of as many as 210 surnames of Bosnjak, with only one Muslim forename, and also more than 30 Bosnjakovic's, with only 3 Muslim forenames.

There is village Bosnjaci in Croatia (4,500 inhabitants prior to 1991, near Zupanja). I did not find any village of a similar name on a map of Bosnia. Also in Hrvatsko Zagorje, near Zagreb, there is a

* small village of Bosna, then
* Bosanci near Bosiljevo and Bjelovar,
* Bosnici near Dreznica and Kijevo,
* Bosanka (that is, Bosnian Woman!) near the famous city of Dubrovnik,
* and two small regions of Bosna near Vrbovac and D. Stupnik.

There is also a village of Mala Bosna (that is, Small Bosnia) near the city of Subotica.

One can find Croatian families bearing the Turkish second name of Ulama even in the NW of Croatia (Hrvatsko Zagorje). The town of Tuhelj in Hrvatsko Zagorje was given by those Croats who had to escape from the region of the village of Tuhelj in Bosnia, between Kresevo and Konjic, see [Gizdelin, pp 44, 53]. Near Varazdin Breg there is a village of Turcin (= The Turk).

Vranduk in 1910.Let us start by describing many traces left by the Turkish Ottoman Empire. This civilization, that was present on Croatian soil from the 15th to the 19th century (in eastern parts of former Yugoslavia until the beginning of the 20th century), left a deep imprint. Many Croats converted to Islam. The Muslim Slavs are in great majority of Croatian descent, and constitute now a nation, recognized according to their own wish in 1968 (Muslimani has been the usual name since the beginning of the 20th century). Except in Croatia they live today mostly in Bosnia-Herzegovina and Sandzak (a province in the south of Serbia, between Montenegro, Kosovo and Bosnia).

Croatian national costume near Tomislavgrad in BiH (photo by Stojan Puretic)There were many disputes even about the name of "Muslimani", which was defined to have only the national content (i.e. one could have been Musliman without being religious at all, as was the case for example with Raif Dizdarevic, former president of former Yugoslavia; of course, his predecessors were Muslims). On the other hand the term "musliman" (with small m) had the meaning of Muslim exclusively in the religious sense. The way out was to choose an old geographical name Bosniak, which traditionally denoted any citizen of Bosnia - either Croat (as we said, many of them have Bosniak as a surname), or Muslim, or Serb. It is strange that this usurpation of the name of Bosniak has been accepted even in the official Croatia. From this easily follows a complete usurpation of the Bosnian name (usurpation of Bosnian literature, language and of the entire history of Bosnia). Of course, we do not deny the right of Muslim - Bosniaks to call themselves Bosniaks. We would like to indicate that the name of Bosniaks does not refer exclusively to Bosnian Muslims, but to Bosnian Croats too.

See also Vladimir Zerjavic: Muslim-Bosniaks did not secure the right of autochthony in Croatia.
In Croatian: "Muslimani-Bossnjaci nisu stekli uvjete authotonosti u Hrvatskoj".

I recommend the interested reader to consult BEHAR, the journal of the Cultural society of Bosniaks (more precisely: Bosniaks - Muslims) in Zagreb called Preporod, for their views on these very sensitive questions, especially an article by Esad Cimic in No22-23, p.12-15, 1996. The society unites outstanding Muslim intellectuals in Croatia. ``Behar'' was founded in 1900 - its first editor in chief had been Safvet-beg Basagic. It was forbidden during the 70 years' ex-Yugoslav period.

Even the historical names of many officials in the Ottoman Empire reveal their origin (Hirwat = Hrvat or Horvat, which is a Croatian name for Croat): Mahmut-pasa Hirwat (= Hrvat), Rusten-pasa Hrvat, Pijali-pasa Hrvat, Sijavus-pasa Hrvat etc. In the 16th century a traveler and writer Marco A. Pigaffetta wrote that almost everybody on the Turkish court in Constantinople knows the Croatian language, and especially soldiers. Marco Pigafetta in his "Itinerario'' published in London in 1585 states: "In Istanbul it is customary to speak Croatian, a language which is understood by almost all official Turks, especially military men."

This can also be confirmed by the 1553 visit of Antun Vrancic, Roman cardinal, and Franjo Zay, a diplomat, to Istanbul as envoys of the Croat - Hungarian king to discuss a peace treaty with the Turks. During the initial ceremonial greetings they had with Rustem - pasha Hrvat (= Croat) the conversation led in Turkish with an official interpreter was suddenly interrupted. Rustem - pasha Hrvat asked in Croatian if Zay and Vrancic spoke Croatian language. The interpreter was then dismissed and they proceeded in the Croatian language during the entire process of negotiations.``

Crazed Religious Behavior;

The USA Columbine School Murders of 1999

The killers at Columbine High School, Jefferson County, near Denver, Colorado, on April 20 1999, were pictured on left; Dylan Klebold and Eric Harris. April 20 was Hitler’s birthday, and there is reason to believe the atrocity was, at least in part, intended to answer to what the two psychopaths believed Jews had ostensibly unjustly suffered under the Nazis in WW2 Europe.

Klebold’s mother, Susan (nee Yassenoff), was a shul trained Jewess who attended a synagogue named Temple Israel in Columbus, Ohio, where her grandfather, Leo Yassenoff, a construction magnate, built the Jewish Community Centre that bears his name.

Eric Harris, below picture, was from New York and transferred to Colorado two years before the massacre. Harris was evidently on an anti-depressant at the time of the killings, and some of his victims were callously shot without mercy at point-blank range.

Harris was dating a Jewess named Sarah Davis and ran a pro-Jewish Website that let him vent his spleen about persecution of Jews, and other issues of race, politics, and religion, and his diary said his mother was Jewish.

A personality profile for Eric Harris, based on his journal entries and inter-personal communications, indicates that his behavioral patterns were consistent with a “malignant narcissism…(with) pathological narcissism, antisocial features, paranoid traits, and unconstrained aggression.”

Some say the killers’ plan was to use dozens of bombs to cause carnage on a vast scale and to then flee the country to the sanctuary of the Talmudic state of Israel. This sounds plausible, because if any of the bombs in the cafeteria had detonated properly the blast could have caused extensive structural damage to the school and resulted in hundreds of casualties.

It’s also plausible because Jews and their accomplices who have killed Gentiles abroad are often lightly prosecuted or get a reprieve in Israel; and they’re very rarely extradited to face judicial proceedings, primarily because the Talmud commends rather condemns Jews who kill Gentiles and actually commands Jews to perpetrate crimes of that sort whenever possible.

To quote the Jews’ most authoritative sacred literature, the Talmud:

‘Take the life of the kliphoth [egos or souls of the "evil beasts" of non-Jews] and kill them, and you will please God the same as one who offers incense to Him’ (Sepher Or Israel 177b).

And again:

‘Every Jew who spills the blood of the godless [i.e., non-Jew] is doing the same as making a sacrifice to God’ (Bammidber Raba 21c & Jalkut 772).

Dr Bischoff’s authentic translation of the Zohar is even more explicit, where it says:

‘There is a command of slaughtering, which takes place in a ritually valid manner for strangers, who are not human beings but are like unto cattle. For those who do not concern themselves with the Jewish religious law, must be made offerings of prayer, so that they are offered to the blessed God. And when they are offered to God, it is said of them: “for thy sake are we murdered the whole day, slaughtered like sheep at the slaughtering bench”‘

- Note that this is a corrupt rabbinical interpretation of Ps. 44.22.

A journal discovered in Harris’s bedroom implied that he planned to flee to Israel after the massacre because of that country’s extradition policy – a plot possibly inspired by either Harris’s Jewish girlfriend or his Jewish friend Dylan Klebold.

Both killers were also evidently convinced that once they had arrived in Israel some top Jewish movie maker “like Steven Spielberg or Quentin Tarantino” would want to make a movie about the horrific event, which would not only present them in a favourable light, like not a few JewTube videos and books have now done, but also make them lots of money.

There’s some debate about how many shooters there were on the day – the BATF says more than two; and the total number of bombs constructed by the killers (possibly in collusion with accomplices) has been officially cited as ninety-five!

To thicken the plot further, two Columbine students were subsequently mysteriously murdered in a Subway fast food shop.

To quote one source: “At approximately 12:45 a.m. Monday night two Columbine High School students — Nicholas Kunselman, 15, and Stephanie Hart, 16 - were found dead inside a Subway sandwich store located less than a mile from the school. Both suffered fatal gunshot wounds. Hart, at the time, was believed to have been visiting Kunselman, a Subway employee.

The suspect is described as being “a white male in his teens or early 20s who was wearing a red jacket and flared pants.” He was seen near the shopping center about the time the bodies were discovered. A surveillance camera was present inside the shop, though appears to have been turned off.”

The killers’ targets weren’t random – they were selected primarily on racial and religious grounds. In the campus library, for example, Klebold and Harris deliberately singled out a black student and a group called ‘Christians for Young Life.

Members of the Trench-coat Mafia group, who may have been in collusion with the killers, had younger siblings in the library, who were left unmolested – Harris’s father said his son was “involved with the Trench-coat Mafia” in a 911 call he made on April 20, 1999.

One girl was shot because she attracted the Christian hating killers’ attention by holding a Bible.

When Columbine students placed 13 crosses on the campus lawn as a memorial of the tragedy, paranoid local Jews got them removed; possibly to some extent because they thought Christians had associated Jews with what their forebears Klebold-like did to Christ, but more likely because they feared it could issue in some sort of ‘anti-Semitic’ backlash.

The shooters had a typically Jewish aversion for blacks and Christians, and even tormented some of their victims verbally and with gunshot wounds, giving them an opportunity to testify for Christ before dispatching them.

This recently released Klebold and Harris “Basement Tape” video made available by “The Skunk” at judicial-inc.org makes it plain that the hatred both Klebold and Harris had for Jesus Christ and Christians was a major factor in the slaying. And of course this was kept out of all news releases!
 

Crazed Religious Behaviors cont.

Here are some fine examples of people proving their faith, or ignorance...you decide?


A Filipino man allows people to nail him to a cross during an annual Good Friday celebration.
Deeply faithful or deeply disturbed? You decide.


A faithful Buddhist woman walks barefoot across hot embers during a ritual that celebrates the coming of spring.
Let's all hope she didn't trip on the bags she's carrying. Faith or not...that would not be pretty!


A Hindu man in celebration of the birth of the Hindu Guru Shri Bawa Lal Dyal Maharaj.
Why blow out a candle when you can stick a fire-ball in your mouth? Mmmm …delicious!


Shinto believers pray in iced water as a sign of endurance for the annual New Year's purification ceremony.
This act is believed to purify their bodies and souls. And result in significant shrinkage of the genitalia. Yikes!


Believers from the Shugendo religion hang each other from cliffs to overcome fear during their
spring austerity training on the Kumano mountain. You would not want to make enemies in this religion.
And make sure your fellow believers actually like you!

Getting burned in the moment!

Hyderabad, Feb 25 (IANS) Blinded by belief, two devotees of Lord Shiva in an Andhra Pradesh village were charred to death when they jumped into a fire on the night of Shivratri in the hope that the deity would appear before them. The incident took place in the remote tribal hamlet of Shivnoor in Adilabad district, about 350 km from here, on Shivratri night Monday when devotees remain awake to appease the Hindu god.

Ada Sitaram, 27, and Jengle Devidas, 25, immolated themselves on the last day of their 41-day “Shiva deeksha” (ritual of initiation) in a temple, police said. They had spent 40 nights at the temple.

Their charred remains were found Tuesday by Devidas’ younger brother Vishnu, who went to the temple looking for them.

Villagers told police that the duo lit the fire as part of the rituals and jumped into it while chanting “Om Namah Sivaya”.

Family members said they had spoken about their wish to have a visitation from Lord Shiva, police said.

A ritual of "Tossing Babies off of tall buildings."

Take the devotees of a Muslim shrine in Solapur in western India's Maharastra state. For more than 500 years they've been observing a bizarre ritual--throwing their young children off a tall building for luck and to improve their health. They believe it will make their children strong, and they say no accidents have ever happened. (And Michael Jackson got heat for holding his baby over a balcony?)

(In fact, Maharastra is just teeming with good luck. The poverty rate is only 24 per cent, down from 38 per cent back in the '90s. Presumably, the impoverished didn't get dropped).

Christians Violent Behaviors

In the USA, a Corpus Christi, Texas, judge reduced felony charges against the director of a Christian boot camp and an employee to simple assault in connection with the alleged dragging of a 15-year-old girl behind a van after she fell behind during a morning run. The 32-day boot camp for girls ages 13 to 19 includes 28 days at a facility near San Antonio, then four days at a camp in Banquete, about 10 miles west of Corpus Christi. The boot camp is run by the embarrassingly named Love Demonstrated Ministries of San Antonio. Ahhh...religion...gotta love it! MS.07-24-09

But then, sometimes kids just need an old fashioned spanking, but not sure if they need a good dragging? MS 07-24-09.

Killing Jesus? I thought he was already dead? Well, I guess it's to late to spank this nut. MS. 07-24-09.  18-year-old Ryan Schallenberger, a straight-A student who planned to blow up his South Carolina high school. He intended "to die and go to heaven and once he got there, he wanted to kill Jesus," according to police who arrested him. (Kids say the darnedest things). They discovered his journal, which lauded the Columbine killers, contained notes on more than 10 types of explosives that Schallenberger experimented with and evaluated a year ago. He is still in jail...I hope! MS 07-25-09!

3 charged over Malaysian couple’s death in bizarre ritual

KUALA LUMPUR, Malaysia (AP)– A 19-year-old Malaysian and his two cousins have been charged with murder for allegedly beating to death the young man’s parents in a bizarre ritual meant to cure them of a smoking habit and other problems, officials said Wednesday.

Muhammad Nizam Mohamad Ibrahim and his two male cousins did not enter a plea after being charged Tuesday, said magistrate Sazlinidayu Kamarul Baharin, who heard their case.

She told The Associated Press that she ordered the three men to be held for psychiatric observation for a month, after which the trial will start on Nov. 14.

Prosecutor Fazril Sani Mohamad Fadzil said the three were charged with murder, which carries the maximum death penalty.

A 15-year-old daughter of one of the four relatives who carried out the beating was also attacked after stumbling onto the scene and is fighting for her life in hospital.

Police spokesman Ku Chin Wah told the official Bernama news agency that the attack took place when Mohamed Ibrahim Kader Mydin, 47, and his wife Rosina Mydin Pillay, 41, visited their family on Thursday (local time).

They mentioned that Mohamed Ibrahim was seeking help to stop his smoking habit, and that his wife was suffering from asthma and a liver ailment.

"Following this, a 23-year-old male relative suggested that the couple undergo a ritual which involved all family members joining forces to beat up the couple to rid them of their ailments," Mr Ku told Bernama.

The four relatives smashed the couple's heads on a table and assaulted them with crash helmets and brooms, he said.

An ambulance was called only hours later when they had not regained consciousness.

It is the first such ritual that has come to light in recent history in Malaysia, though superstitious beliefs run strong in this majority Islamic country. In villages, it is common for people to seek the help of bomohs, or spiritual healers, for mental and physical illnesses but their rituals are not known to involve violence.

Some of the family members reportedly are believed to have recently joined an underground banned cult the government alleges was preaching deviant Islam.

But even the cult, known as Al-Arqam, is not known to have often practiced such violent rituals. Well, I guess beating their parents to death actually cured them of their smoking and other ailments...mmm. MS. 07-24-09

Worthingtons acquitted on all but one charge in faith-healing death

Carl and Raylene Worthington were acquitted of all other charges. Lets get this straight...you go to jail for petty theft, but these 2 nut cases get acquitted. Ok! MS 07-24-09

Carl Worthington, 29, and Raylene Worthington, 26, had both been charged with second-degree manslaughter and criminal mistreatment.

The criminal mistreatment charge carries a sentence of up to one year in jail.

After hearing 12 days of testimony from 21 witnesses, it took the jury more than a week to reach a decision.

The Worthingtons’ daughter Ava died last year of bronchial pneumonia and a blood infection. Prosecutors said they could have saved their daughter’s life if they had sought medical attention. Instead, they and members of their Oregon City church, the Followers of Christ, attempted to heal her with prayer, fasting, anointing of oil and laying on of hands.

Jurors announced the verdict Thursday afternoon in a Clackamas County Circuit Courtroom crowded with members of the Worthingtons’ congregation, the Followers of Christ Church.

Of the dozens of children buried in the Followers of Christ cemetery since the 1950s, at least 21 died from medically treatable conditions, according to a 1998 investigation by The Oregonian. Maybe God was busy healing cars! MS 07-24-09

Religious Suicides


(Pic. of Buddhist monk burning himself to death in defiance of USA' Vietnam Invasion)

In a form of ritual suicide, Buddhist monks in Saigon who protested the violence demonstrated by the USA & their Ngo Dinh Diem puppet government, during the Vietnam war, died by self-immolation in an open public square.

 

 

 

 

Muslim sacrifices self at shrine on Eid

New Delhi: A 45-year-old Muslim man on Monday slit his throat with a knife and sacrificed himself at the shrine of Ghazi Baba in Bahraich District in Uttar Pradesh on the occasion of Eid-ul-Zuha, police said. A note was found in which Moharrum Ali had written, "I was sacrificing my life as I once dreamt Allah asking me to offer myself for sacrifice," Superintendent of Police (SP) Pramod Kumar told PTI. He said a sharp-edged weapon was also recovered near his body and added that the case was being investigated. Moharrum Ali had made an attempt to sacrifice himself at the shrine a couple of years ago, the SP said.

Prima facie, it appeared to be an act of suicide with religious fanaticism, Kumar said.

Suicides of non specific nature

It is strange how we humans value little...even ourselves, as we will commit suicide over trivial matters of little importance!
MS. 07-24-09

______________________________________________________________________

Islam

Muslim pilgrims pray outside Namira mosque in Arafat near Mecca, Saudi Arabia, Sunday, Dec. 7, 2008. (AP Photo/Hassan Ammar)

 

An overcrowded passenger train is seen in Dhaka, Bangladesh on December 8, 2008. Millions of residents in Dhaka had started the exodus home from the capital city ahead of the Muslim Eid al-Adha holiday, which marks the end of the Hajj. (REUTERS/Andrew Biraj)

Islam is the worlds most Violent Religion of today!

Virtually every contemporary Western leader has expressed the view that Islam is a peaceful religion and that those who commit violence in its name are fanatics who misinterpret its tenets. This widely circulated claim is false.

Relying primarily on Islam's own sources, Religion of Peace? Islam's War Against the World demonstrates that Islam is a violent, expansionary ideology that seeks the subjugation and destruction of other faiths, cultures, and systems of government. Further, it shows that the jihadis that Westerners have been indoctrinated to believe are extremists, are actually in the mainstream. "A valuable, well-argued contribution to the public understanding of Islam...it manages to convey in a short space what the West needs to know about Islam: that its violent aspects are not the result of deviance but of orthodoxy"' - Robert Spencer, The Politically Incorrect Guide to Islam (and The Crusades)

"A very important work at a very important time. Anyone interested in understanding the growing violence on the world scene today must read this book. Its message for America and the West is, `Wake up before it's too late.'" - Gary Bauer, President, American Values

"This book provides a timely reality check to those still inclined to believe in the dichotomy between a "real" Islam and its allegedly aberrant violent fringe. That delusion costs lives and threatens the very existence of those affected by it. The refusal of the elite class to open its eyes to reality and protect Western nations from the threat is the biggest betrayal in history. It reflects a problem of cultural and spiritual decay that is the synthesis of all others." - Serge Trifkovic, The Sword of the Prophet and Defeating Jihad.

Religion of Peace? Islam's War Against the World

by Gregory M. Davis A Must Read Book

Is the "War on Terror" Based on a False Hope?

Islam is less a "religion" than a totalitarian and archaic ideology that holds millions in thrall.

In the days following 9/11, George W. Bush assured America and the world that Islam was a "religion of peace" and that the violent followers of Osama Bin Laden had twisted the true Muslim faith. Acting on this belief, President Bush and other Western leaders sent troops to the Middle East in an effort to bring freedom and democracy to the Muslim world.

But what if this "understanding" of Islam is based not on fact, but instead on equal parts wishful thinking and Islamic deceit? It would mean that the entire War on Terror is based on a faulty--and increasingly deadly--premise.

In Religion of Peace? Islam's War Against the World, author and filmmaker Gregory M. Davis rebuts the notion that Islam is a great faith in desperate need of a Reformation. Instead, he exposes it as a form of totalitarianism, a belief system that orders its adherents not to baptize all nations, but to conquer and subdue them. Islamic law's governance of every aspect of religious, political, and personal action has far more in common with Nazism than with the tenets of modern day Christianity or Judaism.

Davis details how Islamic thought divides the world into two spheres locked in perpetual combat: dar al-Islam ("House of Islam," where Islamic law predominates), and dar al-harb ("House of War," the rest of the world). This concise yet thorough book leaves no doubt as to why most of the world's modern conflicts are connected to Islam--and calls into question why Western elites refuse to acknowledge Islam's violent nature. Religion of Peace? Islam's War Against the World is nothing less than a wake-up call to all civilized nations--and one they ignore at their peril. Islam is extremely radical.

Perhaps the fact that Islam fosters violence is simply not news, despite the protests of the multicultists, Islam's violent and repressive nature is now well understood. Oh, the Muslims are angry? When aren't they? The most important Islamic cleric in Australia considers women little more than slabs of meat that deserve to be raped. Hardly surprising he's just following what is in the Koran. A British imam says gay people should be murdered. Nothing new there either. Islam is violent. Yawn, tell us something we didn't know.

Muslims are outraged over Danish cartoons betraying Mohammed as a terrorists, but aren't outraged over fanaticism?

OK … let’s do a little historical review. Just some lowlights:

Newspapers in Denmark and Norway publish cartoons depicting Mohammed. Muslims are murderously outraged.

Muslims fly commercial airliners into buildings in New York City killing thousands. No Muslim outrage.

Muslim officials block the exit where school girls are trying to escape a burning building because their faces were exposed. No Muslim outrage.

Muslims cut off the heads of three teenaged girls on their way to school in Indonesia. A Christian school. No Muslim outrage.

Muslims murder teachers trying to teach Muslim children in Iraq. No Muslim outrage.

Muslims murder over 80 tourists with car bombs outside cafes and hotels in Egypt. No Muslim outrage.

A Muslim attacks a missionary children’s school in India. Kills six. No Muslim outrage.

Muslims slaughter hundreds of children and teachers in Beslan, Russia. Muslims shoot children in the back. No Muslim outrage.

Let’s go way back. Muslims kidnap and kill athletes at the Munich Summer Olympics. No Muslim outrage.

Muslims fire rocket-propelled grenades into schools full of children in Israel. No Muslim outrage.

Muslims murder more than 50 commuters in attacks on London subways and busses. Over 700 are injured. No Muslim outrage.

Muslims massacre dozens of innocents at a Passover Seder. No Muslim outrage.

Muslims murder innocent vacationers in Bali. No Muslim outrage.

Muslim newspapers publish anti-Semitic cartoons. No Muslim outrage

Muslims are involved, on one side or the other, in almost every one of the 125+ shooting wars around the world. No Muslim outrage.

Muslims beat the charred bodies of Western civilians with their shoes, then hang them from a bridge. No Muslim outrage.

Dead children. Dead tourists. Dead teachers. Dead doctors and nurses. Death, destruction and mayhem around the world at the hands of Muslims .. no Muslim outrage … but publish a cartoon depicting Mohammed with a bomb in his turban and all hell breaks loose.

Come on, is this really about cartoons? They’re rampaging and burning flags. They’re looking for Europeans to kidnap. They’re threatening innkeepers and generally raising holy Muslim hell not because of any outrage over a cartoon. They’re outraged because it is part of the Islamic jihadist culture to be outraged. They don’t really need a reason. They just need an excuse. Wandering around, destroying property, murdering children, firing guns into the air and feigning outrage over the slightest perceived insult.

In Aug. 2009, hundreds of Muslims gathered to burn and murder Christians in Pakistan. Yet the media has barely covered it!

Or more likely they are frightened of the murderous ways of the followers of the Religion of Peace the pointed response that accompanies any criticism of Islam. The Islamists scream over and over that their religion is of love and is not violent.

*Read the posted articles and stare hard at the many pictures of sheer brutality and mayhem, and if you're an Islamists please tell the world again that your religion is not violent. "If you can cut the head off an animal...then you could do the same to a human...violence is violence!" MS. 08-04-09

At The Bottom of this page;

View horrific photos and read more on Muslim Atrocities around the globe'

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Dhabihah


An animal sacrifice in Arabic is called ḏabiḥa (ذَبِيْحَة) or Qurban (قُرْبَان) . The term may have roots from the Jewish term Korban'; in some places such as in India/Pakistan, qurbani is always used for Islamic animal sacrifice. In the Islamic context, an animal sacrifice referred to as ḏabiḥa (ذَبِيْحَة) meaning "sacrifice as a ritual" is offered only in Eid ul-Adha. ..."therefore, to thy Lord turn in prayer and in Sacrifice." (Nahr)-Al Quran, 108.2 Qurbani is an Islamic prescription for the affluent to share their good fortune with the needy in the community. On the occasion of Eid ul Adhaa, affluent Muslims all over the world perform the Sunnah of Prophet Ibrahim (Abraham) by sacrificing a goat or sheep. The meat is then divided into three equal parts. One part is retained by the person who performs the Qurbani. The second is given to his relatives. The third part is distributed to the poor. The Muslims say that this has nothing to do with blood and gore (Quran 22:37: "It is not their meat nor their blood, that reaches God. It is your piety that reaches Him." The sacrifice is done to help the poor and in remembrance of Prophet Abraham's willingness to sacrifice his son Ishmael at God's command. The sacrificial animal may be a lamb, a sheep, a goat, a camel or a cow. The animal must be healthy and conscious. The Islamic system of slaughter is called Ḏabīḥah. (Pic. on left, ritual buffalo beheading. Pic. on left, ritual beheading of a camel) Well...there goes the neighborhood! MS. 07-25-09

Slaughtering of animals on Eid ul Adha (A Muslim Ritual)



 

                                                   

 

 

 

 

 

Eid ul Adha or the festival of sacrifice is celebrated every year on the 10th of zilhaj according to the Islamic calendar. On this day Muslims in every part of the world sacrifice animals in the Memory of Ibrahim (Abraham) who became willing to sacrifice his son Ismaeel as an act of obedience. However God replaced his son (Ismaeel) with a ram. On every 10th of zilhaj Muslims slaughter sheep, goats, rams, camels and cows. (below Pic, sacrificial beheading of goat. Shot 03-30-08, MS. )

Animal Sacrifice
Animal sacrifice is the ritual killing of an animal as part of a religion. It is practiced by many religions as a means of appeasing a god or gods or changing the course of nature. Animal sacrifice has turned up in almost all cultures, from the Hebrews to the Greeks and Romans (particularly the purifying ceremony Lustratio) and from the Aztecs to the Yoruba. However, the practice was a taboo among the Ancient Egyptians, and they tended to look down on cultures that practiced this custom. Animal sacrifice is still practiced today by the followers of Santería and other lineages of Orisa as a means of curing the sick and giving thanks to the Orisa (gods). The practice is widely crried out in Nepal and India. However in Santeria, such animal offerings constitute an extremely small portion of what are termed ebos—ritual activities that include offerings, prayer and deeds. Some villages in Greece also sacrifice animals to Orthodox saints in a practice known as kourbània. The practice, while publicly condemned, is often tolerated for the benefits it provides to the church and the sense of community it engenders.


Islam, cont.

Watch the below video of cruel and demented religious beliefs

 

 

 

Indonesia;

Muslim Ritual Serial Killer

Firing squad in Indonesia shot dead a so-called magic man who butchered young women and girls in performing his black magic rituals.

An Indonesian man who murdered 42 women and girls in black magic rituals has been executed by firing squad.

Self-confessed 'shaman' Ahmad Suraji, 57, told police he killed the women to improve his magical powers.

He had been sentenced to death in 1998 after police found the women's bodies buried in a field in North Sumatra.

Suraji was executed despite a last-minute appeal by Amnesty International, the UK-based human rights group, which opposes all capital punishment.

Supernatural help

Bonaventura Nainggolan, a spokesman for the Indonesian attorney general's office, said: "He appeared resigned to his fate. His final wish was to see his wife. We fulfilled this."

The execution took place in Deli Serdang district, North Sumatra.

Suraji's victims had come to him for supernatural help with their finances and love life.

Police said he persuaded them to be buried naked up to the neck before he strangled them to death.

Belief in black magic in Indonesia is widespread, especially in rural areas, correspondents say.

Castration Ritual part of rural East Timor's Oral History

Submitted by Jesse Wright on Mon, 11/17/2008 - 05:15 Ossu Rua, East Timor

Jose da Silva thinks he's 70 years old, though he isn't sure. His hair is white and his eyes are cloudy and his teeth just aren't what they used to be.

He smiles, showing off gaps where teeth are missing and those that remain are wiggly and red from chewing betel nut. He says his teeth have failed him. He tells of a time, not so long ago, when he could still chew on the still-attached testicles of baby goats and sheep, once or twice a year. He did it for decades.

"It makes their horns longer and larger," da Silva said of the strange castration process called kapa in the local language. "If you don't do it, the goat won't get any bigger." The kapa process could involve snipping off the testicles of an animal with a sharp blade, but folks here say it's just as easy and less bloody to crush them between two flat boards or to give the testicles a good chew. These days da Silva said he's only got a few goats, none of which need to be castrated. If they did though, he'd make his son do it.

Da Silva sits on a bamboo platform over the dirt floor of his bamboo hut. His family surrounds him and everyone laughs. Kapa, far from an embarrassment, is hilarious. There's nothing secret or shameful about it. "You have to do it a week, maybe up to a month after they're born," he said. "If you just chew on the testicles, there's little or no blood." "They scream though," his daughter adds. "The goats and the sheep, they scream." His daughter's never done it; kapa is a man's job. Whenever male goats or sheep are born, the head of the household will decide whether to perform the kapa ritual. It must be done in the morning hours or in the afternoon or, they say, the animal will die. Prior to performing kapa, the goat or sheep's genitalia will be washed and then afterward, whether performed via the blade the board or tooth, the wounded animal's nether regions will be swabbed with a concoction of kerosene and coffee grounds.

Everyone swears the goats and sheep grow bigger. There are no known statistics which might indicate the prevalence of the kapa ritual, but those interviewed said it happens all over the country. Yet chewing testicles is limited to goats and sheep. Pigs are dirty and anything else is just too big. Joao da Silva (no immediate relation) lives down the road from the old man. He is 25, still too young to perform a kapa, though he has seen his own father chew on testicles and slice them off. One day he will do it, too. Son like Father! MS.

"Both ways have advantages," he said. "If you use a blade you can wait until the goat or sheep is bigger, but biting is the best way. With biting and sucking the blood...it's less messy and less work." Oh yeah! MS. 07-28-09

Rivers of blood in the name of Allah

More Iraqis killed execution-style than in bombings

April 17 2009: Baghdad, Iraq — Execution-style killings, not suicide bombings, have been the leading cause of death among civilians in the Iraq war, a study released Wednesday shows. The findings, published in the New England Journal of Medicine, point to the brutal sectarian nature of the conflict, where death squads once roamed the streets. Estimates of the number of civilians killed in Iraq vary widely. The study was based on the database maintained by Iraq Body Count, a private group that uses media reports. The authors concede the data is not comprehensive. But they maintain that the study provides a reliable gauge of how Iraqis have died over the past six years in attacks, including bombings, shootings and mortar rounds. The new details also provide further evidence of the sectarian cleansing and retaliatory violence between Shiites and Sunnis that pushed the country to the brink of civil war before ebbing a year and a half ago. ( Left Pic. of Bodies at Baghdad makeshift morgue. Actually, the entire country was makeshift after the US invaded!)

A credible minimum

The study covered the period from the March 20, 2003 invasion through March 19, 2008, during which 91,358 violent deaths were recorded by Iraq Body Count. The total number of civilian deaths in Iraq is widely disputed, but the count by the London-based group is widely considered a credible minimum. Iraq Body Count also uses figures from morgues and hospitals. However, the authors focused on only 60,481 deaths linked to specific events, excluding Iraqis killed during the weeks following the U.S.-led invasion and the 2004 U.S. sieges of the former insurgent stronghold of Fallujah.
The study found that 19,706 of the victims were abducted and killed execution-style, with nearly a third of those showing signs of torture. That compared with 16,922 who died in bombings, most of them suicide attacks. The actual number killed by the invasion and with their own sectarian violence is close to one million.

Death squads at fault

While the study didn’t assign blame for the killings, death squads largely run by Shiite militias were believed to be behind many. The squads were seeking revenge for the deaths of Shiite civilians at the hands of Al Qaeda and other Sunni extremists in suicide bombings and other attacks.

Baghdad official who exposed executions flees
Jonathan Steele,
Thursday March 2, 2006, The Guardian

Faik Bakir, the director of the Baghdad morgue, has fled Iraq in fear of his life after reporting that more than 7,000 people have been killed by death squads in recent months, the outgoing head of the UN human rights office in Iraq has disclosed. “The vast majority of bodies showed signs of summary execution – many with their hands tied behind their back. Some showed evidence of torture, with arms and leg joints broken by electric drills,” said John Pace, the Maltese UN official. The killings had been happening long before the bloodshed after last week’s bombing of the Shia shrine in Samarra. Mr. Pace, whose contract in Iraq ended last month, said many killings were carried out by Shia militias linked to the industry ministry run by Bayan Jabr, a leading figure in the Supreme Council for the Islamic Revolution in Iraq (Sciri). Mr Pace said records, supported by photographs, came from Baghdad’s forensic institute, which passed them to the UN. The Baghdad morgue has been receiving 700 or more bodies a month. The figures peaked at 1,100 last July – many showing signs of torture.

Reports of government-sponsored death squads have sparked fear among many prominent Iraqis, prompting a rise in the number leaving the country. Mr. Pace said the morgue’s director had received death threats after he reported the murders. “He’s out of the country now,” said Mr. Pace, adding that the attribution of the killings to government-linked militias did not come from Dr. Bakir. “There are other sources for that. Some militias are integrated with the police and wear police uniforms,” he said. “The Badr brigade [Sciri's armed wing] are in the police and are mainly the ones doing the killing. They’re the most notorious.” Some Iraqis accuse the Mahdi army militia, linked to the radical cleric Moqtada al-Sadr, of seizing and killing people.
But Mr. Pace said: “I’m not as sure of the Mahdi army as I am of the others.”

I have had doubts about publishing these sic images, but “if the mainstream media would publish photos of the real war, and what is really going on in Iraq and the rest of the Islamic world, nobody would support this war or theirs and ours evil ideology, so I have decided to make the truth public.

Google images ” Iraq torture” to view page after page of pictures of the terrible things that where happening in the USA Abu Ghraib Prison.

Americans Torture Muslim Prisoners

Abu Ghraib abuse unreleased photos 'show rape & a lot more'

Photographs of alleged prisoner abuse which Barack Obama is attempting to censor include images of apparent rape and sexual abuse, it has emerged.

At least one picture shows an American soldier apparently raping a female prisoner while another is said to show a male translator raping a male detainee.

What is so fucking funny to these moronic US soldiers? Too afraid to do what is right and stand up to their commanders when ordered to do such things. There is no one on this planet that can make me do a God Damn thing I feel is unjust! MS. 16-08-09.

Further photographs are said to depict sexual assaults on prisoners with objects including a truncheon, wire and a phosphorescent tube.

Another apparently shows a female prisoner having her clothing forcibly removed to expose her breasts.

Detail of the content emerged from Major General Antonio Taguba, the former army officer who conducted an inquiry into the Abu Ghraib jail in Iraq.

Allegations of rape and abuse were included in his 2004 report but the fact there were photographs was never revealed. He has now confirmed their existence in an interview with the Daily Telegraph.

The graphic nature of some of the images may explain the US President’s attempts to block the release of an estimated 2,000 photographs from prisons in Iraq and Afghanistan despite an earlier promise to allow them to be published. (Photo on Rte. shows the massive amount of blood, as a result of a prisoners torture...sic)

Maj Gen Taguba, who retired in January 2007, said he supported the President’s decision, adding: “These pictures show torture, abuse, rape and every indecency.

“I am not sure what purpose their release would serve other than a legal one and the consequence would be to imperil our troops, the only protectors of our foreign policy, when we most need them, and British troops who are trying to build security in Afghanistan.

“The mere description of these pictures is horrendous enough, take my word for it.”

ABC News obtained two new photos taken at the Abu Ghraib prison in Iraq showing Spc. Sabrina Harmon posing over the body of a detainee who was allegedly beaten to death by CIA or civilian interrogators in the prison's showers. The detainee's name was Manadel al-Jamadi. Mark Rothschild writes about the details of this poor man's death.

( Smile, you sic bitch. I am hopeful that you will suffer even a more horrific death)

In April, Mr. Obama’s administration said the photographs would be released and it would be “pointless to appeal” against a court judgment in favour of the American Civil Liberties Union (ACLU).

But after lobbying from senior military figures, Mr. Obama changed his mind saying they could put the safety of troops at risk.

Earlier this month, he said: “The most direct consequence of releasing them, I believe, would be to inflame anti-American public opinion and to put our troops in greater danger.”

It was thought the images were similar to those leaked five years ago, which showed naked and bloody prisoners being intimidated by dogs, dragged around on a leash, piled into a human pyramid and hooded and attached to wires.



American's War Against Humanity!

A baton-wielding US soldier, appears to be ordering a naked detainee covered in "Shit" to walk a straight line with his ankles handcuffed.

Mr. Obama seemed to reinforce that view by adding: “I want to emphasize that these photos that were requested in this case are not particularly sensational, especially when compared to the painful images that we remember from Abu Ghraib.”

The latest photographs relate to 400 cases of alleged abuse between 2001 and 2005 in Abu Ghraib and six other prisons. Mr. Obama said the individuals involved had been “identified, and appropriate actions” taken.

Maj Gen Taguba’s internal inquiry into the abuse at Abu Ghraib, included sworn statements by 13 detainees, which, he said in the report, he found “credible based on the clarity of their statements and supporting evidence provided by other witnesses.”

Among the graphic statements, which were later released under US freedom of information laws, is that of Kasim Mehaddi Hilas in which he says: “I saw [name of a translator] ******* a kid, his age would be about 15 to 18 years. The kid was hurting very bad and they covered all the doors with sheets. Then when I heard screaming I climbed the door because on top it wasn’t covered and I saw [name] who was wearing the US military uniform, putting his cock in the little kid’s ass…. and the female soldier was taking pictures.”

The translator was an American Egyptian who is now the subject of a civil court case in the US.

Three detainees, including the alleged victim, refer to the use of a phosphorescent tube in the sexual abuse and another to the use of wire, while the victim also refers to part of a policeman’s “stick” all of which were apparently photographed. Horrific, but lets not forget what the Moslems are doing to each other, as well. My insight...the entire fucking world and their archaic religions and inhumanity are sick and disgusting! MS. 16-08-09

His name was Khalid Waleed Ahmed. He was Sunni,36 years old, married and having three kids, the youngest one was only 4 months years old. He was an engineer, working for a private company, and he lived in the Ur area in Baghdad.

Thursday 23 February 2006 at 6:00 pm when he was having dinner, his house was raided by several men dressed in black. They came with many cars, they took him away.. After three days they found him in the morgue in Baghdad.

His name was Wa’ad Jajim Mohammed, Sunni, 46 years old, married and having three kids. He lived in the Cairo area in Baghdad. On 25 February 2006 he was taken from his house at 4:45 am. His family found his dead body in the morgue after two days.

December 11 2005 In the poor popular district of Abou-Deshir where ordinary people live, agents of the “Maghawir” Police, of The Ministry of Interior, committed a terrible crime, which could be added to the crimes of sectarian militias working as undercover Security Forces and under full American protection. On Friday 11th of December 2005, The Police arrested 11 young men at 10 A.M. and drove them from their homes to a nearby place used as headquarters, a place which became a house of torture and execution, in spite of its outer look of a mosque.

The very next day, the 12th of December, four of the bodies of these prisoners were found at 11 A.M. These four persons were: Mohammed Hamid Abdul-Rached, his cousin (Saad Hamza Nayef), Soheil Nijm Elwan and his brother (Hamid Nijm Elwan). They were found only 8 hours after their arrest, near the headquarters and in the same area.

Their bodies had been mutilated with electrical drills, the eyes of one of them had been gouged, they had been severely beaten, their bodies were covered with blue bruises, some of them were ironed and burned with an electric iron, ropes had been used to strangle them or hang them from the ceiling. Some clearly sectarian expressions were written on their bodies and then they had been shot dead.

I do not apologize for having to publish such painful pictures and feel it is necessary for a clearer understanding of the role played by Moslems who wear police uniforms, while torturing the sons of other Iraqi Moslems, because their Allah is better than the un-believers Allah.

Their bodies were covered with deep bruises. The eyes of one of them had been gouged out.


Ropes had been used to strangle or hang them.          Head squashed, brains falling out                

Eyes burned out.                                                 Burned with an electric iron,

Mutilated with electrical drills.

April 17 2008: Baghdad, Iraq.
Iraqi security forces have found more than 100 bodies in two mass graves, military officials said on Sunday.

Fifty bodies were found in a mass grave in central Iraq on Sunday, a military source in the area said, and another team said it had discovered more than 50 bodies in a grave south of Baghdad . The grave found on Sunday was in the village of al-Guba, 80 km north of Baghdad, in the troubled Diyala province, where al Qaeda Sunni Arab militants have regrouped after being driven out of other parts of the country. Most of the bodies had their hands bound and gunshot wounds in the head. Some were decomposed, according to the military source, who declined to be named. A senior security spokesman in Baghdad, Major-General Qassim Moussawi, said police and Iraqi military had uncovered 51 bodies in a grave on April 17 in Mahmudiya, a town 30 km south of Baghdad. “We received information from some citizens that there are bodies in the al-Askari neighborhood in Mahmudiya. We searched the neighborhood and found the bodies,” Moussawi said. He added that security forces had taken them to the morgue of a local hospital and some families had already identified the victims as their relatives. How many more must die for religion? MS. 07-25-09

Watch the below video of a recent beheading in Jeddah!

 

 

 

 

Watch the above video of A Saudi Arabian Executioner.
And these sick people still state that Islam is a peaceful Religion?

Army of God's Rev. Bray
Praises the Beheading of Gay Men

By Bill Berkowitz

Shortly after the New Year's Day beheading of 3 homosexuals in Saudi Arabia, the Rev. Michael Bray, who is known as the "chaplain" of the Army of God (AOG), wrote effusively about the executions. At the AOG's website, the Rev. Bray writes:

"While the Christians among us westerners would decline to emulate our Muslim friends in many ways…we can appreciate the justice they advocate regarding sodomy. Might these fellows also consider an embryonic jihad?...Open the borders! Bring in some agents of cleansing."

Five months later, on May 18, Saudi Arabia "executed yet another homosexual pervert," according to Bray. "The Saudi's," he wrote, "illustrated the Almighty's craft in bringing good out of evil.


Beheadings by Islamists

 


 Bulgarian Ivaylo Kepov alive on left and beheaded above by Islamist Murderers

Along with the image, the following message was posted (translation via BNN):

His government refused to respond to the legitimate demands of the mujahideen (holy fighters) and is an ally of the Americans, and its forces are participating in the crusader invasion of Iraq. "This is a warning to all allies of the idiot (U.S. President George W.) Bush and those cooperating with him inside and outside of Iraq. You have been warned.

The site also called him the "Bulgarian Parasite". Lest we forget, he was a human, a husband and a Father before meeting up with 'militants' in the Religion of Peace. Islamist Extremist, like any and all Religious Zealots are degenerates and should be eradicated from the planet.

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Islamist beheading of American Eugene Armstrong

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Islamist beheading of American Jack Hensley

Do you really want these people moving to your country. Immigrating these people is insane!

War and Beyond

  • The number of Iraqi dead in the Iran-Iraq war is estimated at over 1,500,000. Needless to say this doesn't come close to the Iraqi dead in the USA led war and the massing numbers of senseless killing still happening.

The posted pictures illustrate extreme violence among Arabs in Arab cities. Note that the crowd that surrounds the scene of violence and savagery watches idly without any sign of opposition. Thus, the public appears to accept these barbaric scenes as part of their daily life.

A body of a suspected informer hangs by his foot from a power pole as a crowd, including children, watches, in the southern West Bank town of Hebron, Tuesday, April 23, 2002. (AP Photo, below left).

(Pic. on right. A demonstration protesting the cartoons published in a Danish Newspaper.)

The cartoons were first published in Denmark, and then in newspapers elsewhere in Europe in a show of solidarity with press freedoms.

Hamas leader Mahmoud Zahar told the Italian daily il Giornale on Saturday that the cartoons were an offense that should be punished by death. "We should have killed all those who offend the Prophet and instead here we are, protesting peacefully," Zahar said.
"Well there goes free speech!" MS. 07-25-09

Arabic Extremes

Some Arabs before Islam used to bury their daughters alive; Islam eventually abolished this practice (surah 81 verse 8-9).

In the sirah (Biography of the prophet), the father of the prophet Mohammed, Abdullah, was about to be sacrificed by his own father Abd-Almutalib to fulfill an oath he had taken. He was saved from death and 100 camels were slaughtered instead.

Exorcism, while most believe is a Christian practice is also common to Islam. Furthermore there are a whole subset of supplications (du’a) intended to guard one’s property and/or self from the influences of the unseen (Jinn, Shaitan (plural)) (which may or may not be evil.). Summary; See above, as all religions are superstitious replicas.

Islamic Honor Killings

Beheading of his wife by a Muslim who received a prize from the CAIR for promoting peaceful Islam!

The beheading of 37-year-old Aasiya Hassan has all the markings of an honor killing, psychologists and Islamic experts tell FOXNews.com, as the upstate New York woman's husband awaits a preliminary hearing on murder charges.

Chesler said honor killings typically are Muslim-on-Muslim crimes and largely involve teenage daughters, young women and, to a lesser extent, wives.

But Chesler said the "extremely gruesome nature" of the crime closely matches the characteristics of an honor killing. "Leaving the body parts displayed the way he did, like a terrorist would do, that's very peculiar, it's very public," Chesler said. "He wanted to show that even though his business venture may have been failing, that he was in control of his wife."

"As long as Islamist advocacy groups continue to obfuscate the problem, and government and police officials accept their inaccurate versions of reality, women will continue to be killed for honor around the world and in the West, such murder may even accelerate," Chesler wrote. "Unchecked by Western law, their blood will be on society's hands."

M. Zuhdi Jasser, founder and chairman of the American Islamic Forum for Democracy, agreed with Chesler. "It certainly has all the markings of [an honor killing]," Jasser told FOXNews.com. "She expressed through the legal system that she was being abused, and at the moment she asked for divorce, she's not only murdered — she's decapitated." Muzzammil and Aasiya Hassan founded Bridges TV in November 2004 to counter anti-Islam stereotypes, touting the network as the "first-ever full-time home for American Muslims," according to a 2004 press release. Jasser said he was concerned that Aasiya Hassan suffered such a barbaric death after she and her husband were seen as a couple focused on bettering the "Islamic image" in the United States.

GERMANY: HONOR KILLING VICTIM'S FACE "BEATEN BEYOND RECOGNITION"

Wednesday, March 11, 2009

Again, this is not some third world Islamic hellhole, this is Germany. Another Muslim girl severely beaten (repeatedly), scared to death of her family (and rightly so), and ultimately brutally murdered because she refused forced Islamic marriage in Turkey.

And again a case of brutality of Immigrant shocks the land.

The young Turkish woman was beaten to death with a stick, her face unrecognizable, because she loved the wrong man and was pregnant with his child. Finally her parents searched for another man for her. She should have a traditional arranged marriage like her sister.

There is no trace of the attacker, but her boyfriend Altin P. age 25 complains: "She must die, because she wanted to live like a normal woman!" An honor killing? That is what her acquaintances believe.

Over the last year had the Altin and Gülsüm gotten to know each other. From the beginning Gülsüms family was against the relationship. Altin: "Gülsüm was promised to a man in Turkey for marriage. Like her sister she should have an arranged marriage."

Many times had her brother and father had beaten her. One time she went to the hospital with a broken jaw.

By the end of November Gülsüm was pregnant with Altins baby. The boyfriend: "We were very pleased, but Gülsüm had panic stricken fear of her family."

Her sister persuaded Gülsüm to have an illegal abortion in the 5th month in Amsterdam. Back in Nord Rhein Westfalen the woman had to go to the hospital because of sever bleeding.

Two days after being released from the hospital, she was beaten to death by her family.

Jordanian Parliament Supports Impunity For Honor Killings

(Washington DC, January 27, 2000) -- Human Rights Watch today condemned the failure of the Jordanian Lower House to end impunity for men who murder female family members in the name of preserving the "honor" of the family.

"For too long, men in Jordan have been getting away with murder," said Regan Ralph, executive director of the Women's Rights Division at Human Rights Watch. "This vote is a slap in the face of Jordanian women who have been organizing to stop the killings." Since August 1999, women's and human rights activists have gathered over 13,000 signatures calling for an end to honor killings. An estimated 25-30 women are killed in Jordan every year to protect family "honor."

This is the second time in two months that the Jordanian Lower House has failed to abolish Article 340 of the Penal Code, which provides for lenient sentences when men kill their female relatives in the name of "honor." Parliamentarians justified their defense of honor killings as protection of Jordan's traditional and moral values against western influences.

Muslim Honour Killing In Canada: Three Daughters & “First Wife” Murdered By Father, 2nd Wife and Son.

"Sister" Turns Out To Be Wife Number Two
Murdering Mohammed Shafii, son Hamid Mohammed Shafii and "sister" Tooba Mohammad Yahya - who turned out to be father's wife number two.


Amina and Sarah, the Said sisters were raped and murdered by their Muslim father, still at large.

On New Year's Day, the bodies of two teenage girls were found in an abandoned taxi cab in Irving, Texas. They had been shot multiple times, and the vehicle dumped outside the Omni Mandalay Hotel. The girls were sisters Amina Yaser Said (aged 18) and Sarah Yaser Said (aged 17) who lived in Lewisville. They had been shot dead, according to police, by their father Yaser Abdel Said. This Egyptian-born immigrant had worked as a taxi driver, and had arrived in the United States in the 1980s. He has gone on the run, and is said to be armed and dangerous. A 911 call was made by one of the girls on a cellphone at 7.30 pm to Irving police to say that they were in danger, but the caller could not say where they were located. (Left, the killed girls. On rt. Pic of Father)

The two girls were popular and intelligent, who had boyfriends. It appears that after the recent case of Toronto Muslim schoolgirl Aqsa Parvez who was apparently choked to death by her father for being too "Westernized", the killing of the two sisters in Lewisville is the second Muslim honor killing in North America in less than a month. (Pic. on left of the 2 murder girls)

News on the murder of the two girls and the continuing hunt for their father (pictured right) can be found at the Washington Times, Dallas Morning News, ABC News, the Star-Telegram and Fox News.

It certainly seems from some accounts that this is a case of a so-called "honor killing". Relatives said: "Sarah and Amina dressed in Western clothes and listened to pop music." The father was said to be angry at them for "not acting like proper Muslim girls".

Having a boyfriend is frowned upon by most conservative Muslims, and both girls dated boys. One of these said: "She just wanted a normal life, like any American girl wanted." He added that Sarah "was always kind, gentle, always cheerful, always had a smile on her face."

Sarah had confided in a friend that if her father found out about her boyfriend, whom she had met at her job, he would kill her. Both boyfriends are said to be fearful as the girls' father is said to be "a dangerous man".

Riaz_girls

Caneze Riaz, 39, and her four daughters, Sayrah, 16, Sophia, 15, Alicia, 10, and Hannah, 3 UK (Muhammad Riaz killed his wife and four daughters by throwing petrol over them as they slept and igniting it.) (Pic. on left)

Thousands of Women Killed for Family "Honor"

Hillary Mayell
for National Geographic News
 
February 12, 2002

Hundreds, if not thousands, of women are murdered by their families each year in the name of family "honor." It's difficult to get precise numbers on the phenomenon of honor killing; the murders frequently go unreported, the perpetrators unpunished, and the concept of family honor justifies the act in the eyes of some societies.

Most honor killings occur in countries where the concept of women as a vessel of the family reputation predominates, said Marsha Freemen, director of International Women's Rights Action Watch at the Hubert Humphrey Institute of Public Affairs at the University of Minnesota.

Reports submitted to the United Nations Commission on Human Rights show that honor killings have occurred in Bangladesh, Great Britain, Brazil, Ecuador, Egypt, India, Israel, Italy, Jordan, Pakistan, Morocco, Sweden, Turkey, and Uganda. In countries not submitting reports to the UN, the practice was condoned under the rule of the fundamentalist Taliban government in Afghanistan, and has been reported in Iraq and Iran.


Honour killings in Europe Why?

Islam Under Scrutiny by Ex-Muslims

According to the United Nations, more than 5000 women and children are killed every year under the name of honour killing. The murder of Fadime Sahindal in Sweden brought about a lot of feelings and media coverage all over the world.

Following this tragic event, a lot of questions were raised and debates carried out as to why and how such a crime could have happened. A lot of people talked about the fact that women are killed in different circumstances and that it involves violence by men against women.

The fact that women are killed is a bitter truth. However, when women and children are murdered by their own close relatives and loved ones is a concept that has its roots mainly in the Middle East where women’s sexuality has always been the centre of power and production and are killed for it!.

Abbas Rezai (2005):  A 20-year-old Iranian man, gets killed in Hogsby. The motive is supposedly that his girlfriend’s family, who comes from Afghanistan, could not accept their relationship. The trial found the girlfriend’s brother guilty and confined him for four years in institutional youth welfare and banishment from Sweden for life. Her parents are free. The lawyer of the mother to the murdered man is convinced that they planned the killing and has the opinion that they also should be sentenced for the murder.

A Kurdish Wife (2003): A 28-year-old Kurdish man stabs his one-year-younger wife with 37 slashes in Strangnas. The man did not accept that his wife wanted to get a divorce. The trial found him guilty and fined him ten years in prison and banishment from Sweden for life.

Fadime Sahindal (2002): A 26-year-old Kurdish girl, was killed in Uppsala in the evening of the 21st January. Her father did not accept that she had a Swedish boyfriend and wanted to have Swedish life style. The trial found her father guilty and he got a life sentence. Two months before she was killed she held a speech in the Swedish Parliament about her life and how she was treated by her family, relatives and Swedish authorities.

Pela Atroshi (1999): She was shot to death in Dhouk in Iraqi Kurdistan. Her sister called the Swedish police and reported the murder. Two uncles got a life sentence for the murder. The father is still wanted by the authorities.

Umea (1996): A 15-year-old Iraqi girl in Umea was killed by her brother and cousin after a party. The motive was that she had a Swedish life style.

Palestinian Girl (1994): A Palestinian man in Vastmanland killed his 18-year-old daughter when she refused to marry the man the father had chosen for her.

Honor Killing Victim, Stomped, Suffocated, Stabbed. Her murderer, her Dad, walks free.

Sunday, April 27, 2008

The crime, so grotesque, is not the worst of it. After her horrific murder her father was released from custody,  "'Not much can be done when we have an "honour killing" case. You are in a Muslim society and women should live under religious laws".

This is not the exception, but the rule.

Her crime was to fall in love. She paid with her life The Guardian hat tip Yisrael. Investigation by Afif Sarhan in Basra, Mark Townsend and Caroline Davies

When Rand Abdel-Qader, 17, told her closest friend that she was in love from the moment she set eyes on the young British soldier working alongside her in Basra, and she dreamed of a future with him.

It was an innocent infatuation, but five months after Rand, a student of English at Basra University, met Paul, a 22-year-old soldier posted to southern Iraq, she was dead. She was stomped on, suffocated and stabbed by her father. Several brutal knife wounds punctured her slender, bruised body - from her face to her feet. He had done it, he proclaimed to the neighbours who soon gathered round, to 'cleanse his honour'.

And as Rand was put into the ground, without ceremony, her uncles spat on her covered corpse because she had brought shame on the family. Her crime was the worst they could possibly imagine - she had fallen in love with a British soldier and dared to talk to him in public.

Rand was murdered in March, 2008. That the relationship was innocent was no defense. She had been seen conversing intimately with Paul. It was enough to condemn her, because he was British, a Christian, 'the invader', and the enemy. The two met while he was helping to deliver relief aid to displaced families in the city and she was working as a volunteer. They continued to meet through their relief work in the following months.

Rand last saw Paul in January, two months before her death. It was only on 16 March that her father, Abdel-Qader Ali, learned of their friendship. He was told by a friend, who worked closely with police, that Rand had been seen with Paul at one of the places they both worked as volunteers. Enraged, he headed straight home to demand an explanation from his daughter.

'When he entered the house, his eyes were bloodshot and he was trembling,' said Rand's mother, Leila Hussein, tears streaming down her face as she recalled her daughter's murder. 'I got worried and tried to speak to him but he headed straight for our daughter's room and he started to yell at her.'

'He asked if it was true that she was having an affair with a British soldier. She started to cry. She was nervous and desperate. He got hold of her hair and started thumping her again and again.

'I screamed and called out for her two brothers so they could get their father away from her. But when he told them the reason, instead of saving her they helped him end her life,' she said.

She said Ali used his feet to press down hard on his own daughter's throat until she was suffocated. Then he called for a knife and began to cut at her body. All the time he was calling out that his honour was being cleansed.

'I just couldn't stand it. I fainted.' recalled Leila. 'I woke up in a blur later with dozens of neighbours at home and the local police.'

According to Leila, her husband was initially arrested. 'But he was released two hours later because it was an "honour killing". And, unfortunately, that is something to be proud of for any Iraqi or Muslim man.'

At the police station where the father was held Sergeant Ali Jabbar told The Observer last week: 'Not much can be done when we have an "honour killing" case. You are in a Muslim society and women should live under religious laws. I thought we liberated Iraq?

'But the thing she used to like talking about best was how he praised her beauty and her intelligence. She told me he called her "princess".'

Despite knowing how dangerous the consequences of her actions could be, and the punishment she faced if caught, her passion for Paul grew stronger, said Zeinab. 'She never did anything more than talk to him. She was proud to be a virgin and had a dream to give herself to the man she loved only after her marriage. But she was seen as an animal,' said Zeinab.

'What they did to her was ugly and pathetic. Rand was just a young girl with romantic dreams. She always kept her religion close to her heart. She would never even hurt a petal on a rose.'

Last year 133 women were killed in Basra - 47 of them for so-called 'honour killings', according to the Basra Security Committee. Out of those 47 cases there have been only three convictions for murder.

But while honor killings have elicited considerable attention and outrage, human rights activists argue that they should be regarded as part of a much larger problem of violence against women.

In India, for example, more than 5,000 brides die annually because their dowries are considered insufficient, according to the United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF). Crimes of passion, which are treated extremely leniently in Latin America, are the same thing with a different name, some rights advocates say.

"In countries where Islam is practiced, they're called honor killings, but dowry deaths and so-called crimes of passion have a similar dynamic in that the women are killed by male family members and the crimes are perceived as excusable or understandable," said Widney Brown, advocacy director for Human Rights Watch.

The practice, she said, "goes across cultures and across religions."

Complicity by other women in the family and the community strengthens the concept of women as property and the perception that violence against family members is a family and not a judicial issue.

"Females in the family—mothers, mothers-in-law, sisters, and cousins—frequently support the attacks. It's a community mentality," said Zaynab Nawaz, a program assistant for women's human rights at Amnesty International.

Teenager 'honour killing' girl made dramatic plea for help before she died

By JAMES TOZER

Last updated at 00:02 10 January 2008

Shafilea Ahmed

Shafilea Ahmed claimed that she was regularly beaten by her parents. A Muslim teenager made a dramatic plea to be saved from her abusive parents a few months before she died in what police believe was an "honour killing."

Shafilea Ahmed was seen with injuries on her neck, an inquest heard yesterday. The westernized 17-year-old, who wanted to become a solicitor, was frightened her parents would send her to Pakistan and force her into an arranged marriage.

After running away from home, she told a local council housing officer: "There were regular incidents since I was 15 - one parent would hold me while the other would hit me." She said her parents, taxi-driver Iftikhar Ahmed, 48, and his wife Farzana, had prevented her going to school or her part-time call centre job.

Shafilea also said her mother stole £2,000 she had saved from her bank account.

She ran away in February 2003, climbing out of a window of her home in Warrington, Cheshire, with the help of her friend Melissa Powner.

Miss Powner confirmed that Shafilea had lived in fear of her parents. Months earlier she had been off school for a week and returned with visible injuries on her neck. Shafilea explained they came from a confrontation with her parents over boys' phone numbers on a phone bill.

Miss Powner said: "She didn't have much of a life - she wasn't able to be with her friends and socialize outside school."

 


 

She said that as they were walking to school one morning, Mr Ahmed saw them and pulled Shafilea into his car. Miss Powner said: "He shoved me out the way and said 'Keep out of it'."

Police were called, but Shafilea agreed to return home, saying later that her mother had got down on her knees and promised there would be no forced marriage. Days later, however, she was flown to Pakistan with her father.

When she returned in the summer of 2003 she needed weeks of hospital treatment after either being forced or voluntarily swallowing bleach in protest at a planned marriage. In September she enrolled to continue her A-levels at Priestley College, Warrington, and made contact with Miss Powner. But before they could meet, Shafilea disappeared. Her family did not raise the alarm, but police were called by a teacher after the teenager missed classes. Her parents put their home on the market the same day, telling a potential buyer they were moving because their daughter had brought 'shame' on the family. Shafilea's remains were found in February 2004 beside the river Kent in Cumbria, 100 miles away. A pathologist has said she was probably smothered or strangled.

Mian Khan, who was introduced at the Kendal hearing as Shafilea's grandfather, insisted there (Above, Parents Mr. and Mrs. Ahmed with a family friend on far right) had never been any plans to force her to marry. But on being asked to confirm that Shafilea's father was indeed his son, he opted not to reply after being told he did not have to answer questions which might incriminate him. Accused of affirming, rather than swearing an oath on the Koran, because he knew he was going to be telling lies, he again refused to answer.

'Family turned a blind eye' as teenage bride was beaten to death by arranged husband'

by CHRIS BROOKE. Last updated at 13:06 08 January 2008

A teenage bride was beaten to death by her husband while her in-laws who shared the same house ignored her sickening ordeal, a court heard yesterday.

Sabia Rani, 19, was repeatedly attacked over a three-week period, suffering bruising over 90% of her body and 'catastrophic' injuries usually only seen in car crash victims.

The 'vulnerable' teenager, who had arrived five months earlier from Pakistan for the arranged marriage, required emergency treatment in a hospital intensive care unit, the jury at Leeds Crown Court heard.

Beaten to death: Sabia Rani (left) was repeatedly attacked over a three-week period by Shazad Khan (right)

But not only did four members of her husband's family do nothing to help her, they turned a blind eye as he continued the beatings and ultimately murdered the helpless young woman at the house they all shared.

The victim's mother-in-law and a sister-in-law blamed her horrific injuries, which included at least 15 fractures and 10 fractured ribs, on 'evil spirits, curses and black magic.' While two of the family allegedly lied under oath while giving evidence in husband Shazad Khan's murder trial in a deliberate attempt to help him cheat justice, the court was not persuaded.

Khan, 25, of Oakwood Grange, Leeds, was convicted of murdering his wife at Leeds Crown Court last January. After the trial police launched an investigation into the role of other family members sharing the house. Detectives arrested and charged the victim's mother-in-law Phullan Bibi, 52, sisters-in-law Nazia Naureen, 28, sister-in-law Uzma Khan, 23, and her husband Majid Hussain, 28. All four denied a charge of allowing the death of a vulnerable adult. Khan and Hussain also denied a charge of perjury.

Summarizing the prosecution case Simon Myerson, QC, said of the defendants: 'They did nothing. She was in severe pain, but not one of them did anything about it. Sabia grew up in the Pakistani region of Kashmir and arrived in the UK in December 2005 to marry her cousin Shazad Khan and live with his family in Leeds. Although they 'signed a marriage certificate' in Pakistan three years earlier, they were not formally married until a ceremony on 15 January 2006. The teenage bride didn't speak English, knew no one else apart from her husband's family and never went out alone, the court heard.

Paramedics were called to the family home at 11.28 am on Sunday 21 May 2006 to find Sabia's fully-clothed and dead body in an upstairs bathroom. They claimed Sabia had been found dead in the bath, but the court heard she was 'probably killed in the garage' and her body taken upstairs. Mr. Myerson said Khan had inflicted a number of brutal attacks during the last three weeks of Sabia's life. The final attack which killed her was 'prolonged and vicious,' the court heard. Her agonizing rib fractures were caused by 'kicks, stomps or very hard punches or both.'

The court heard Sabia would have been in terrible pain and her injuries 'couldn't have been hidden by simple stoicism.' She was given paracetemol, but needed powerful medication and hospital care. However, the defendants claimed they saw no injuries on her body and didn't realize she was in pain.

Mr. Myerson said this explanation was a lie and because they shared the same home and regularly spent time with Sabia they must have realized the ordeal she was enduring alone. He said: 'There must have come a time when each defendant knew Sabia Rani was ill and in pain. They must have known or suspected Shazad Khan was the cause of her illness and pain and must have known it was unlawful.'

He added: 'This family disliked Shabia from almost the beginning. That dislike grew until it turned into violence by Shazad Khan.' Bibi, the mother-in-law, was said to shout at Sabia continuously over 'petty things' and the teenager would 'tip toe around the house trying not to upset her.' The court heard Khan said she was told by a 'holy man' who examined an item of the victim's clothing that she had been 'possessed by evil spirits.' But Mr. Myerson said: 'This is not a question of faith, this is a question of evidence.'

He said there have been no scientifically verified cases in which 'evil spirits have beaten a girl to death.' "Oh really!" MS. 08-05-09. 'The evil spirit who beat Sabia Rani was Shazad Khan and Uzma Khan knew that perfectly well.'

Hinduism


Hindus in India bathing in the extremely polluted Ganges River

Religion originating in northern India about 4,000 years ago, which is superficially and in some of its forms polytheistic, but has a concept of the supreme spirit, Brahman, above the many divine manifestations. These include the triad of chief gods (the Trimurti): Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva (creator, preserver, and destroyer). Central to Hinduism are the beliefs in reincarnation and karma; the oldest scriptures are the Vedas. Temple worship is almost universally observed and there are many festivals. There are over 805 million Hindus worldwide. Women are not regarded as the equals of men but should be treated with kindness and respect. Muslim influence in northern India led to the veiling of women and the restriction of their movements from about the end of the 12th century.

Roots

Hindu beliefs originated in the Indus Valley civilization about 4,500 years ago, which passed on a rich assortment of myths and legends to the Dravidians. Following the invasion of northern India by the Aryans, about 3,000 years ago, these myths were absorbed into Aryan ritual and religion, which now forms much of the tradition of Hindu religion. Ancient Babylonian and Egyptian influences are also discernible.

Scriptures

The Veda collection of hymns, compiled by the Aryans, was followed by the philosophical Upanishads, centering on the doctrine of Brahman; and the epics, containing both Aryan and pre-Aryan material, Rāmāyana and Mahābhārata (which includes the Bhagavad-Gītā). All were in existence before the Christian era. The Puranas, sacred historical texts dating from the 4th century AD, reflect the many cultural streams of India.

Beliefs

Hindu belief and ritual can vary greatly even between villages. Some deities achieve widespread popularity such as Krishna, Hanuman, Lakshmi, and Mahādevī; others, more localized and specialized, are referred to particularly in times of sickness or need. Some deities manifest themselves in different incarnations or avatars such as Rama or Krishna, both avatars of the god Vishnu.

Underlying this multifaceted worship is the creative strength of Brahman, the supreme being. Hindus believe that all living things are part of Brahman: they are sparks of atman, or divine life, that transmute from one body to another, sometimes descending into the form of a plant or an insect, sometimes the body of a human. This is all according to its karma or past actions, which are the cause of its sufferings or joy as it rises and falls in samsara (the endless cycle of birth and death). Humans have the opportunity, through knowledge and devotion, to break the karmic chain and achieve final liberation, or moksha. The atman is then free to return to Brahman.

The creative force of the universe is recognized in the god Brahma. Once he has brought the cosmos into being, it is sustained by Vishnu and then annihilated by the god Shiva, only to be created once more by Brahma. Vishnu and Shiva are, respectively, the forces of light and darkness, preservation and destruction, with Brahma as the balancing force that enables the existence and interaction of life. The cosmos is seen as both real and an illusion maya, since its reality is not lasting; the cosmos is itself personified as the goddess Maya.

Practice

Hinduism has a complex of rites and ceremonies performed within the framework of the jati, or caste system, under the supervision of the Brahman priests and teachers. In India, caste is traditionally derived from the four classes of early Hindu society: Brahmans (priests), Kshatriyas (nobles and warriors), Vaisyas (traders and cultivators), and Sudras (servants). A fifth class, the untouchables, regarded as polluting in its origins, remained (and still largely remains) on the edge of Hindu society. The Indian Constituent Assembly (1947) made discrimination against the scheduled castes or depressed classes illegal, but strong prejudice continues.

Western influence

The International Society for Krishna Consciousness (ISKON), the Western organization of the Hare Krishna movement, was introduced to the West from India in 1965 by Swami Prabhupada (1896–1977). Members are expected to lead ascetic lives. It is based on devotion to Krishna which includes study of the Bhagavad-Gītā, temple and home ritual, and the chanting of the name Hare (saviour) Krishna. Members are expected to avoid meat, eggs, alcohol, tea, coffee, drugs, and gambling. Sexual relationships should be only for procreation within the bonds of marriage.

"India: Faithful Mourn Death Of Priest Attacked In Orissa"

("Compass Direct News", October 31, 2008)

Hindus chase, rape, torture and beat Christians to death.

New Delhi, India – More than 3,000 people today attended the funeral in Bhubaneswar, Orissa of a Catholic priest who died on Tuesday (Oct. 28) from injuries sustained in anti-Christian violence that began in August.

Father Bernard Digal died in Chennai, Tamil Nadu, after an operation to remove a blood clot that developed in his brain due to a head injury from Hindu extremists attacking him on Aug. 25-26 in Kandhamal district, Orissa state. He was 46.

“He was smashed like a pulp,” Raphael Cheenath, archbishop of Cuttack-Bhubaneswar, told Compass. “Because of the hate campaign of the [Hindu extremist] Sangh Parivar, the attackers lost their humanity and they became devils. Human beings can’t do what they have done.”

Archbishop Cheenath flew with Fr. Digal’s remains from Chennai to Orissa. Treasurer of Cuttack-Bhubaneswar archdiocese in Orissa, Fr. Digal was visiting Sankarakhole parish when violence flared after Maoists killed Hindu leader Laxmanananda Saraswati and his disciples on Aug. 23.

Though police suspected Maoists from the start and the outlawed Marxists had claimed responsibility for the murders by Sept. 1, Hindu extremists bent on stoking anti-Christian flames continued to publicize that Christians had committed the crime – and have not stopped doing so.

Fr. Digal and Father Alexander Chandy, along with driver Sisir Pradhan, had taken shelter in a forest after a furious mob gathered outside the parish shouting slogans to kill all missionaries. After spending two days in the forest, they left the forest after Fr. Chandy became ill, moving from village to village.

They finally took refuge in a gutted church building in Dudukangia village. It had been torched and only its walls were standing. Legs swollen from walking, the refugees hoped that the enraged Hindu mobs would not come, Archbishop Cheenath said.

But the mob tracked them down by midnight, the archbishop said, and the clerics and driver ran. The crowd caught hold of Fr. Digal, who later told Archbishop Cheenath, “The mob shouted to each other to kill me. I pleaded for my life, but in vain.”

Stripping Fr. Digal naked, the Hindu mob then hit him with crowbars, iron rods, cycle chains, axes, sticks and other weapons, the archbishop said.

“They made a bonfire to burn him alive,” he said.

Seeing the fire, Fr. Digal managed to escape and run through some thorny bushes but was caught shortly after. The intolerant Hindus continued to hammer him until blood flowed from his head and he lost consciousness, and they left him for dead, Archbishop Cheenath said.

“He lay there on the wet ground and in the cool breeze for six to seven hours,” he added. Two villagers who found him in the forest carried him to Phulbani.

After much pressure, the state administration took Fr. Digal to a private hospital in Bhubaneswar, under security cover, and from there he was taken to Holy Spirit Hospital in Mumbai.

Discharged the first week of October after more than a month in the hospital, he reached Chennai, Tamil Nadu on Oct. 12 to visit his friend the vicar general of the archdiocese, who was undergoing a heart treatment in St. Thomas Hospital.

“Fr. Digal, after coming to Chennai, complained of high fever, blood in the urine and headache, and lastly his lungs collapsed,” Archbishop Cheenath told Compass.

Tests revealed he had a blood clot in the brain, and he underwent emergency surgery on Sunday evening (Oct. 26), reported The Times of India. The next day, he developed acute respiratory disorder and slipped into a coma.

Kandhmal district Police Chief Pravin Kumar told the national daily that he had no knowledge of the attack on Digal.

“So many incidents took place,” he reportedly said. “I don’t know whether there was any formal complaint pertaining to the attack on him. The police can begin an enquiry into the incident if a complaint is lodged even now.”

The Orissa state government has ordered a probe into the death of Fr. Digal, according to The Statesman News Service.

Fr. Digal was ordained on May 29, 1992. He was a native of the village of Tiangia in Kandhamal.

Orissa Rape Victim’s Plea

Two months after a nun was raped and paraded half-naked on Aug. 25 in the anti-Christian violence in Orissa, the victim went before the media in New Delhi on Oct. 24 and recounted her traumatic experience.

Her head and face covered by a black scarf, Sister Meena Lalita Barwa accused police of being “friendly” with the attackers and of not being responsive to her plea. Expressing her distrust in Orissa police for failing to protect her from those who raped her and other attackers, she demanded a Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI) probe.

The nun had gone into hiding after the attack but decided to come forward after the Supreme Court turned down her initial request for a CBI investigation last week.

Sr. Barwa read from her handwritten statement, giving stark details of the incident. Archbishop Cheenath accompanied her in the press conference.

“Two of them were holding my neck to cut off my head with an axe,” she said. “Others told them to take me out to the road; I saw Fr. [Thomas] Chellan also being taken out and being beaten.”

The 40 to 50 men were armed with axes, spades, crowbars, iron-rods and sickles, Sr. Barwa added. She said she was taken to a building full of ashes and broken glass and raped there, with the mob subsequently parading her and Fr. Chellan for about a half a kilometer. Upon reaching a market she asked about a dozen Orissa police to help her, she said, “but they did not move.”

“This hate campaign,” Archbishop Cheenath said, “is done under the very nose of the authorities, and they are mere spectators of these shameful deeds.”

At the Balliguda police station, the nun recounted, she told the inspector in charge and other government officers how she was attacked, raped, taken away from policemen and paraded half-naked, and how the officers did nothing as she wept bitterly. The inspector asked her, she said, if she knew “what will be the consequence” of filing a First Information Report (FIR).

On Aug. 26, as she was writing the FIR, the inspector told her to hurry and not write it in detail, she said.

“State police failed to stop the crimes, failed to protect me from the attackers, they were friendly with the attackers,” she said. “They tried their best that I did not register an FIR, not make complaints against police, [and] police did not take down my statement as I narrated in detail and they abandoned me half of the way. I was raped and now I don’t want to be victimized by the Orissa police. I want a CBI enquiry.”

Since her press conference, Orissa Chief Minister Naveen Patnaik has called for a detailed report on the sequence of events from the district collector and superintendent of police.

 Yajna
The Sanskrit Yajna is often translated as "sacrifice" but also means worship, devotion, offering, and oblation. It is especially used to describe the offering of ghee (clarified butter), grains, spices, and wood into a fire along with the chanting of sacred mantras. The fire represents Agni, the divine messenger who carries offerings to the Devas. The offerings can represent devotion, aspiration, and seeds of past karma. In Vedic times, Yajna commonly included the sacrifice of milk, ghee, curd, grains, and the soma plant—animal offerings were less common. In modern times, Yajna is often performed at weddings and funerals, and in personal worship. Sacrifice in Hinduism can also refer to personal surrender through acts of inner and outer worship.

A common occurrence; A boy is born with a grotesque birth defect and doctors recommend surgery, but Hindu religious leaders have rallied behind the child's family saying gods do not require or honor medical opinion from doctors to confirm to authenticate their belief that this boy is a reincarnation of the Hindu god; Lord Haunuman. The Dr. Surender Sharma says that the parents will be making the child's life extremely more difficult if they don't see a pediatrician immediately. The appendage was a deformity of the spinal column and/or a tumor that required urgent surgery." Its a shame that the Hindu fundamentalist are not allowing the child to undergo surgery.

Even today there are instances where the elders of villages, authorities unto themselves, mete out punishments like when a woman if branded a liar she had to dip her hands into hot boiling oil to prove her innocence and the such! Just recently I read a horrific story where a family and locals stormed a home and beat, kicked and murdered a young couple. Driving the bloodied and dead couple to their families homes they dropped their bodies in front of the house. Their crime? They married within their village, which is a taboo. Even sadder is that they were murdered by their own families in order to restore honor to the family's name. MS. 06-18-08.

Jainism, form of Hinduism
Digambar also spelled Digambara is one of the two main sects of Jainism. Senior Digambar monks wear no clothes.

Naked Jain priests keeping it real. The peacock feather brooms in hand are symbolic of their reverence for all living things, sweeping even the vulnerable little insects out of their path. In reality they use it to brush humans aside so they can get ahead of you.

They shed their clothes, following the practice of Lord Mahavira. They do not consider themselves to be nude — they are wearing the environment. Digambaras believe that this practice represents a refusal to give in to the body’s demands for comfort and private property — only Digambara ascetics are required to forsake clothing. Digambara ascetics have only two possessions: a peacock feather broom and a water gourd.

The native Jain communities of Maharashta, Bundelkhand (MP/UP), Karnataka, Tamil Nadu are all Digambaras. In north India, the Saravagis and the Agrawals are also Digambaras. In Gujarat and Southern Rajasthan, the majority of Jains follow the Svetambara tradition, although some Jain communities of these regions like the Humad are also Digambaras.

Jainism is an ancient religion from India that teaches that the way to liberation and bliss is to live lives of harmlessness and renunciation.

The essence of Jainism is concern for the welfare of every being in the universe and for the health of the universe itself.

Jains believe that animals and plants, as well as human beings, contain living souls. Each of these souls is considered of equal value and should be treated with respect and compassion.

Jains are strict vegetarians and live in a way that minimizes their use of the world's resources.

Jains believe in reincarnation and seek to attain ultimate liberation - which means escaping the continuous cycle of birth, death and rebirth so that the immortal soul lives for ever in a state of bliss.

Liberation is achieved by eliminating all karma from the soul.

Jainism is a religion of self-help.

There are no gods or spiritual beings that will help human beings.

The three guiding principles of Jainism, the 'three jewels', are right belief, right knowledge and right conduct.

The supreme principle of Jain living is non violence (ahimsa).

This is one of the 5 mahavratas (the 5 great vows). The other mahavratas are non-attachment to possessions, not lying, not stealing, and sexual restraint (with celibacy as the ideal).

Mahavira is regarded as the man who gave Jainism its present-day form.

The texts containing the teachings of Mahavira are called the Agamas.

Jains are divided into two major sects; the Digambara (meaning "sky clad") sect and the Svetambara (meaning "white clad") sect.

Jainism has no priests. Its professional religious people are monks and nuns, who lead strict and ascetic lives.


Indian Hindu Boys praying while laying in the filthy street of sewer mud

  • Sadhu

    A sadhu (wandering holy man) in Varanasi, Uttar Pradesh, India. The four Hindu stages of life consist of student, householder, forest dweller, and wandering dependant. The sadhu depends on gifts of food or money to support himself in the final stage of his life.

Most Jains live in India, and there are reported to be around 4.2 million throughout the world.

Bizarre Hindu Rituals

In India people that still have a cast system, the untouchables, known as Dalits. They are not just second class citizens but a group of about 160 million considered subhuman in their culture who's fates are determined at birth. Violence and discrimination against this group is widespread throughout the country. Newspaper stories of Dalits children being beaten to death for walking down the wrong path or women being raped with impunity by upper-caste Hindus seeking to keep them in their place are everywhere, the Police even egg on mobs attempting to lynch Dalits.

Mailatheppa: a bizarre ritual in the name of tradition

G.V. Ramana Rao

Hens are tied to a bamboo frame and drowned to ‘appease’ departed souls

VIJAYAWADA: It is a fit case for the intervention of government agencies that enforce the Andhra Pradesh Animals and Birds Sacrifice (Prohibition) Act, 1950, and also for organizations like the Society for Prevention of Cruelty against Animals (SPCA) and the People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) that work against prevention of cruelty to animals.

Ritual drowning of hens (not roosters) is done on Maha Shivaratri day every year to appease the spirits of the recently deceased in a practice called “Mailatheppa”. In this practice, a hen is tied to a triangular bamboo frame and drowned in the river.

Come Shivaratri, the sandy banks of the Krishna downstream Prakasam Barrage are witness to this ritualistic animal sacrifice.
Sitanagaram side

Since the authorities have banned the performance of rituals on the Vijayawada side of the river, those who make a killing by assisting the believers of such practices have shifted their operations to the Sitanagaram side.

The fee for the ritual drowning of hens depends on the sentiment of the customer. While some believe that they are cleansed only if they drown the bird themselves, some others believe that it is sufficient if the hen is drowned in the name of the deceased.

While a customer who wants to drown the animal himself is charged between Rs. 300 and Rs. 400 for the bird and the bamboo frame, those who go for the “nominal” drowning is charged a mere tenth of that (between Rs. 30 and Rs. 40).

The sacrificed animal is not retrieved because it is considered “not fit for consumption”.

It is in the second case that the hen is subjected to worst kind of cruelty. Rescued at the nick of time for reuse, the birds are dunked in the water over and over again until they do not have strength even to struggle. While the act of ritual drowning violates the provision of the Sacrifice Act, the repeated dunking in the water is a cause of concern for the animal rights activists.

Ironically, neither the authorities nor animal rights activists are aware of the bizarre practice.

BANGALORE: Six persons, who went in search of hidden treasure believed to have belonged to ancient rulers, were found dead in a 30 foot-deep open well in Arkavathi Layout near Amrithahalli here on Tuesday.

Based on the statement of Kalavathi (38), the seventh member of the group, the police suspect that the victims were part of a bizarre ritual murder masterminded by a so-called tantrik in his quest to retrieve hidden treasure on the land near the well.

Sacrificed

He apparently sacrificed the six to appease the deity Kalimatha who he believed would help him find the treasure. The victims, residents of Amrithahalli near Hebbal, were identified as Anand (30), his wife Radhakka (24), his daughters Sneha (3), one-year-old Chinnu, his neighbours Shwetha (13), an 8th standard student of Amrithhalli Government High School, and Mahalakshmi (21), an employee of a garment factory.

Their bodies were fished out of the Sahukar Bhavi in Arkavathi Layout on Tuesday afternoon.

The murders were committed between 8.30 p.m. and 11.45 p.m. on Monday and came to light on Tuesday. Absconding, the police are on the look out for the tantrik.

According to Basavaraja Malagathi, Deputy Commissioner of Police (North East Division), Anand may have lured the five women to the well under the cover of darkness and pushed them in. Later, fearing reprisal, he possibly committed suicide by jumping into the well.

Anand was a bangle-seller from Mysore, who moved to Amrithahalli last year.

A few months ago, he apparently came in contact with the tantrik who convinced him that the ancient rulers of Bangalore had hidden a huge treasure in farmland at Arkavathi and Amrithahalli.

“Shwetha was the daughter of Kalavathi, and Mahalakshmi daughter of Narayanappa, a retired employee of Bruhat Bangalore Mahanagara Palike. Anand led the six, including three children and Kalavathi, to the well. However, he later told Kalavathi to stay away and not come to the puja, which he performed near the well before committing the crime,” the Deputy Commissioner of Police told The Hindu.
Bankrupt

“Anand was bankrupt and borrowed Rs. 1.5 lakh from moneylenders. This may have instigated him to sacrifice the women for hidden treasure,” he said
Villagers of Amrithahalli still believe in the hidden treasure.

“The region was ruled by many people. I have come across others who have found such treasures hidden by Tipu and Magadi Kempe Gowda,” Sarvamangala Mahadev, a postal employee, said.

In her statement to the police, Kalavathi said: “The tantrik called Anand many times and told him that a puja had to be performed to retrieve the treasure. On Monday evening, he told my daughter and myself to join them in the puja and promised us gifts.”

According to her, the group reached the well around 8.45 p.m. “The tantrik wanted panchakanyas for the puja, a married woman, two young women and two girls. As we were seven, Anand asked me to wait away from the puja site. The puja began around 8.30 p.m. and went on till 11.45 p.m. When they did not turn up even after that, I returned thinking they would follow.”

On Tuesday, Kalavathi informed Narayanappa of what happened. They went to the well and discovered the bodies.

Bizarre Indian aby ritual. "Boiling infants in boiling milk!"

Many rituals in Hinduism, could be termed bizarre. But this one is simply inhuman and cruel to say the least. The fact that it is performed on infants makes it even more horrible. It is popularly known as Karaha Pujan, a ritual performed in parts of Varanasi and Mirzapur districts in eastern Uttar Pradesh. It is especially performed on the eve of marriages and other auspicious occasions.

Please the gods

During the ritual, a newly born child is bathed with boiling milk. And it is done by none other than the father of the child, who himself later  bathes with boiling milk. The ritual is witnessed by a large number of people and is generally performed in local temples amidst chanting of sholkas and mantras by a purohit (priest). Milk is boiled in earthen pots by the womenfolk, who sing religious sohars (folk song) and the father of the child on whom the ritual will be performed is garlanded. Later on the ‘cruel’ father picks up the infant and puts his legs in a pot of boiling milk. He also pours the boiling milk on the body of the little child. Later on the father pours the hot milk on himself amidsts cheers from the crowds of devotees. ‘‘The ritual is meant to please the gods so that the child is blessed”, said Baliram Bhagat a resident of  Varanasi.

Hospitalized after ritual
‘‘An auspicious occasion is chosen to perform the ritual, which has a long tradition. My father and grand father also used to perform it'', Bhagat, who is nearing 60 years told Deccan Herald. The authorities however now treat the ritual as ‘inhuman’ and warn of stern action if some one is found performing it. Only recently Hira Bhagat was arrested by the Varanasi police for performing the ritual on his six-month old nephew Bholu in Mili Chak village .  The child suffered severe burn injuries on his legs, abdomen and chest and had to be hospitalized after the ritual. ‘‘It could cause serious damage to kidney, liver and other organs of the body', said Lucknow based physician Dr. Samarjeet Srivastava. Authorities in Varanasi said that they have issued strict orders to the police to crack down on those who perform this ritual.

‘‘The offenders should be arrested and prosecuted’’, said a police official. The Vedic scholars have opposed the ritual terming it inhuman and cruel.  ‘‘The Hindu religion does not permit such rituals....such pratices are mostly localized and are observed as traditions...they should be banned’’, said R.S.Shastri, a Vedic scholar in Lucknow. He, however, said that the only way to check such practices was to make people aware of the consequences. Sanjay Pandey in Lucknow

Indian Girl Marries Dog In Bizarre Ritual

A flaming indication that India remains a land of enduring superstition, especially in rural areas where literacy is practically non-existent, here is a most unusual news item about a young girl who was forced to marry a dog in order to ward off  “evil spirits.”

In India’s eastern Jharkhand, locals in the Munda Dhanda village have ‘married off’ one of its children to a stray dog because they believed her family was endangered by a malevolent spirit that could be assuaged in no other way. The ceremony was performed to the beating of many drums in the belief that it would help to overcome any curse that might fall upon the unfortunate family. In an odd twist of fate, the girl will be free to marry a man later in life without even seeking a divorce from her four-legged husband!


From Bizarre to just ridicules!

I often knock Muslims for believing in worthless 13th century superstitions and ridiculous Islamic rituals like sacrificing animals.  But I often forget that Islam stole all of its beliefs from other religions, and it definitely got the barbaric practice of animal sacrifice from the Hindus. The below was a recent posting.

Superstitious Hindus, having a problem with high tech equipment, such as a Jumbo Jet, will, instead of reading the manual, sacrifice a goat-  because to them, appeasing the ‘god of the sky’ might get that gigantic hunk of aluminum off of the ground.

**Officials at Nepal’s state-run airline have sacrificed two goats to appease Akash Bhairab, the Hindu sky god, following technical problems with one of its Boeing 757 aircraft, the carrier said Tuesday.**
 
Nepal Airlines, which has two Boeing aircraft, has had to suspend some services in recent weeks due to problems.

The goats were sacrificed in front of the troublesome aircraft Sunday at Nepal’s only international airport in Katmandu in accordance with Hindu traditions, an official said.

“The snag in the plane has now been fixed and the aircraft has resumed its flights,” said Raju K.C., a senior airline official, without explaining what the problem had been.

I will make it a point of my life to never visit any country where they sacrifice animals, especially in lieu of repairing their planes. I have already scratched Turkey off my list because of this.  Now Nepal is definitely scratched from my list.

 

Indian Thaipusam

Thaipusam is an Indian festival. It's a celebration for the son of Shiva (Subramaniam) and the becoming "one" of Pusan and the Brihaspati stars. Lord Subramaniam is the universal granter of wishes. All those who wish to ask for a future favor, fulfill a vow in return for a granted favor, or to repent for past sins will participate in this festival. It's not difficult for Hindus (or anyone) to fall into one of these categories. (Left Pic. spear though cheek)

There are two places in Malaysia, where this is celebrated. That's in Kuala Lumpur (Batu Caves) and on Penang. Every year in Kuala Lumpur, on Thaipusam, as many as 900,000 devotees and other visitors may throng the caves. As a form of penance or sacrifice, many of them carry kavadis (literally, "burden," such as a pitcher or jug). These are large, brightly decorated frameworks, usually combined with various metal hooks and skewers which are used to pierce the skin, cheeks and tongue. By doing this penance they expect some favours from their Gods. It is a common practice for devotees here to pierce themselves with numerous hooks and long skewers as well as to pull heavy chariots hooked to their backs even though nothing is mentioned about these forms of devotional expressions in the holy books.

The festival is held in the tenth month of the Hindu calendar (mostly the end of January). This 3-day festival will start off at the Sri Maha Mariamman temple in Kuala Lumpur's Chinatown district. (Pierced boy on right)

Thaipusam is an important festival observed by the Hindus of southern India during the Tamil month of Thai (January - February). Outside of India, it is celebrated mainly by the Tamil speaking community settled in Malaysia, Singapore, South Africa, Sri Lanka and elsewhere around the world. (Photo of eye popping on left)

 

Dedicated to Lord Murugan or Kartikeya

Thaipusam is dedicated to the Hindu god Murugan, the son of Shiva and Parvati. Murugan is also known as Kartikeya, Subramaniam, Sanmukha, Shadanana, Skanda and Guha. It is believed that on this day, Goddess Parvati presented a lance to Lord Murgan to vanquish the demon army of Tarakasura and combat their evil deeds. Therefore, Thaipusam is a celebration of the victory of good over evil.

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2 Thaipusam devotees pulling heavy burden with their backs
Omprakash/Asia Pacific Photo Network

The above picture shows that hooked into the flesh means hooked into the flesh! The devotee is able to endure the pain because he is put into a trance by a swami (a yogi or guru). Just watching can be quite the experience and many a bystander has found himself in a trance as well! Apart from apparently feeling no pain, little or no blood is shed and no large scars will remain. (As often as they do this, they have no blood left) MS. 08-10-09


The magnificent gigantically religious / spiritual statue guarding entrance of the Batu Caves - the most sacred place for Hindu in Malaysia. Each year, a million of Hindu devotees gathered during the 2-3 days Thaipusam festival, performing their ritual return of a wish come true to the Lord Subramaniam. Leading up the cave is the 272 steps steep climb. A versatile ultra wide zoom with constant focal length is good for this nature of photographic usage.

Just a few Hindu Gods

Goddess Kaliammah being worshipped in thaipusam penangLord Shiva panthals in thaipusam penangLord Shiva and his many incarnations forms shown in thaipusam penang

Goddess Kaliammah, faithful and fierce Goddess.     Lorong Kulit, the ever merciful Lord      Murug and Goddess Parvati

Lord Ganesha chariot kavadi pulled inthaipusam PenangDieties of Lord Shiva Brahma Ganesha on thaipusam penang
The Lord Ganesha is never far behind, ever faithful brother of Lord Muruga

On Hindu Gods and Goddesses; Lord Ganesha - Lord Brahma - Lord Vishnu - Lord Shiva - Goddess Durga - Goddess Lakshmi - Goddess Saraswati - A few Hindu Gods and there are roughly 330 million more!

The Hindus believe in the Supreme Being whom is the god of all religions.

The cosmic activity of the Supreme Being has three important tasks such as the creation, the preservation and the dissolution and the recreation. These tasks are associated with three popular gods, Brahma, Vishnu and Shiva, each representing the same power of the Supreme Being but in three different aspects.

The list of gods in Hindus is vast, but Hindus believe in monotheism and worship one god.

The only one ultimate reality of the Supreme Being is the Brahman which is a Supreme Spirit permeating everything in the world.

It is entirely impersonal and impossible to describe as everything in the Universe is a part of Brahman, but he is more than a sum of everything in the Universe.

Every Hindu god represents one aspect of Brahman. Brahma is the creative aspect of Brahman, Vishnu is the protective aspect of Brahman and Shiva is the destructive aspect of Brahman.

Even though Hindu religion is said to have 330 million gods, it is their belief that god lives in each living being in the form of Atman. In ancient times, it was believed that there were 330 million living things and thus the same number of gods.


People wade through a cloud of colored powder while celebrating the Hindu festival of Holi at Nand Gaon in the northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh, March 6, 2009. (REUTERS/K. K. Arora) They must be worshipping the blue-green smoke God...mmm! MS. 07-2809
 

The Kris Ritual - Indonesia

"Trance" - The Mass Trance Ritual. - Pengerebongan.

According to legend, Ken Arok, founder of the 13th-century Hindu-Buddhist Singosari kingdom, won his throne through a series of murders accomplished with a wavy dagger called a kris. Ken Arok’s dagger was powerful but it was also cursed, and ultimately it also killed its owner.

In Indonesian trance rituals, celebrants in trance states may stab themselves with krises. (Krises are also found in Malaysia, Brunei, Southern Thailand and the southern Philippines.) I think the stabbing is mostly symbolic, as several observers report they result in little or no blood. (Pic. on rt. Indonesia self stabbing) Now if we could just persuade all these weirdoes to do this? MS. 07-28-09

The ritual is started with tabuh rah ceremony or shedding some blood through a three cockfight matches. After the cockfight is over the temple congregation come to the temple with their Barong and Rangda, the visiting Barongs and Rangdas from surrounding village also come at this stage of ritual. Then the actual Pengerebongan ceremony is started. 

 

 

During this summoning ceremony dozens of temple congregation will fall into a state of trance. Each tranced congregations is given a kris dagger and led into the middle courtyard to perform encircling the wantilan (prasawia) ritual. During the parade of encircling the wantilan, the tranced congregations stab their chest, throat or stomach with the kris daggers. The kris daggers are bending under the extraordinary strength of the tranced congregations. (Pic. on left. Nothing like a little help from your friends. MS. 07-28-09)

A kris has a cranked hilt that serves as a support for stabbing strike. It allows the strength of the wrist to add pressure on the blade while slashing and cutting. A kris only offers minimal protection for the hand by the broad blade at the hilt. In rare cases, a kris may have its blade forged so the blade's axis lies at an angle to the hilt's axis. The intention is to get the blade automatically turning to slip past the ribs. This works poorly and makes the weapon less durable.

Krisses were worn every day and at special ceremonies, with heirloom blades being handed down through successive generations. Yearly cleanings, required for as part of the spirituality and mythology around the weapon, often left ancient blades worn and thin. In everyday life and at events, a man usually only wore one kris. In the Malay literature, Hikayat Hang Tuah, the warrior is depicted as wearing two keris, one short keris and one long keris. Women sometimes also wore krisses, though of a smaller size than a man's. In battle, a warrior carried three krisses: his own, one from his father-in-law, and one as a family heirloom. The other krisses served as parrying daggers. If the warrior didn't have another kris to parry with, he used the sheath. Krisses were often broken in battle and required repairs. A warrior's location determined what repair materials he had. It is quite usual to find a kris with fittings from several areas. For example, a kris may have a blade from Java, a hilt from Bali and a sheath from Madura.

In many parts of Malaysia and Indonesia, the kris was the choice weapon for execution. The specialized kris, called an executioner's kris, had a long, straight, slender blade. The condemned knelt before the executioner, who placed a wad of cotton or similar material on the subject's shoulder/clavicle area. The blade was thrust through the padding, piercing the subclavian artery and the heart. Upon withdrawal, the cotton wiped the blade clean. Death came within seconds.

Balinese ritual mass suicide

Balinese history has been largely influenced by outsiders. One group of outsiders, who have a history of violence and destruction, wherever they went were the Europeans. One of the bloodiest events in Balinese history occurred in Denpasar on September 20th, 1906, when the raja of Badung (the southern regency in Bali), Gusti Gede Ngurah came to the conclusion, that his court could no longer suffer under Dutch rule and ordered a mass suicide, the ritual puputan.

The source of the problem was the plundering of a ship, the Sri Kumala, which had floundered on Sanur reef. Locals had relieved it of copper and silver coins, but the Chinese owner was not happy. Complaining to the ruling Dutch, he convinced them a blockage on Badung was necessary, demanding the raja come up with compensation. This tactic was followed by military threats and a troop landing in Sanur. On September 20th, 1906, the Dutch troops reached Denpasar and the raja knew the time was up. A westerner might think the 2 options would be fight or flee, but Balinese tradition provided a 3rd option, which the raja chose. An account by Dr. Van Weede, a Dutch observer, details the scene that took place.

"The ruler and the princes with their followers, dressed in their glittering attire, with their krises girded on, of which the golden hilts were in the form of Buddha statues and studded with precious stones: all of them were dressed in red or black and their hair was carefully combed, moistened with fragrant oils. The women were wearing the best clothes and accessories that they had; most of them wore their hair loose and all had white cloaks. The prince had his palace burned down and had everything that was breakable destroyed.

When at nine o’clock it was reported to him that the enemy had penetrated Denpasar from the North, the tragic procession of 250 people started to move; each man and woman carried a kris or long lance, also the children who had the strength to do it, while the babies were carried in their arms. Thus they walked to the north along the wide road bordered by tall trees, meeting their destruction.

The prince walked in front, carried on the shoulders by his followers according to custom, and silently…. until all of sudden, at a turning in the road, the dark line of our infantry was visible before them. Immediately a halt was commanded and Captain Schutstal ordered the interpreters to summon the arriving party to a halt with gestures and with words. However these summons were in vain, and in spite of the repeated warnings the Balinese went over to a trot.

Incessantly the Captain and the interpreters made signs, but it was in vain. Soon they had to realize what they had to do with people who wanted to die. They let them approach to a hundred paces, eighty, seventy paces, but now they went over to a double quick step with couched lances and raised krises, the prince always in front.

A longer delay would have been irresponsible in view of the safety of our men, and the first salvo was given; several killed men remained at the place. One of the first to fall was the ruler; and now one of the most horrible scenes one could imagine took place.

While those who were still alive continued the attack, and the shooting on our part for self defense remained necessary, one saw lightly wounded give the death-blow to the heavily wounded. Women held out their breasts to be killed or received the death blow between their shoulders, and those who did this were mowed down by our rifle fire, other men and women got up to continue the bloody work. Also suicides took place there on a big scale, and all seemed to yearn for their death: some women threw as a reward for the violent death which they desired from them gold coins to the soldiers, and stood straight up in front of them, pointing at their heart, as if they wanted to be hit there; if no shot was fired they killed themselves. Especially an old man was busily stepping over the corpses, and used his kris left and right until he was shot down. An old woman took his task and underwent the same fate, however, nothing helped. Others got up to continue the work of destruction." I guess the barbaric Dutch weren't happy to let the proud people kill themselves...they  just had to help. If they had stayed in their own country this would not have happened. . .a reality check! MS. 07-28-09

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Senge Dradok – Guru Rimpoche Emanation
These people obviously smoke too much hash and Opium! MS. 07-28-09

Taiwan Buddhism
One of Taiwan's most bizarre and dangerous religious festival, normally from Feb. 9th to the 22nd. The ritual evolved from a desperate attempt centuries ago to drive away a plague that was wiping out the town and scare away evil spirits. Each year thousands of visitors flock to the town to endure the swarms of rockets of this strange ritual held during the Lantern Festival, which caps off the 15-day celebration of the Chinese Lunar New Year. This year the holiday fell in February 26.

"The sky lantern is a bridge between the gods and the people... Through lantern festivals, the wishes of the people could be conveyed to the gods,"

Taiwan packs its 22 million people into just 13,892 square miles. Located just off the southeast coast of mainland China, two thirds of the land is mountainous and most of its people live in the major flat land and coastal cities.

It is a bustling nation in perpetual motion, a thriving economy trying to balance its ancient history and traditions with its prominence as a major capitalist force. Motor scooters zoom everywhere. Giant fashion models on billboards beckon the young as withered old ladies sell incense below them. Everyone has cell phones, which ring as they pray at ancient temples surrounded by electronic stores and high-rises. The whole country is engaged in a ballet of cultural multitasking.

A volunteer at a local temple holds a bunch of burning incense sticks to be offered to worshippers as they celebrate the new lunar year, the year of the Horse, in the early morning, Tuesday, Feb. 12, 2002, in Taipei. The start of the lunar new year is the biggest celebration for ethnic Chinese and most spend the week end feasting with family and friends in Taiwan, China and Hong Kong.

Thousands of visitors and locals wearing crash helmets and protective gear gather in a main street around an expanding cloud of sparks and flames from exploding rockets during one of Taiwan's most bizarre and dangerous religious festival, Tuesday, Feb. 26, 2002, in Yenshui, Tainan County, 350 kilometers south of Taipei. The ritual evolved from a desperate attempt centuries ago to drive away a plague that was wiping out the town and scare away evil spirits. Each year thousands of visitors flock to the town to endure the swarms of rockets of this strange ritual held during the Lantern Festival, which caps off the 15-day celebration of the Chinese Lunar New Year. This year the holiday fell in February 26. (below Pic. of elaborate Lantern Festival settings)

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A man, (Pic. on left) with his face painted to resemble a local Taiwanese deity, looks on durA sword-wielding dancer at the Tienhou Templeing a performance at a folk festival , Saturday, February 17, 2001, in Taipei. In traditional Taiwanese mythology, deities like this one have the power to drive away evil spirits. The folk festival, sponsored by the Taipei City Government, introduces traditional Taiwanese folklore to citizens. (Pic. on right of a sword-wielding dancer at the Tienhou Temple)

A woman goes into an ecstatic trance at the Tienhou Temple.
A woman in an ecstatic trance at the Tienhou Temple

Taiwanese Buddhist worshippers celebrate the birthday of Matsu, Goddess of the sea, by making an annual 8 days, 320 kilometers long pilgrimage in central Taiwan. The pilgrimage will be completed when the Goddess Matsu will be carried back in her home temple of Tachia Township, in Taichung County, (Below Pic. of Goddess Matsu)

According to another legend Lord Shiva and Parvati were involved in a cosmic dance on the Thaipusam day. It is said that all the gods assembled to watch this cosmic dance.

River Kaveri and Thaipusam; Another myth of Thaipusam revolves around Lord Vishnu and River Kaveri. Kaveri was jealous of River Ganga getting so much of importance - especially Ganga residing on the locks of Lord Shiva. She prayed to Lord Vishnu and it is believed that Lord Vishnu appeared before her on Thaipusam day.

Thaipusam is one of the most important festivals dedicated to Lord Muruga - also known as Skanda, Subrahmaniya and Kartikeya and Shanmukha. Thaipusam is held on Pusam star in the month of Thai (January – February). There are numerous legends and myths associated with this Murugan festival.

On the Thaipusam day, large number of devotees head towards Murugan temples in procession carrying Kavadi. The drumming and chanting of vel vel shakti vel electrifies the procession and some start to dance. Some devotees pierce their tongue and cheek with ‘vel’ (small lances.) Some insert hooks in their body and some use these hooks to pull heavy objects. On the day, devotees go to any length to display their devotion to Lord Muruga.

Thailand Buddhism

Buddhism & Hinduism

"Buddhism, in its origin at least is an offshoot of Hinduism." (S.Rahdhakrishnan)
Guatam Buddha, the founder of Buddhism was born and brought up and lived and left this materialistic world as a Hindu. And this particular evidence is enough to explain that the concept of Hinduism predates to that of Buddhism. Hinduism, better known as the 'Sanatan Dharma' to the Hindus, is believed to be the oldest religion in the history of human civilisation. Practiced majorly in the secular India, the origin of Hinduism is still a mystery!

According to the historians, the origin of Hinduism dates back to 5000 or more years, whereas, the origin of Buddhism came into existence in a much later period, that is in & around 563 BC. After Lord Buddha achieved enlightenment, He preached whatever He learnt from His experiences and His teachings came to be known as Buddhism and were well received by the people.

It was during the later part of the Vedic Era, when Hinduism was on the verge of decline owing to the orthodoxy, superstitions and staunch practices, prevailing in the religion, when Buddhism with lesser complexities and rituals was accepted by the common people of India.

This was the time when Buddhism arose out of the atheistic strands of Hinduism.

It is a fact that Buddhism evolved and developed because of the complex nature evolving in Hinduism, but still despite some differences, these two sects have a lot of things in common.


Buddhism in Thailand

Approximately 95% of Thais are Theravada Buddhists. The rest are Mahayana Buddhists, Muslims, Hindus, Sikhs and Christians.

Theravada means 'The Doctrine of the Elder' and follows the Hindu theory of perpetual reincarnation until the person achieves enlightenment, or nirvana, and frees themselves from the endless cycle of death and rebirth. Theravada Buddhists accept the four noble truths which maintain that suffering is caused by desire and this can be eliminated by following the Middle Way or Eightfold Path. These are precepts about the correct way to live, and include virtues such as compassion, self-reliance, respect and moderation, and eschew extreme or damaging behaviour.

It is believed that Buddhism reached Thailand in the second or third century BC via traders and missionaries from India. Mahayana (Great Vehicle) Buddhism was introduced at the beginning of the first millennium to make Buddhism more accessible by having a more Hindu-style pantheon with bodhisattva who had achieved nirvana but returned to earth to help others on the path.

The History

Around two thousand years ago the original ancestors of the people who now largely call themselves Thai migrated to the region now known as Thailand. These Tai tribes from Southeast China mixed over the centuries with local Mon and Khmer peoples as well as Malay, Indian and Chinese immigrants. Each group brought with them bits of Buddhism from their native lands. These were the first Buddhist incursions into what was then likely an animist culture.

Remember, Buddhism began about 500 B.C. in what is now Nepal, when Siddartha Gautama, who was a prince, sought and attained enlightenment and began to teach. (See -- "Who was Buddha?") His ideas were based on Hinduism, but entailed a rebellion against the less democratic and egalitarian principles of Hinduism. (See -- "The Teachings of the Buddha")

Buddhism spread from India through official and unofficial means. Traders, who spread throughout Asia, brought with them their beliefs. In the second century B.C., the great Indian King Asoka sent missionaries through Asia. This was the first offical expansion of Buddhism, but it expanded slowly and narrowly. However, in Ceylon it quickly and permanently took root.

In the fifth and sixth centuries, Burma was the first of the Southeast Asian cultures to receive significant Buddhism influence from India due to its geographic proximity. This Buddhism was a mixture of Theravada and Mahayana ideas. On the other side of the continent, the Khmer and Champa kingdoms (what is now respectively Thailand,Cambodia and Northern Vietnam) were at this time worshipping a mixture of Mahayana Buddhist and Hindu deities. In the Indonesian archipelago, the Srivijaya empire replaced Brahmaism with Buddhism of a Mahayana flavour in the seventh century and around this time on Java, the great Buddhist monument of Borobodur was constructed.

In the twelfth century, Thailand received another infusion of Buddhism and this one really took. At this time, Burmese and Thai monks travelled to Ceylon where they learned much of Theravada Buddhism, which they brought back with them to the mainland. These new ideas and practices effectively displaced the Mahayana Buddhism which had come earlier. The great Burmese city of Pagan grew at this time and at its peak contained within eight square miles thousands of pagodas and temples. This Buddhism was a populist faith and the monks of Southeast Asia so actively propagated it that by the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, Theravada Buddhism was dominant in Southeast Asia.

Also at this time in Thailand, one of the most important early Thai kingdoms, that of Sukhothai (located just south of Chiangmai) was ruled by a most enlightened King Ramkhamhaeng who chose to share his throne (mostly symbolically) with the Buddhist monks and acted to propagate this religion through the region. This king's grandson carried Buddhism further by studying and rewriting 30 volumes of Buddhist scriptures into one great Thai volume. Beginning with Sukhothai, Buddhism influenced all aspects of Thai culture, from art and architecture to the very moral outlook of the people. Following the decline of Sukhothai, the next kingdom of Ayudhya also witnessed the flourishing of Buddhism, with a great many temples and stupas shaping the landscape. Today a traveller can wander the ruins of the two ancient kingdoms and appreciate the beauty and history of Buddhism in Thailand.

Ayudhya was conquered and destroyed by Burma in the late 18th century and the Thai kingdom was re-established in what is now Bangkok. Most of the kings have devotedly worked to support Buddhism as a foundation of Thai society. The very first king of the current dynasty, King Rama I helped to standardize the basic Buddhist rules and procedures for temples throughout the country.

It is a custom of Thai kings when they are young to ordain as monks for a brief period of time. One king, Rama IV who reigned from 1851-1868, actually spent 27 years of his life as a monk (an abbot no less) before becoming a king. As king, he tried to purify Buddhism in Thailand and bring it back to its true essence. In doing so, he created a second sect of Buddhism in Thailand, Dhammayukti Nikaya, or the school clinging steadfastly to the real Dharma of Law of the Buddha. If you are in Thailand and see the monks walking about barefoot, these belong to this sect.

Today, in this country of 60 million people there are said to be 30,000 Buddhist temples and 300,000 monks. Ninety percent of the people profess believe in Theravada Buddhism. Buddhism is the establishment.

Buddhist Monks

Almost every young Thai male becomes a monk for at least three months, rather like doing National Service in Europe. They do this to gain merit and bring honour to their family. Monks are not allowed to have direct contact with women so do not sit next to a monk or touch a monk if you are female. They wear very distinctive orange, or saffron, robes.

Thailand Temples

A constant value in Thailand BuddhismThe Buddhist temple complexes are known as wats. The bot, translated as 'ordination hall', stands at the centre of the complex and tends to be restricted to monks only. There is only one bot and it can be distinguished from the temple buildings by the eight sema or stones which surround it. These are positioned at the four corners of the bot and the cardinal points of the compass, ie North, South, East and West. The viharn, or assembly hall, is for the lay person and usually contains the temples principle Buddha image. When sitting, avoid pointing your feet at the Buddha as this is disrespectful. Sitting with your legs and feet tucked to the side is one way of avoiding this. Leave your shoes outside the hall. There is the chedi or stupa, a tower originally meant as a shrine to contain the relics of the Buddha, but has since become a place for storing the ashes of royalty. Some wats do permit tourists. Dress respectably, long trousers or skirts, and no sleeveless vests or bare chests.

A constant value in Thailand Buddhism are it's hundreds of Buda Statues.

 

 

 

 

The Bhikkhu Sangha or the Holy Order

The Bhikkhu Sangha or the Holy Order of Buddhist monks has been in existence in Thailand ever since Buddhism was introduced there. According to the 1958 census there were in the whole kingdom of Thailand 159,648 monks; 73,311 novices; and 20,944 monasteries or temples. These are scattered throughout the country, particularly more numerous in the thickly populated areas. The Bhikkhu Sangha of Thailand, being of Theravada or Southern School, observes the same set of discipline (Vinaya) as the Bhikkhu Sanghas in other Theravada countries such as Ceylon, Burma, Laos, and Cambodia. In spite of the fact that the government allots a yearly budget for the maintenance and repair of important temples and as stipends for high ranking monks, almost the entire burden for the support of the Sangha and the upkeep of the temples rests with the public. A survey entitled "Thailand Economic Farm Survey" made in 1953 by the Ministry of Agriculture of the Government of Thailand gives the religious cash expenses of the average Thai rural family per year as ranging from 5 to 10 per cent of its total annual cash income. It may be added here that the report concerns the average Thai rural family, and not the urban dwellers, the majority of whom, in Thailand as elsewhere, are less inclined to religion than the country folks. (Sukhothai Temple on left)

Two Sects or Nikayas
There are two sects or Nikayas of the Buddhist Order in Thailand. One is the Mahanikaya, and the other is the Dhammayuttika Nikaya. The Mahanikaya is the older and by far the more numerous one, the ratio in the number of monks of the two sects being 35 to 1. The Dhammayuttika Nikaya was founded in 1833 A.D. by King Mongkut, the fourth ruler of the present Chakri Dynasty who ruled Thailand from 1851 to 1868 A.D. Having himself spent 27 years as a Bhikkhu, the King was well versed in the Dhamma, besides many other branches of knowledge, including Pali, the canonical language of Theravada Buddhism. The express desire of the King in founding the Dhammayuttika sect was to enable monks to lead a more disciplined and scholarly life in accordance with the pristine teachings of the Buddha. The differences between the two Nikayas are, however, not great; at most they concern only matters of discipline, and never of the Doctrine. Monks of both sects follow the same 227 Vinaya rules as laid down in the Patimokkha of the Vinaya Pitaka (the Basket of the Discipline), and both receive the same esteem from the public. In their general appearance and daily routine of life too, except for the slight difference in the manners of putting on the yellow robes, monks of the two Nikayas differ very little from one another.

Organization of the Sangha
Formerly, and in accordance with the Administration of the Bhikkhu Sangha Act (B.E. 2484, A.D. 1943), the organization of the Sangha in Thailand was on a line similar to that of the State. The Sangharaja or the Supreme Patriarch is the highest Buddhist dignitary of the Kingdom. He is chosen by the King, in consultation with the Government, from among the most senior and qualified members of the Sangha. The Sangharaja appoints a council of Ecclesiastical Ministers headed by the Sangha Nayaka, whose position is analogous to that of the Prime Minister of the State. Under the Sangha Nayaka there function four ecclesiastical boards, namely the Board of Ecclesiastical Administration, the Board of Education, the Board of Propagation and the Board of Public Works.

Each of the boards has a Sangha Mantri (equivalent to a minister in the secular administration) with his assistants. The four boards or ministries are supposed to look after the affairs of the entire Sangha. The Ecclesiastical Ministerial Council which, by the way, corresponds to the Cabinet, consists of ten members, all senior monks of the Sangha. In addition to this, there is a Consultative Assembly (Sangha Sabha), equivalent to the National Assembly, the members of which number 45, selected from various important monasteries. The Sangha Sabha acts as an Advisory Body to the Ecclesiastical Ministerial Council. Below the Sangha Sabha the administration of the Sangha continues to correspond to the secular administration of the country. All monks and novices (samaneras) have to live in monasteries which are scattered throughout the country. Each monastery has its abbot appointed by the Ecclesiastical Ministerial Council in consultation with local people. It may be pointed out here that all religious appointments in Thailand are based on scholarly achievements, seniority, personal conduct and popularity, and contacts with monks further up in the Sangha.

There is a Department of Religious Affairs in the Ministry of Education which acts as a liaison office between the Government and the Sangha. In general the Department of Religious Affairs works in cooperation with the Ecclesiastical Ministerial Council on all matters affecting the Sangha. For instance, it issues all legal directives concerning the entire community of monks; it keeps record of the Sangha’s property, such as lands etc.; it maintains facts and figures with respect to monks and monasteries. The Religious Affairs Department also prepares the annual budget for the upkeep of the Sangha functionaries and the maintenance and repair of temples etc. It may be added here that all temples and monasteries are State property.

In 1962, the Administration of the Bhikkhu Sangha Act of 1943 was abolished; a new one was enacted instead. By virtue of the new act, the posts of Sangha Nayaka, Sangha Mantris, and Sangha Sabha were abolished. In place of these there is a Mahathera Samagama (Council of the Elders) headed by the Sangharaja himself and consisting of not less than four and not more than eight senior monks (mahatheras) of the two sects (nikayas). The Mahathera Samagama, in collaboration with the Department of Religious Affairs, directly governs the entire Sangha.

Education of Monks
As is well known, the original idea of men’s entering monkhood during the Buddha’s time or shortly later, was to attain liberation from worldly existence in accordance with the teaching of the Master. Such an idea, of course, springs from man’s feeling of aversion to things mundane. In other words, in those far-off days, men entered monkhood with the sole intention of ridding themselves of life’s miseries and of obtaining spiritual freedom or Nirvana. Instances of such self-renunciation are found in the holy books of the Buddhists. With the passage of time, as is only natural, many of the ideals and practices of the early followers of the Buddha underwent modifications. Today, over 2,500 years after the passing away of the Buddha, though the ideal of becoming a Bhikkhu still remains very lofty among Buddhists of all lands, in practice it must be admitted that there have been many deviations from the Master’s original admonitions with regard to the whys and wherefores of man’s entering monkhood. Generalization of any subject matter is often dangerous but it will not be far from truth to say that today, in Thailand as in other Buddhist countries, the practice of Buddhist males entering monkhood is to a considerable extent prompted rather by the dictation of custom, the wish for education and other external considerations than by the desire to attain emancipation. Yet there are also many who join the Sangha through genuine love for a religious life and religious studies, or out of the wish to be of service to Buddhism and their country. Finally, in the Thai Sangha also those are not entirely lacking whose life is vigorously devoted to the aim of ultimate emancipation and to the guidance of others towards that goal. There have been, and still are, saintly and able meditation masters in Thailand, with a fair number of devoted disciples in Sangha and laity. There are also still monks — the so-called thudong bhikkhus — who follow the ancient way of austere living embodied in the "strict observances" or dhutangas.4

In view of the above facts, there are two categories of Buddhist monks in Thailand. One comprises those who become monks for long periods, sometimes for life, and the other those who enter the Order temporarily. To serve in the monkshood even for a short period is considered a great merit-earning attainment by the Thai Buddhists. Even kings follow this age-old custom. For instance, the present ruler, H.M. King Bhumibol Adulyadej, also observed the custom for a period of half a month some time ago. Government officials are allowed leave with full pay for a period of four months in order to serve in monkhood. The idea is to enable young men to gain knowledge of Buddhism and thereby to become good citizens. Life as a monk gives them practical experience of how an ideal Buddhist life should be. In rural districts the general tendency is still to give more deference to those who have already served in monkhood. Such people are supposed to be more "mature" than those who have not undergone the monk’s life. Moreover, in Thailand wats (monasteries and temples) used to be and are still regarded as seats of learning where all men, irrespective of life’s position, could go and avail themselves of education benefits. This is especially so in the case of economically handicapped males of the countryside. Instances are not lacking in which people have climbed high up on life’s status ladder after obtaining education while in monkhood. There are neither religious restrictions nor social disapproval against monks’ returning to lay life if and when they find themselves unable to discharge their duties as monks.

Cases exist in which, for some reason or the other, men have entered monkhood more than once, although such practice cannot be said to be in the esteem of the public. Looked at from this viewpoint, the institution of entering monkhood in Thailand, apart from being a way of gaining moral and spiritual enlightenment, is a social uplift method by which those not so fortunately placed in life could benefit. Judged from the ideal of adopting a monk’s life as enunciated by the Buddha, whether or not such practice is commendable, is a different story. The fact is that even today when modernism has penetrated deep into Thailand, about one half of the primary schools of the country are still situated in wats. With sex and crimes on the increase in the country, the cry for living a better Buddhist life is being heard more and more distinctly in Thailand today.

The traditional education of monks and novices in Thailand centers mainly on the studies of the Buddhist Doctrine (Dhamma) and Pali, the language in which the Theravada scriptures are written. Of the former, the study of the Doctrine, there are three grades with examinations open to both monks and laymen. Those passing such examinations are termed Nak Dhamm, literally meaning one who knows the Dhamma. The latter, i.e., the study of Pali, has seven grades, starting with the third and ending with the ninth grade. Students passing Pali examinations are called parian (Pali: pariñña = penetrative knowledge); in the Thai language the word parinna is used to mean academic degree. For example, monks and novices passing the first Pali examination are entitled to write "P. 3" after their names.

Generally the Dhamma and the Pali studies go hand in hand and take at least seven years to complete. The stiffness of the two courses, especially that of the Pali language, can be guessed from the fact that very few students are able to pass the highest grade, the Parian 9, in any annual examination. In the good old days when living was less competitive than now, passing of even the lower Dhamma and Pali examinations used to be of much value in securing good government posts. But now things are quite different; even those successful in the highest Pali examination, the 9th Grade, find it difficult to get suitable employment.

Of late there has developed a new outlook in the education of monks in Thailand. With the rapid progress of science and with the shrinking of the world, Buddhist leaders of Thailand, monks as well as laymen, are awakened to the necessity of imparting broader education to members of the Sangha, if the Sangha is to serve the cause of Buddhism well, "for the gain of the many, for the welfare of the many." As a result of the new outlook there now function in Bangkok two higher institutes of learning exclusively for monks and novices. One is the Mahachulalongkorn Rajvidyalaya, and the other is the Mahamongkut Rajvidyalaya. Both are organized on a modern university footing and both seem to be making satisfactory progress towards that direction. Inclusion in the curriculum of some secular subjects not incompatible with monks’ discipline (Vinaya) is among the notable features of these two institutes; the aim is to give an all-round education to monks in order to enable them to be of better service to the cause of Buddhism amidst modern conditions.

So much for the education of ’long-term’ monks. As for those who enter the Order temporarily, mostly for a period of three rainy months during the Vassa, or Buddhist Lent, the education is brief and devoted to the main tenets and features of Buddhism only. As pointed out above, such people enter monkhood either by their own genuine desire for knowledge of the Dhamma, by the dictum of custom or, as generally is the case, by the two reasons combined. Monks of this category return to lay life again as soon as the Lent is over. This is the reason why accommodations in monasteries (wats) are usually full during the Lenten period. Nowadays, owing to the pressure of modern life, the custom of temporarily entering monkhood is not so rigorously observed by people living in urban areas as by those in the countryside. The custom has its parallel in Burma, Cambodia, and Laos where Theravada Buddhism prevails.

Wats and Monks
The word "wat" means monastery and temple combined. It is the residence of monks and novices. There are about 21,000 wats in the whole of Thailand. In Bangkok alone there are nearly two hundred wats. Some big wats in Bangkok have as many as 600 resident monks and novices. Wats are centers of Thai art and architecture. Thai culture, to a considerable extent, flows from wats. Wat-lands and constructions thereon are donated by royalty, wealthy people and the public in general. The wat is the most important institution in Thai rural life. The social life of the rural community revolves around the wat. Besides carrying out the obvious religious activities, a wat serves the community as a recreation center, dispensary, school, community center, home for the aged and destitute, social work and welfare agency, village clock, rest-house, news agency, and information center. A wat is headed by a Chao Avas (the abbot) who is responsible for the maintenance of the wat discipline, the proper performance of religious services and rituals, and the general welfare of the inmates. Besides monks and novices, there are also the "temple boys" in wats, who assist monks and novices in various ways, such as bringing and arranging food, cleaning dormitories, washing yellow robes, etc. Usually these boys are related to resident monks in one way or another, and their stay is free of charge. Most of them are students whose homes are far away and who would, otherwise, find it impracticable to get education. This is especially so in Bangkok where accommodation is difficult to get and where all higher seats of learning of the country are situated. The census taken in 1954 reveals that there are as many as 119,044 temple boys in Thailand, which indeed is not a small figure. The institution of the wat, in itself a gift of Buddhism, therefore contributes in no small measure to the social welfare and progress of the Thai Buddhists. The benefits in this respect, of course, are more apparent among the lower strata of society than in the case of the fortunate few on the top. (Pic. top left of a Buddhist Monk and one of his Bengal Tigers)

Apart from engaging themselves in doctrinal studies and observing disciplinary rules (Vinaya) in general, monks are expected to be "friends, philosophers, and guides" of the people. Preaching to masses face to face or over the radio is one of the commonest ways by which monks help the promotion of moral stability among various members of the society. It may not be out of place to reiterate the fact that Buddhism lays great stress on the necessity of leading a morally good life in order to obtain happiness in life here and hereafter. In most of the ceremonies and rituals, whether private or public, monks’ cooperation and benediction are indispensable. Indeed, in the life of the average Thai Buddhists, from the cradle to the grave, monks are persons to whom they constantly turn for moral support.

The role of monks in rural districts is even more important, for there the local wat is not only the religious but also the social center of the community. It is at the wat that people come together and experience a sense of comradeship. Religious rituals and ceremonies held at wats are always accompanied by social activities: they are occasions for people, especially the young, to enjoy themselves in feast, fun and festivities. This aspect of the religious service helps the common folks to relax and satisfies their needs for recreation. Not a few matrimonial alliances started from contacts at wat premises. Acting as a moral and ethical example, monks are the most venerated persons in the countryside Thai society, remaining very close to the hearts of the people. In times of crisis, it is to monks that people bring their problems for counsel and encouragement. With few exceptions, the Sangha has well justified this attitude of respect and honor shown to it on the part of the laity and, on the whole, has lived up to the dignity of the Faith.

BUDDHISM IN THAILAND: ITS PRESENT
The Bhikkhu Sangha or the Holy Order
by Karuna Kusalasaya

According to the census taken in 1900 the population of Thailand numbers 35,519,965. Of this number 94% are Buddhists (the rest are mostly Muslims and Christians). This fact itself demonstrates more than anything else how influential Buddhism is in Thailand. In their long history of existence the Thais seem to have been predominantly Buddhists, at least ever since they came into contact with the tenets of Buddhism. All the Thai kings in the recorded history of present-day Thailand have been adherents of Buddhism. The country’s constitution specifies that the King of Thailand must be a Buddhist and the Upholder of Buddhism.

The term "The Land of Yellow Robes" has not been inappropriately applied to Thailand, for two things strike most foreigners as soon as they set foot in that country. One is the Buddhist temple with its characteristic architecture, and the other is the sight of yellow-clad Buddhist monks and novices who are to be seen everywhere, especially in the early hours of dawn when they go out in great numbers for alms. The two sights inevitably remind the foreigners that here is a country where Buddhism is a dominant force in the people’s life. Indeed, to the Thai nation as a whole, Buddhism has been the main spring from which flow its culture and philosophy, its art and literature, its ethics and morality, and many of its folkways and festivals.

For clarity and convenience we shall divide the study of the present state of Buddhism in Thailand into two parts, namely the Bhikkhu Sangha or the Holy Order, and the Laity.

The Present Situation

Buddhism is everywhere in Thailand today. A visitor is at once impressed by the many beautiful and grand temples and stupas and the orange-clad monks so highly visible in the early morning hours. The national flag of Thailand which consists of a central blue horizontal stripe surrounded by two white horizontal stipes and two red horizontal stripes demonstrates the value of Buddhism. The two white stripes are said to symbolize Therevada Buddhism. In Thailand monks receive the highest respect, followed by the king and then teachers.

Religion is never a static thing and in Thailand this is certainly the case. A careful observer of Thai society and culture will notice that many practices and their religious pantheon is not entirely Buddhist. Nearly every Thai home or shop will have at least one spirit house , which is a miniature temple home to local spirits to which Thais will leave offerings of food and drink and pay their respects. This is clearly an animist practice leftover from pre-Buddhist days in Thailand. In the center of Bangkok, one of the most revered shrines sits outside of the Sheraton Erawan Hotel. Every taxi driver and most bus drivers and many other drivers will wai and bow their head as they pass this shrine to the Hindu god Brahma. Most people will tell you that this is for luck. Many others will light incense and pray before the statue to ward off evil as well as ask for luck. The Thai people are very practical and so mixing different religious practices does not offend them if it helps them live a better life. How increased education, communication and globalization will change this is yet to be seen.

The greatest threat to Buddhism in Thailand today is materialism and consumerism. It threatens to overwhelm Thailand by the greed, selfishness and cultural and environmental degradation it engenders. It has the potential to leave Thai Buddhism a mere hollow shell spouting platitudes that nobody actually takes to heart anymore.

Buddhadassa Bhikku was the most vehement critic of materialism in the late twentieth century. He located his temple in the south of Thailand in order to escape what he viewed as the moral corruption of Bangkok. He even wrote a book called "Dharmic Socialism" which offered an alternative to the unbridled capitalism he believed was destroying Thailand. His legacy lives on in what is now termed "Socially Engaged Buddhism" lead by such proponents in Thailand as Sulak Sivaraksa and Santikaro Bhikku (Buddhadassa's western disciple who has recently relocated to the U.S.).

Unfortunately, Buddhism in Thailand is still a very male dominated institution as women for the most part cannot ordain as nuns as happens in Mahayana Buddhist countries like Korea and Japan. Their power in Thai Buddhism is limited to being a layperson, one notch up. This, however, is beginning to change as in 2002 the first Buddhist nun was ordained.

Corruption is inevitable in any entrenched institution and the Thai Buddhist clergy has by no means been exempt. Thai senior monks being driven around in Mercedes Benz automobiles donated by followers is a common sight.

I recently read that half of the 300,000 monks in Thailand smoke. I have seen monks smoking before on the street or on trains and couldn't fathom how they could be monks and do so as it clearly violated the precept against taking intoxicants. (And there was no out as with eating meat -- one cannot pick and choose among what one is given as alms.) Some have suggested it is simply further evidence of the moral degeneration of the Buddhist clergy. They watch television and listen to radio in the temple, so smoking simply follows.

One of the most serious scandals to touch Thailand in recent years had to do with a new sect and temple Wat Phra Dhammakaya. This temple collected huge sums from many of its followers who believed that the more they gave, the closer they would get to Nibbana. ("Buy your way to heaven" seemed the slogan) The chief monks of this organization rode around in expensive cars and praised the value of money.

In recent years there has been a brisk trade in talismans -- amulets usually featuring images of the Buddha or famous Thai monks. Thais believe that wearing such amulets protect them from evil and bring good luck. People will pay handsomely for such icons. The temple of revered monk Phra Kring Chom Thai is said to earn $1.8 million annually from them. Buddhism thus is corrupted by money.

Extreme Thai-Rituals & Atrocities (Sic)

How Islam came to Thailand and Malaysia

History of the Jihad against Malaysia, Indonesia, Thailand & Philippines (1441 --)

How the Malaysians fought against the Jihadis in the 15th century to finally succumb to the Jihad, and how today the Malaysian Jihadis are plotting to transform Malaysia into an Islamic Caliphate and fomenting trouble in Southern Thailand.

Clash of Contrasts - Buddhism and Islam in Malaysia

Before being overrun by Islam, the people of Malaysia and Indonesia were overwhelmingly Hindu and Buddhists. In fact what are today the ASEAN countries had one religion (a mix of Hinduism-Buddhism-Animism) and one culture till the 15th century. They did not look upon themselves as different countries. A large part of today’s Malaysia was a part of the kingdom of Siam (Thailand). And at times Malaysia and Indonesia were under the rule of one single dynasty (Sri Vijaya, Shailendra, Mataram and Majapahit).

The Bas Reliefs of Borobudur in Indonesia and words like Putrajaya (name of the new Malaysian Capital), Tan Sri (honorific title in Malaysia), Garuda (Indonesia’s national air carrier), and names like Megawati Sukarnoputri (Indonesia’s former President), Imam Samudra (the Bali Bomber), which have been derived from the ancient Indian (Sanskrit) language are the only reminders of the Buddhist and Hindu past of the current Muslim population of Malaysia and Indonesia. The clash of the gentle ancestors of the Malays and Indonesians with the violent Muslims is a clash of contrasts.

This is so as there is no greater contrast than that between Buddhism and Islam. While Buddhism is intrinsically and universally non-violent, Islam is a violent, cruel and murderous paranoia as we witnessed in 9/11, 7/7, 3/11 and numerous other events in recent history. The 14 century long history of Islam has been equally violent and bloodied and cruel. A pre-Islamic horseman.

When attacked and massacred by the Muslims, the Buddhists initially did not make any attempt to escape from their murderers. They accepted death with an air of fatalism and destiny. And hence they are not around today to tell their story. But their mindless slaughter evoked another and extremely opposite reaction from another set of Buddhists. This was also the most dramatic one so far – the Mongol invasion of Iran and Iraq by Chengiz Khan and his son Hulagu Khan. These Mongols were some sort of Buddhists by faith, whose homeland had been suffering the depredations of the Muslims for six centuries (from 651 to 1200) when the Buddhist Mongols decided that enough was enough and decided to pay back the Muslims with their own coin – with due premium added! The Mongols slaughtered the Muslims of Iran and Iraq with unremitting cruelty. The Mongols laid waste the countryside, burnt down cities slaughtered the Muslim population en masse, including the Caliph himself!.

The Mongols were matched in their reaction to Muslim Barbarism, only by the Crusaders. And interestingly it was only the Mongols and the Crusaders who defeated the Muslims in their own homeland during the last 1400 years of the existence of the Muslims since 622 CE. Other minor aberrations that turned the tide of the Muslims were the Franks at Tours, the Spanish Re-conquistadores, the Hindus under their king Sivaji, the Nubian marksmen and the Thai’s reconquest of Sultanate of Pattani late in the seventeenth century.

After this longish preamble, we shall see how the Malays resisted the Muslims, albeit briefly in the 15th century, only to lapse back to a defensive position and embrace the religion of their tormentors after a century of resistance.

The Malays themselves were Buddhists and Hindu by faith till the 15th century under their kingdoms of Sri Vijaya (Malaysia), Shailendra and Majapahit (Indonesian archipelago). These three kingdoms were ardent rivals and were intermittently at war with each other and with their northern neighbor – the kingdom of Siam (Thailand).

Interestingly, the entry of Islam in to South East Asia was facilitated by this rivalry and internecine warfare of the three kingdoms of Thailand with SriVijaya of Malaysia and, Shailendra and Majapahit of Indonesia. But the ultimate reason for the conversion of the last Sri Vijaya king, Parmeswara to Islam was deception as we shall see below.

Before the advent of Islam, Sri Vijaya, Shailendra, Mataram and Majapahit were powerful empires from the 13th up to the 15th centuries. The Sri Vijaya, Shailendra and Majapahit kings followed an eclectic faith made up of Hinduism and Buddhism. These kingdoms also had their illustrious counterparts in Laos, Cambodia, Malaysia and Burma (Myanmar). They built magnificent cities. The ruins of Angkor Vat and Borobudur are the most dramatic surviving evidences of their glory. Similar cities dotted Malaysia, and Indonesia in the 12 to the 15th centuries. Their decline began with the coming of Arab dhows (vessels) who carried not just merchandise but also the sword and the murderous mentality of Islam. Buddhist Warriors as depicted at the Bas-Reliefs at Borobudur (Big Buddha) in Indonesia.

The Indonesian-Malay Hindu king who first embraced Islam was named Parmeswara and he became a victim of circumstances when he was tricked into becoming a Muslim. Parameswara was a scion of the Sri Vijaya dynasty and ruled from Palembang. But during Parameswara's time, Sri Vijaya was in decline and Majapahit had become the overlord of Sri Vijaya. Parameswara had a dispute with the Majapahit ruler and was forced to shift his capital from Palembang to the relatively safer Temasek island - now Singapore. There, during a skirmish with the forces of Majapahit, Parameswara killed prince Temagi of Siam, who was allied with Majapahit This angered the Siamese king, who threatened to capture and kill Paremeswara. This led to another string of battles between Sri Vijaya against Siam and Majapahit, in which Parameswara was worsted and he had to flee his new capital the Temasek island (Singapore) island, and seek refuge first in Muar, before fleeing further on to Malacca and deciding to make it his new capital in 1402.

A Samurai

The Malaysians (under their Sri Vijaya and Majapahit dynasties) resisted the Muslims, albeit briefly in the 15th century, only to lapse back to a defensive position and submit to the Muslims Jihadis by the 16th century..

Before their forced conversion, the Malays themselves were Buddhists and Hindu by faith till the 15th century under their kingdoms of Sri Vijaya (Malaysia), Majapahit and Shailendra (Indonesian archipelago). These kingdoms were ardent rivals and were at war with each other and with their northern neighbor – the kingdom of Siam (Thailand) when the Muslim first appeared on the scene.

Arabs deceive and browbeat the last Sri Vijaya king Parameswara to marry a Muslim Girl and convert to Islam

Malacca was a trading port frequented by the Arabs, where they had established a colony. At Malacca, the Arabs promised King Parameswara, help in his fight against his rivals from Thailand. From 1402 onwards Parmeswara increasingly became dependent on the Arabs to stave off attempts from the Thais to avenge the slaughter of their prince and the territorial ambitions of Majapahit. The Arab merchant-soldiers whose position became increasingly stronger at Parmeswara’s court offered to send in more forces to fight alongside him, if he converted to Islam. Initially Parameswara scornfully refused this offer. But as the struggle with Malaysia wore on, his position became more precarious. At this juncture the Arab merchants gifted him a princess of Pasai who was a mix breed descendant of the Arab and Indonesian Nikah Mu’tah Marriages (A Nikah Mu’tah is a temporary marriage allowed for Muslims by the Quran).

Pasai, was originally known as Samudera-Pasai later renamed called Samudera Darussalam. Pasai was a thriving harbor kingdom on the north coast of Sumatra in the 13th to the 15th centuries CE. Due to its wealth Pasai had attracted Arab merchants who in the course of time intermarried with local women to create a Muslim community that was half Arab and half Indonesian, as the offspring of these marriages were brought up as Muslims. The area of Pasai is in today’s Aceh province of Indonesia.

Incidentally the term “Pasai” is believed derived from Parsi, or Parsee immigrants from the west coast of India namely Gujarat, some of who migrated for mercantile activities to northern Sumatra in today's Aceh province. Arab and Indian Muslims had also traded in Malaysia and China for many centuries. A Muslim tombstone in eastern Java bears a date corresponding to 1082. But substantial evidence of Islam in Malaysia begins only in northern Sumatra at the end of the 13th century. Two small Muslim trading kingdoms existed by that time at Pasai and Peureulak or Perlak

Coming back to this princess from Pasai, she was from among these half-breed Arab-Indonesian Muslims, and was a maiden of extreme beauty. The militarily weakened king Parameswara fell for her, making his position even more precarious vis-à-vis the Arabs. Parameswara incidentally did not have any heir from his Queen but his new love told him, that she was carrying his child. The lovelorn Parameswara who was becoming increasingly militarily weak wanted an heir desperately. In this desperation and his blind love for his new love, he proposed to her, only to be told that marriage was possible only under Muslim rites for which he needed to convert to Islam. To get an heir Parameswara agreed and recited the Shahada before he could bring his new love from the harem to his palace as his legitimate queen.

But according to Sri Vijaya court records, in reality, the child which his Muslim harlot told him she was carrying was not his but was fathered by an Arab as Parmeswara was diagnosed as impotent by his medical practioners. But the urge to become a normal person and have an heir was overwhelming for Parameswara and that urge compelled him to abandon his ancestral religion and convert to Islam. 

The Hindu kingdom of Sri Vijaya transformed itself in to the Sultanate of Malacca after the last Hindu king Parameswara, embraced Islam.

Thus, in 1414, for reasons which were amorous and desperate, Parameswara converted to Islam after marrying the princess from Pasai. After his conversion, he assumed the title Sultan Iskandar Shah. After his conversion, his half Arab Queen also encouraged his subjects to embrace Islam and this is how Malacca became a sultanate. Thus Malacca was the first to fall to the Muslims.

This conversion led to waves of conversions in Malaysia and Indonesia, most of whose people converted to the new faith, except in far off Bali which remained Hindu, as it is till this day. The descendants of Parameswara started the first Muslim dynasty and expanded the Sultanate of Malacca. At its height the Sultanate encompassed most of modern day Peninsula Malaysia, the site of modern day Singapore and a great portion of eastern Sumatra and Borneo. The governor of Borneo later seceded from Malacca to form the independent Sultanate of Borneo. For a long time Malacca remained the center of Islam in the Malaysian and Indonesian archipelago (Aceh, Riau, Palembang and Sulawesi). It was from Malacca where imams and ustazes went to all over Malaysia and Indonesia to discuss religion and the like. Muslim missionaries were also sent by the successive Sultans of Malacca to spread Islam to he Hindu and Buddhist communities in the Malay Archipelago, such as in Java, Borneo, and the Philippines (Mindanao). Most of South East Asia at that time was Hindu-Buddhist, except for the Philippines where the population was animist. 

In the 15th century the Sultanate of Malacca destroyed the other Hindu kingdom of Majapahit in Indonesia, and also weakened Thailand.

The Sultanate's most important regional rivals continued to be Thailand in the north and the declining Majapahit Empire in the Indonesian archipelago (Aceh, Riau, Palembang and Sulawesi) in the south. But within the archipelago, Majapahit was not able to control or effectively compete with the Sultans of Malacca with their new found zeal of Islam, and ultimately came to an end during the later 15th century. After the demise of Majapahit kingdom and the conversion of most of its inhabitants to Islam, the Sultans of Malacca alongwith their Arab allies concentrated on the conquest of Thailand with the purported aim of converted the Thais to Islam.

The Arabs based in Malacca along with their new converts the Malay Muslims of Malacca repeatedly attacked Thailand and for a time it seemed that they would go storming up the narrow Isthmus of Kra and penetrate up to the Thai capital of Ayuthaya.

During much of the fifteenth century Ayuthaya's energies were directed toward the Malay Peninsula, where the great trading port of Malacca contested its claims to sovereignty. As the erstwhile Hindu-Buddhist states of Malacca along with other Malay states south of Tambralinga had become Muslim early in the century, a resurgent and aggressive Islam served as a symbol of Malay solidarity against the Thais and for a time it seemed that the Thais would also have to submit to Islam. But from the 17th century successive Thai kings allied themselves with the seafaring Western powers – the Portuguese and the Dutch and succeeded in staving off the threat of Islam from the Muslim Malays and their Arab overlords.
 
Islam in the Philippines

In the Philippines, the Muslims did get remarkable success in converting the population of southern Philippines to Islam.

As far back as 1380, Makhdum Karim, the first Islamic Holy Warrior had brought Islam to the southern tip of Philippine Archipelago (Mindanao). But the efforts to convert the Filipino population en masse to Islam gathered strength after the defeat of the Hindu kingdoms of Sri Vijaya (Malaya) and Majapahit (Indonesia). Around 1414, the war between the Sri Vijaya and the Majapahit Empire ended in favor of the former with the conversion of the last Sri Vijaya king Parameswara to Islam. Following this victory, Muslim Holy Warriors (Jihadis) introduced Islam into the Hindu-Malay empires and converted almost the entire population to Islam.

By the next century, these holy warriors had reached the Sulu islands in the southern tip of the Philippines where the population was animistic and they took up the task of converting the animistic population to Islam with renewed zeal. By the 15th century, most of Visayas (Central Philippines) and half of Luzon (Northern Philippines) and the islands of Mindanao in the south had become subject to the various Muslim sultanates of Borneo and much of the population in the South had been converted to Islam.

Subsequent incursions of Muslim Malay Muslim Holy Warriors strengthened the stranglehold of Islam among the frightened animistic pre-Islamic Filipinos (today’s Moros) in the extreme south. By the early 15th century, Islam had been established in the Sulu Archipelago and spread from there to Mindanao; it had reached the Manila area by 1565. There was sporadic resistance from the local population that was organized in to Barangays. Barangays was a kinship group headed by a datu (chief). Organized resistance to Islam began only after the coming of the Spanish in 1521. Till then, during the period 1380 up to 1521, a major part of the animist population of Southern Philippines had been converted to Islam.

But Islam was not to be the religion of the Philippines, as it had become in Malaysia and Indonesia. A seminal event that was to halt the advance of slam was the arrival of Ferdinand Magellan in the Philippines in 1521. After this the Filipino resistance to Islam received a new fillip. Magellan landed on the island of Cebu, claiming the lands for Spain and naming them Islas de San Lazaro. He established friendly relations with some of the local chieftains who had been battling the Muslims and converted some of them to Roman Catholicism. Over the next several decades, other Spanish expeditions were dispatched to the islands. In 1543, Ruy López de Villalobos led an expedition to the islands and gave the name Las Islas Felipinas (after Philip II of Spain) to the islands of Samar and Leyte. The name Philippines derived from Felipinas, was later extended to the entire archipelago.

Permanent Spanish settlement was not established until 1565 when an expedition led by the Conquistadores, Miguel López de Legazpi, arrived in Cebu from Mexico (New Spain). Spanish leadership was soon established over many small independent communities that previously had known no central rule. Six years later, following the defeat of the local Malay Muslim ruler, Rajah Solayman, Legazpi established a capital at Manila, a location that offered the excellent harbor of Manila Bay to the seafaring Spanish. Occupation of the Philippine islands was accomplished with relatively little bloodshed, partly because most of the population (except the Muslims) offered little armed resistance to the Spanish, as their main enemy had been the Malay and Arab Muslims seeking to convert them to Islam.

But a significant problem the Spanish faced was the subjugation of the Muslims of Mindanao and the Sulu.

Archipelago. The Muslims, in response to attacks on them from the Spanish and their native allies, raided areas of Luzon and the Visayas that were under Spanish colonial control. But these actions were inconsequential as the fate of Islam in the Philippines was sealed, and Philippines was not to go the way as had Malaysia and Indonesia, save for a southern tip of Mindanao.

Consequently, most of the Filipinos (except for those in the south) later became Christian under the Spanish colonization. By the late 15th century, the Sultanate of Sulu, the largest Islamic Kingdom of South East Asia and the Malay Archipelago, encompassed parts of Malaysia and the Philippines. Ironically the Mongoloid looking members of the royal house of the Sultanate of Sulu claimed descent from the Prophet Muhammad to reinforce their credentials in their new found faith of Islam!

Waves of conversion to Islam had just about begun in the late 15th century and were preparing to sweep north across the Philippine archipelago in the 16th century when the Spanish colonialists reached the shores of the Philippines. What followed was a checkmating of one faith by another and the Spanish repulsed further attempts by the Sultans of Borneo to make inroads, both military and religious in to the Philippine archipelago.

So the coming of the Spanish saved the Philippines from Islam, except for the Southern tip where the population had been converted to Islam. This population was derisively referred to by the Spanish as Moros and Moriscos (Spanish for Moor or Muslim). Till today the Muslim population of Southern Philippines continue to refer to themselves as Moros – the name given to them by the Spanish colonialists! They are, of 2009, still creating mayhelm and murder.

The coming of the Spanish and the Portuguese was also a breather to the beleaguered Thai kingdom.

For Thailand too, the coming of the Spanish and the Portuguese was a breather. The Thais smartly allied themselves with the Portuguese to ultimately destroy the Sultanate of Malacca during the reign of the last Sultan of Malacca, Sultan Mahmud Shah.

It was in 1509, during the reign of the last Sultan of Malacca, Sultan Mahmud Shah that the Portuguese became the first European power to reach Malacca and Southeast Asia in general. The Portuguese fleet was led by Admiral Lopez de Sequira. Trouble however ensued after the general feeling of rivalry between Islam and Christianity was invoked by a group of Goan Muslims in the sultan's court after the Portuguese had captured Goa. Soon, the Portuguese fleet was attacked by Malacca and was forced to flee. Incidentally Goa was then a Portuguese colony in India that was ruled by the Muslims before the Portuguese conquered it.

In 1511, a larger Portuguese fleet from Cochin, India led by Viceroy Alfonso d' Albuquerque came back to Malacca. The Viceroy made a number of demands - one of which was for permission to build a fortress as a Portuguese trading post near the city. All the demands were refused by the Sultan. Conflict was unavoidable, and after 40 days of fighting, Malacca fell to the Portuguese on August 24.

Sultan Mahmud Shah was forced to flee Malacca. The sultan made several attempts to retake the capital but his efforts were fruitless. The Portuguese retaliated and forced the sultan to flee to Pahang. Later, the sultan sailed to Bintan and established a new capital there. With a base established, the sultan rallied the disarrayed Malay forces and organized several attacks and blockades against the Portuguese's position.

Frequent raids on Malacca caused the Portuguese severe hardship. The raids helped convince the Portuguese that the exiled sultan's forces must be silenced. A number of attempts were made to suppress the Malay forces, but it wasn't until 1526 that the Portuguese finally razed Bintan to the ground. The sultan then retreated to Kampar in Sumatra where he died two years later. He left behind two sons named Muzaffar Shah and Alauddin Riayat Shah II.

Muzaffar Shah was invited by the people in the north of the peninsula to become their ruler, establishing the Sultanate of Perak. Meanwhile, Mahmud's other son, Alauddin succeeded his father and made a new capital in the south. His realm was the Sultanate of Johore, the successor of Malacca. But the Portuguese could not retain the possession of Malacca for long, as it was conquered by the Dutch in 1641. Although Malacca changed hands, the saving grace was that the barbaric Muslims were never able to sink their claws in Malacca and this enabled the straits to remain free for mercantile activities for the next five centuries. The fallout of the coming of the Europeans was that Thailand was saved from the threat of Muslim conquest that was looming over it in the 15th and 16th centuries.

The Thais launch a counter attack against the Muslims

Taking advantage of the weakened position of the Muslims, the Thais attacked the Sultanate of Pattani and attempted to re-conquer the territories they had lost to the Sultans of Malacca from 1414, when Parameswara the Sri Vijaya king had embraced Islam and his successors had fought relentless campaigns against Thailand and Majapahit (Indonesia). While they were able to destroy Majapahit and absorb Indonesia (Aceh, Riau, Palembang and Sulawesi) in to the Muslim Ummah by converting the Indonesian Hindu-Buddhist population to Islam, they could not get comparative success against their other rival Thailand. The point to note here is that the entry of Islam in South East Asia was facilitated by the rivalry and internecine warfare of the three kingdoms of Thailand with SriVijaya of Malaysia and Majapahit of Indonesia. The proximate reason for the conversion of the last Sir Vijaya king was deception as we saw above.

In the 16th century, after fighting a single-handed battle against the Sultanate of Malacca for a century, (the successor to the Hindu Sri Vijaya empire), the Thais were nearing the end of their tether. But for the arrival of the Portuguese and Dutch in the 17th century, the Thais might have succumbed to the Sultans of Malacca as had their other rivals the Majapahit empire of Indonesia.

In Indonesia, the Majapahit kingdom found itself increasingly unable to control the rising power of the Sultanate of Malacca. Dates for the end of the Majapahit Empire range from 1478 to 1527. After a series of battles with the Sultanate of Demak, the last remaining courtsmen of Majapahit were forced to withdraw eastward to Kediri. Even this small state was finally extinguished at the hands of the Demak in 1527. A large number of courtiers, artisans, priests, and members of the royalty moved east to the island of Bali which is still dominated by their descendants who still practise their original Hindu faith. But effectively Majapahit had ceased to be an imperial power and by the early 16th century, the emerging Muslim power had eclipsed the once powerful Majapahit kingdom and many of their subjects across the Indonesian archipelago had been converted to Islam.

The Thais too could have been forcibly converted to Islam as were the Malaysians in the 15th century when the Sri Vijaya king was converted to Islam following which the Majapahit kingdom of Indonesia was defeated and destroyed by the Sultans of Malacca (successors to the kings of Sri Vijaya who embraced Islam). Thus when Portuguese and Dutch came in to the scene, the Thais received a much needed breather and they gathered their fading strength to garner enough courage to counterattack the Sultanate of Malacca three times, along with their Portuguese allies and finally brought an end to the rogue infidel Muslim power of the Sultanate of Malacca as a threat to themselves (Thais) as well as to the emerging mercantile powers – the Portuguese and the Dutch. The British gave a final end to the pretensions of the other auxiliary Muslim sultanates, that had succeeded the fallen Sultanate of Malacca. These included the Sultanate of Pattani, the Sultanate of Johore, and the Sultanate of Borneo.

In the 18th century, the Thais had an ambition to overrun both the Sultanate of Pattani and the Sultanate of Johore and reclaim the entire Malay peninsula through the lost Thai towns of Ligor (Nakhon Si Thammarat) and Kataha up to Singapore (earlier known as the island of Temasek) that they had lost to the Muslims when Parmeswara the last Sri Vijaya king converted to Islam in 1441. . But that was not to be however, the Thais checkmated the Muslim ambitions to overrun Thailand and took the war in to Muslim territory as we shall see in the following paragraphs.

The Thais re-conquer the Sultanate of Pattani from the Muslims

In the 13th to the 15th centuries, Pattani intermittently was a part of the Buddhist kingdom of Siam and the Hindu-Buddhist Srivijaya Empire. Saim and Sri Vijaya had a keen rivalry for dominating the Isthumus of Kra in order to be able to dominate the strategic straits of Malacca. The Sri Vijayas were located in Palembang and were a maritime confederation dating back to the 3rd century C.E. During the pre-Islamic era, Sri Vijaya dominated trade on the South China Sea and exacted tolls from all traffic through the Straits of Malacca. State like Tambralinga (know also as Nakhon Sri Thammarat). The growing power of Siam threatened this lucrative monopoly from the 13th century. This led to a string of battles between the two empires despite close affinities in language, culture and religion. This conflict was the chink that allowed Islam to sneak in to South-east Asia in the 15th century.

After the conversion of the last Sri Vijaya king Parameswara to Islam and the transformation of the Sri Vijaya kingdom into the Sultanate of Malacca, the rivalry with Thailand became more acute, as the antagonists now belonged to different religions and with Islam, the erstwhile Sri Vijaya (now the Sultanate of Malacca) found greater zeal to pulverize its long time northern rival Siam with the additional aim of converting the Thais to Islam.

Successive Muslim chieftains of Pattani who were surrogates of the Sultan of Malacca tried to attack Thailand from the Isthumus of Kra.

Four successive rulers of Pattani known as Ratu Hijau (The Green Queen), Ratu Biru (The Blue Queen), Ratu Ungu (The Purple Queen) and Ratu Kuning (The Yellow Queen) tried to conquer Thailand from 1584 onwards. But the Pattani kingdom's economic and military strength proved inadequate to conquer Siam single-handedly and the Thais fought off four major invasions, with the last one threatening the overrun Pattani itself. It was then that the Sultans of Patani allied themselves with the eastern Malay kingdom of Pahang and the southern Malay Sultanates of Malacca and Johore. They jointly endeavored to subdue Thailand.

They got an unique opportunity to stab Thailand in its back when in 1563 a massive Burmese attack from the north against the Siamese kingdom threatened to overrun the Thai capital of Ayutthaya. Seizing this opportunity the Sultan of Pattani, Muzaffar Shah took launched an attack on Ayutthaya from the South. The Thai however proved to be no mean opponents, and despite being weakened by their long drawn out war with Burma, they repulsed the Muslim invasion led by the Sultan of Pattani, Muzaffar Shah who was himself slain during the battle.

But the Thais could not push their advantage to overrun Pattani, Johore and Malacca altogether, as they had to still grapple with the Burmese threat from the north of Thailand. The Burmese intermittently occupied the Thai capital of Ayutthaya. Throughout the 16th and 17th centuries Thais were engaged in constant skirmishes with the Burmese and in these see-saw campaigns, the Burmese more than once occupied the Thai capital of Ayutthaya. The Thais shifted their capital to Bangkok and continued fighting the Burmese invasion. And in 1767, the Thais finally retook Ayutthaya from the Burmese after a devastating campaign. The city was almost entirely destroyed in this war and was rebuilt over the next few years from 1782 onwards when the residence of the king and the royal family during the Rattanakosin period. Following this victory, the Siamese king Taksin succeeded in driving the Burmese invaders from the rest of Siam. His successor, Rama I, established the Chakri Dynasty, which still rules Thailand today.

With the Burmese threat having receded, the Thais turned on their old enemies the Sultans of Pattani, Johore and Malacca. As fate would have it, during this period in the 17th Century, the Sultanate of Pattani had fallen into disarray and was in gradual decline especially during the reign of last queens who ruled Pattani.

Siezing the opportunity, Prince Surasi, Rama I's younger brother and vice-king, invaded Pattani. Pattani's Sultan Muhammad was killed in battle and his capital razed to the ground. According to Pattani sources, about 4,000 Malay soldiers were enslaved as POWs and the most muscular of them were made to work on system of khlongs in Thailand’s new capital Bangkok. To further humiliate Pattani, the symbols of its military strength – the Seri Patani and Seri Negara cannon - were brought to Bangkok. (The Phaya Thani is a prized cannon that once belonged to the Sultan of Pattani This gigantic cannon has a length of 6 meters and today stands in front of the Thai Ministry of Defense in Bangkok. This cannon was confiscated by Thai troops after their conquest of Pattani in 1785 and the defeat of Rattanakosin the Sultan of Pattani. This cannon was brought by the victorious Thais to Bangkok and was presented as war booty to the Thai king Rama I.)

Interesting History of Bali's Muslim Beginnings

When the Majapahit empire in Java, fell in 1515, to the advancing Muslim, Mataram empire, Bali received an influx of Javanese artisans and members of the royal court and during that era, Gelgel became a center for the arts.

The court was moved to Klungkung at the end of the 17th century. Bali developed separate kingdoms soon after and the strength off Klungkung was over.

The final event that marked Klungkung’s history was a sad one. The Dutch started to occupy Bali in the early 20th century, and went about forcing each kingdom, to submit to their rule. The Dewa Agung of Klungkung refused, meaning the Dutch set themselves up, outside the royal palace to attack. The Dewa Agung and 200 of his courtiers marched down the street and committed a ‘puputan‘ (ritual group suicide) stabbing each other with ceremonial kris, rather than submit to the foreign power. Some of the royal family who were left were exiled in Lombok.

The Jihad against Malaysia today

But for the people of Pattani, this war has not ended. The Muslim converts of Pattani never reconciled to the reconquest of Pattani by the Thais and continued to terrorize the Buddhist population intermittently throughout the 18th and 19th centuries. In the 20th and 21st centuries this rebellion has taken the form of an insurgency. And even to this day there are terrorist incidents in Pattani, in which innocent students, teachers and Buddhist monks are routinely murdered.

Till today the Islam is a destablizing factor in Malaysia and finds expression in the activities of Indonesia based Jemmah Islamiya  led by the smiling terrorist, Abu Bakar Bashir, who along with the Malaysian Jihadis are plotting to transform multi-ethnic Malaysia into an Islamic Caliphate, and fomenting trouble in Southern Thailand.

So even though Malaysia is externally prospering, there is discontent simmering below the surface. The Malays dislike their country being portrayed as a multi-ethnic nation. For them Malaysia is not Truly Asia, they would want to replace the current regime with an Islamic Caliphate, where the Hindus (Tamils), Buddhists, (ethnic Chinese) and Christians are reduced to the status of second class Dhimmis. So although most of the population has been converted to Islam, till today the struggle of the few surviving pre-Muslim Malays and the substantial non-Muslim Malays (ethnic Chinese and Hindu Tamils) against Muslim domination goes on largely unreported.

One of three Christian Girls beheaded in Indonesia by Muslims, whom consider it a holy duty to kill Christians, Buddhists, Jews whomever refuse to abjure  their religion and embrace Islam,  as commanded by the Quran. The defenseless teenaged Christian girl was beheaded by Muslim militants as she walked to school, October 2005, in Indonesia. (Doctors are preparing to sew her head back to her body in preparation of her family burial. The photos of her 2 beheaded classmates are near the bottom of the page)

Yeah, please tell me again that Islam is a religion of peace!! MS. 16-08-09

Lessons from the struggle of Malay Buddhists and Hindus against Islam

The lessons from the continuing attempts in Malaysia by the Jeemah Islamia to convert the country in to an Islamic Caliphate and foment trouble in Southern Thailand is that the sneaky and ruthless tactics of the Muslims can only be outmatched by we being more sneaky and ruthless ourselves. The old English adage “Everything is fair in love and war,” holds greatest relevance while battling the Muslims. And only when we in the Non-Muslim world realize this and go into an overreach with subterfuge against the Terrorists (all of whom are Muslims), and use our still prevailing (but fast closing) edge of superior weapons against the enemy, can the Muslims finally be defeated in the looming Third World War.

Thailand’s Elephant Crushing Ritual

Elephant Cruelty in Thailand, Phajaan Ceremony.

Elephant in Crush CageMany articles have been written about the ivory trade that is taking place in Thailand and the failure to enforce the agreed CITES agreement that was signed in 1993. Also Thailand’s laws are full of loopholes that can be bypassed using false documents. The use of domesticated ivory is legal but the use of ivory harvested from wild animals is illegal. If you want to read the entire post then please click here.

When I was researching about the ivory trade I came across something that was very depressing. Of course the Thai government denies that it happened on Thai soil but were Karen people in the Myanmar border region of Thailand.

The ritual called ‘Phajaan’is where elephants are weaned by being tortured, starved and made to go without water for days and furthered beaten into submission. Their souls are broken over a period of a week or more. (Photograph by Jennifer Hile)

The elephants usually go through this around 7 or 8 years of age. The baby’s mother is removed from the area before the ceremony as the young elephant screams for her. Villagers rope the elephant’s legs, which isn’t easy and terrifying for the elephant. The young elephant is ushered into a tiny cage like a corral.

The elephant is bound and unable to move at all and is left like this for many days, crying out for help and absolutely terrified. This isn’t the worst. The worst is the torture that comes along with being bound up.

Elephant being jabbed with nails

Photograph by Jennifer Hile

Villagers drive sticks with nails into the elephants flesh; they have trouble retracting the nails from the tough hide. The villagers laugh while the elephant bleeds and cries out for help that is not coming.

In the video a man sits on the elephant and drives a sharpened hook into the skull of the elephant, right between its eyes. The thudding noise is sickening. The man has to work the hook back and forth to remove it from the skull of the elephant.

He tells the elephant, speaking in Thai, ‘Don’t fight us and we won’t hurt you.’ While he does this he lifts the hook and spits on it and again drives it into the elephant’s skull.
 

Thai ElderPhotograph by Jennifer Hile

This happens to the elephant for days, people jab it in the ears with sharpened hooks, in the legs and so forth. The animal is left sleep deprived, not feed or given water and is petrified. They apparently do this as a 90 year old elder said; "Only one way to do this, not any other," he explains firmly. "If elephant doesn't go though this, the elephant can't be tamed."

 

 


 

Elephant being ropedPhotograph by Jennifer Hile

Young elephants are eventually released from the cage but not the torture; they will be tied up and beaten to a pulp. All this is to make them submissive to their owners. A century ago there were apparently 100,000 elephants in Thailand, now it is believed that there are around 2,500 wild and 2,500 domestic elephants left. Sadly for a country that is meant to love these animals so much its laws are sadly lacking. Years ago laws were meant to have been toughened but still nothing has been finalized.

Domesticated elephants are considered livestock, like a buffalo, chicken and so forth. For abuse this brings only a very small fine.

A renowned elephant activist here in Thailand who is doing amazing things for abused, maimed, and abandoned elephants. She witnessed and also filmed an owner who was drunk set the elephant on fire and burnt it to death. The man was never fined or anything for this act of cruelty.

So when you are in Thailand and see what I call ‘sympathy elephants’ begging for food and performing tricks; remember that they more than likely went through the horrible separation ritual called ‘Phajaan.'

Mormonism
Most don't know that the Mormon church in Utah owns most of the land, as well as regulates the  sale and purchase of alcohol. The city, which is run by the church also approves and regulates all licenses for liquor stores and bars. Even though now outlawed, most Mormons still believe it is mans right to wed as many women as they desire. An even odder ceremonial belief they practice is baptism for the dead; vicarious baptism or proxy baptism is a religious practice of baptizing a living person on behalf of an individual who is dead; the living person is acting as the deceased person’s proxy. It has been practiced since 1840 in The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints where it is also called temple baptism because it is performed only in dedicated temples.

In the practice of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, a living person, acting as proxy, is baptized by immersion on behalf of a deceased person of the same gender. The baptism ritual is as follows: after calling the living proxy by name, the person performing the baptism says, “Having been commissioned of Jesus Christ, I baptize you for and in behalf of [full name of deceased person], who is dead, in the name of the Father, and of the Son, and of the Holy Ghost. Amen.” The proxy is then immersed briefly in the water. Baptism for the dead is a distinctive ordinance of the church and is based on the belief that baptism is a required ordinance for entry into the Kingdom of God.

The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints vicariously baptizes people regardless of race, sex, or creed. This includes both victims and perpetrators of genocide. Some Jewish survivors of the Holocaust and their supporters have objected to this practice.

Shamanism
Shamanism refers to a range of traditional beliefs and practices concerned with communication with the spirit world. There are many variations in shamanism throughout the world, though there are some beliefs that are shared by all forms of shamanism. Its practitioners claim the ability to diagnose and cure human suffering and, in some societies, the ability to cause suffering. This is believed to be accomplished by traversing the axis mundi and forming a special relationship with, or gaining control over, spirits.

Shamans have been credited with the ability to control the weather, divination, the interpretation of dreams, astral projection, and traveling to upper and lower worlds. Shamans were used in Tibetan Buddhism as a form of divination by which the Dalai Lama was given prophesies of the future and advice.

 Mesoamerican religions
Religion and the needs of the state: the relationship between religion and political, military, and economic institutions. This is in reference to the ancient Mayan and Aztec religions, but its context still applies today...to the church...the state and the military. Some things just never change and the philosophy that if it worked for centuries then obviously why not continue to take full advantage of the weakness and superstitions of mankind? MS. 06-17-08

Maya religion was probably the major ideological justification for the Maya political, military, and economic institutions. By building temples, for example, the rulers enhanced their own prestige and authority to rule, and created social unification. The use of war to obtain captives for sacrifice probably overlapped nicely with a ruler’s desire to militarily "decapitate" neighboring polities to obtain economic tribute and eventually to expand their territory. Building pyramidal structures also probably reinforced and reminded the people of their place in the pyramidal hierarchy and structure of society.

The Maya, Zapotecs, Mixtec, and Aztec religions all had a concept of a vital force that separated living from nonliving matter. For the Maya this was expressed in the concept of "ik," or wind, breath, or life. For the Zapotecs it was "pee" or wind, breath, or spirit. For the Mixtec it was ""yni" or "ini" or spirit, heart, or heat. For the Aztec it was "tona" or vital energy, or heat. As animists, the line drawn as to what was alive, was different from the Judeo-Christian tradition. They attributed life to many things which the Spaniards, for example, did not (Id.). The idea of human and/or animal sacrifice was one of the more notable shared concepts of these religions which were concerned with keeping the cosmos in balance through human.

 The perceived relationship between humans and supernaturalism
Mixtec religion worshipped the forces of nature including life, death and an afterlife (Spores 1994:342). The deities were represented with images associated with war, the sun, human sacrifice, fertility, rain, wind, air, etc. (Id.). The sun was the deity held in the highest esteem (Id.). Humans were obligated "to maintain the balance among men, nature, and the supernatural world through conscious acts of private and social ritual" (Id. at 344). Blood sacrifice from the ears and tongue, and bird feathers were sometimes offered. Dances were sometimes given. Human and animal sacrifices were sometimes made including heart sacrifices (Id.).

 Principal beliefs and major gods
The development and use of a calendar for astrological and divination purposes is illustrated by the lore surrounding the calendar round of 52 years and the yearly cycles (Id.). New fire ceremonies indicated a renewal of the world. People originally emerged from a natural world that was already existing (Id. at 344). There is no sequential creation, destruction, and recreation cosmology like the Maya. Principal gods besides those recounted above, included ones associated with the planets, war, health, fertility, weather, etc. Each community had its own deity associated with it and there is no hierarchy particularly apparent in the supernatural universe, unlike the Aztec religion.

 Human Sacrifice & Cremation Rituals
Human sacrifice was practiced by many ancient cultures. People would be ritually killed in a manner that was supposed to please or appease a god or spirit. While not widely known, human sacrifices for religious reasons still exist today in a number of nations. (Below photos of a Human Ritual Cremation in Nepal in April 2008) Photos shot by Mike Smith

Below, burning of the body

Some occasions for human sacrifice found in multiple cultures on multiple continents include:

  • Human sacrifice to accompany the dedication of a new temple or bridge.

  • Sacrifice of people upon the death of a king, high priest or great leader; the sacrificed were supposed to serve or accompany the deceased leader in the next life.

  • Human sacrifice in times of natural disaster. Droughts, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, etc. were seen as a sign of anger or displeasure by deities, and sacrifices were supposed to lessen the divine ire.

Some of the best known ancient human sacrifices were those practiced by various Pre-Columbian civilizations of Mesoamerica. The Aztec were particularly noted for practicing this on an unusually large scale; a human sacrifice would be made every day to aid the sun in rising, the dedication of the great temple at Tenochtitlán was reportedly marked with the sacrificing of thousands, and there are multiple accounts of captured Conquistadores being sacrificed during the wars of the Spanish conquest of Mexico.

In Scandinavia, the old Scandinavian religion contained human sacrifice, and both the Norse sagas and German historians relate of this, see e.g. Temple at Uppsala and Blót.

There is evidence to suggest Pre-Hellenic Minoan cultures practiced human sacrifice. Sacrificed corpses were found at a number of sites in the citadel of Knossos in Crete. The north house at Knossos contained the bones of children who appeared to have been butchered. It is possible they may have been for human consumption as was the tradition with sacrificial offerings made in Pre-Hellenic Civilization. The myth of Theseus and the Minotaur (set in the labyrinth at Knossos) provides evidence that human sacrifice was commonplace. In the myth, we are told that Athens sent seven young men and seven young women to Crete as human sacrifices to the Minotaur. This ties up well with the archaeological evidence that most sacrifices were of young adults or children.

Human sacrifice still happens today as an underground practice in some traditional religions, for example in muti killings. Human sacrifice is no longer officially condoned in any country, and these cases are regarded as murder.

In Hindu narratives, practicing human sacrifice and eating human meat was supposedly a work of the demons, but was occasionally carried out as recently as 1968 in Nepal and India.

In the tale Aeneid by Virgil, the character Sinon claims that he was going to be a human sacrifice to Poseidon to calm the seas (of course Sinon was lying).

Human sacrifice is a common theme in the religions and mythology of many cultures.

Cannibalism

Past CANNIBALISM IN THE FIJI ISLANDS

October 31st, 1839, Thursday. This morning we witnessed a shocking spectacle. Twenty (20) dead bodies of men, women and children were brought to Rewa as a present from Tanoa. They were distributed among the people to be cooked and eaten. They were dragged about in the water and on the beach. The children amused themselves by sporting with and mutilating the body of a little girl. A crowd of men and women maltreated the body of a grey-haired old man and that a young women. Human entrails were floating down the river in front of the mission premises. Mutilated limbs, heads, and trunks of the bodies of human beings have been floating about, and scenes of disgust and horror have been presented to our view in every direction. How true it is that the dark places of the earth are full of the habitations of cruelty.

November 1st, Friday. This morning a little after break of day I was surprised to hear voices of several persons who were talking very loudly near the front fence of the mission premises. On going out to ascertain the cause of the noise, I found a human head in our garden. This was the head of the old man whose body had been abused on the beach. The arm of the body had been broken by a bullet which passed through the bone near to the shoulder, and upper part of the skull had been knocked off with a club. The head had been thrown into our garden during the night, with the intention no doubt, of annoying us and shocking our feelings.

These poor victims of war were brought from Verata, and were killed and brought away by victors to be roasted and eaten. Many women and children were taken alive to be kept for slaves. About 30 living children were hoisted up to the mastheads as flags of triumph. The motion of the canoes while sailing soon killed the helpless creatures and silenced their piercing cries. Other children were taken, alive, to Bau that the boys there might learn the art of Feegeean warfare by firing arrows at them and beating them with clubs. For days they have been tearing and devouring like wolves and hyenas.

Rev. David Cargill, Methodist Missionary, Rewa, Fiji, 1839.

One of the servants of the king a few months ago ran away. She was soon, however, brought back to the king's house. There, at the request of the queen, her arm was cut off below the elbow and cooked for the king, who ate it in her presence, and then ordered that her body be burnt in different parts. The girl, now a woman, is still living.

Two men that were taken alive in the war at Viwa were removed from thence to Kamba, to be killed. The Bau chief told his brother – who had been converted to our mission – the manner in which he intended them to be killed. His brother said to him: ‘That will be very cruel. If you will allow the men to live, I will give you a canoe.’ The Bau chief answered: ‘Keep your canoe. I want to eat men.’ His brother then left the village that he might not witness the horrible sight.

The cruel deed was then perpetrated. The men doomed to death were made to dig a hole in the earth for the purpose of making a native oven, and were then required to cut firewood to roast their own bodies. They were then directed to go and wash, and afterwards to make a cup of a banana-leaf. This, from opening a vein in each man, was soon filled with blood. This blood was then drunk, in the presence of the sufferers, by the Kamba people.

Sern, the Bau chief, then had their arms and legs cut off, cooked and eaten, some of the flesh being presented to them. He then ordered a fish-hook to be put into their tongues, which were then drawn out as far as possible before being cut off. These were roasted and eaten, to the taunts of ‘We are eating your tongues!’ As life in the victims was still not extinct, an incision was made in the side of each man, and his bowels taken out. This soon terminated their sufferings in this world.

The story below is from The Rev. John Watsford, Ono, Fiji, November 6, 1846

We cannot tell you how many have been slain. Hundreds of wretched human beings have been sent to their account, with all their sins upon their heads. Dead bodies were thrown upon the beach at Vewa, having drifted from Bau, where they were thrown into the sea, there being too many at Bau to be eaten. Bau literally stank for many days, human flesh having been cooked in every hut and the entrails having been thrown outside as food for pigs, or left to putrefy in the sun.

The Somosomo people were fed with human flesh during their stay at Bau, they being on a visit at the time. Some of the chiefs of other tribes, when bringing their food, carried a cooked human being on one shoulder and a pig on the other; but they always preferred the ‘long pig,’ as they call a man, when baked. One woman who had been clubbed was left upon the beach in front of our house at Vewa. The poor creature's head was smashed to pieces and the body quite naked. Whether it was done by the heathen to insult us, or not, we do not know.

One Christian man was clubbed at Rewa, and part of his body was eaten by the Vewa heathen and his bones then thrown near our door. My lad gathered them up and buried them, and afterwards learned that they were the bones of one of his friends. After Rewa was destroyed, heaps of dead bodies lay in all directions; their bones still lie bleaching in the sun.

We do not, and we cannot tell you all that we know of Feegeean cruelty and crime. Every fresh act seems to rise above the last. A chief at Rakeraki had a box in which he kept human flesh. Legs and arms were salted for him and thus preserved in this box. If he saw anyone, even if of his friends, who was fatter that the rest, he had him – or her – killed at once, and part roasted and part preserved. His people declared that he eats human flesh every day.

At Bau, the people preserve human flesh and chew it as some chew tobacco. They carry it about with them, and use it in the same way as tobacco. I heard of an instance of cruelty the other day that surpasses everything I have before heard of the kind. A canoe was wrecked near Natawar, and many of the occupants succeeded in swimming ashore. They were taken by the Natawar people and ovens were at once prepared in which to roast them. The poor wretches were bound ready for the ovens and their enemies were waiting anxiously to devour them. They did not club them, lest any of their blood should be lost. Some, however could not wait until the ovens were sufficiently heated, but pulled the ears off the wretched creatures and ate them raw.

When the ovens were ready, they cut their victims up very carefully, placing dishes under every part to catch the blood. If a drop fell, they licked it up off the ground with the greatest greediness. While the poor wretches were being cut in pieces, they pleaded hard for life; but all was of no avail: all were devoured.

The Fijians loved human flesh for its own sake, and did not merely eat a slain enemy out of revenge. Probably the absence of any animal they could eat gave rise to the custom...

The crew of every boat that was wrecked upon these shore was killed and eaten in some parts. Often a man would order to be clubbed some man or woman that he considered would be good for cooking, his plea being that his ‘black tooth was aching’ and only human flesh could cure it. Such was the absolute right of a man over his wife that he could kill and eat her, if he wished; which has been not rarely done.

Such inordinate gluttons were some of these chiefs that they would reserve the whole bakolo, as a human body to be eaten was called, for their own eating, having the flesh slightly cooked time after time to keep it from going putrid. As a rule a Fijian will touch nothing that has become tainted, but sooner that lose any part of a human roast, they would eat it when the flesh would hardly hang together.

So great was their craving for this strange flesh that when a man had been killed in one of their many bruits and quarrels, and his relations had buried his body, the Fijians frequently enacted the part of ghouls and, digging the body up from the grave, cooked it and feasted thereon. So customary was this that the relations of a buried man who had not died from natural causes watched his grave until the body had probably become too loathsome for even a Fijian's appetite.

The flesh was either baked whole in the ovens, or cut up and stewed in the large earthenware pots they use for cooking. Certain herbs were nearly always cooked with the flesh, either to prevent indigestion or as a sort of savour stuffing – I know not which. The cooks who prepared it and placed it in the ovens filled the inside of the body with hot stones so that it would be well cooked all through.

After a battle, the victors would cook and eat many of the slain at once, but generally some of the bodies were borne home to the victors' village, where they were dragged by ropes tied round their necks through the open place to the temple. There they were offered to the gods, and afterwards cooked and divided among the men, the priests always coming in for a large share. By the side of the temples great heaps of human bones lay whitening in the sun – a sign of how many bodies had been thus offered to the gods. Women, however, were not allowed to take part in the awful banquet, yet women's bodies were considered better for the favourite portions. So delicious was human flesh held to be, that the highest praise that could be given to other food was to say: ‘It is as good as bakolo.’

Some of the most famous of the great cannibals have eaten an enormous number of human beings, many of them in their time having consumed hundreds of bodies...

No important business could be commenced without the slaying of one or two human beings as a fitting inauguration. Was a canoe to be built, then a man must be slain for the laying of its keel; if the man for whom the canoe was being built was a very great chief, then a fresh man was killed for every new timber that was added. More men were used at its launching – as rollers to aid its passage to the sea. Others again were slain to wash its deck in blood and to furnish the feast of human flesh considered so desirable on such occasions. After the canoe was afloat still more victims were required at the first taking down of the mast.

At Bau there used to be a regular display of slaughter, in a sort of arena, round which were raised stone seats for the onlookers. In this space was a huge ‘braining stone,’ which was used thus: two strong natives seized the victim, each taking hold of an arm and leg, and, lifting him from the ground, they ran with him head foremost – at their utmost speed against the stones – bashing out his brains; which was fine sport for the spectators.

Alfred St Johnston, Traveller, Fiji Islands, Camping Among Cannibals, Macmillan, 1883

Captain Morell, the American skipper of whom I have already spoken, came near to being the victim of an ambush in the Fiji Islands. he lost fourteen of his companions. After regaining his ship, he said, he saw the savages cutting up the members of his poor sailors while they were still alive, and more than one of them saw his own arm or leg roasted and devoured before his death.

In Naclear Bay, in the Fijis, a Captain Dillon came near to losing his life. While searching for sandal-wood trees with eighteen or twenty of his men, he found himself separated from the majority of his party and surrounded by a large number of the natives. It was impossible to regain the sea, so he and four others took refuge on a steep rock. ‘We were,’ said Dillon later, ‘five refugees on a rock, and the ground below was covered with several thousand savages. They lit fires at the foot of the rock and heated hearths upon which to roast the limbs of my unfortunate companions. The corpses of these,’ he continued, ‘as well as those of two chiefs of a neighbouring island, were brought before the fires in the following manner: two natives from Naclear constructed a kind of stretcher with branches of trees, which they placed upon their shoulders. The corpses of their victims were put crosswise upon this structure, so that the head hung down on one side and the legs on the other. Thus they were carried in triumph to the fires, where they were placed on the grass in a sitting position.

‘The savages sang and danced around them with demonstrations of the most ferocious joy. They fired several bullets at the inanimate bodies, using for this posthumous execution the guns which had fallen into their hands. When this ceremony was finished, the priests commenced to cut up the corpses before our eyes, and the fragments were placed upon the hearths. Meanwhile we ourselves were surrounded upon every side save that where a thicket on mangroves bordered the river.’

Two of Dillon's companions, one named Savage and the other a Chinese, abandoned their captain, foolishly believing the promises of the barbarians that they would come to no harm. ‘Savage,’ Dillon said, ‘was soon in their midst. They surrounded him, appearing to congratulate him. Suddenly, however, they uttered a great cry, seizing Savage at the same time by the legs. Six men held him suspended head downwards and plunged him into the hole full of water, where he was speedily suffocated. Meanwhile, a native approached the Chinese from behind, and dashed out his brains with a blow of his club. Thereupon the two unfortunate fellows were cut up and placed on the hearth with their companions.’

Dr. Felix Maynard & Alexandre Dumas, The Whalers, Hutchinson, 1937

Cannibalism is rarely mentioned in archaeology textbooks. But there is clear evidence for cannibalism in almost every society and every period, writes Timothy Taylor.

In the course of a single week in February, television audiences were exposed to two claims for cannibalism taking place in Britain in the mid-1st millennium BC. The first, in a Channel 4 documentary series, Cannibal, was based on cut-marked and split human long bones recently found at Eton in Berkshire. The second was part of a Time Team investigation into the 'Bone Cave', a substantial faunal deposit at Alveston near Bristol. Here, among many dog skeletons and various bits of a human, a fragment of thigh-bone showed a pattern of splitting which was interpreted as evidence for the deliberate extraction of marrow.

An Iwan warrior in Papua, New Guinea wears his native dress, including a bone through his nose, a reminder that his tribe were once cannibals.

Fried human, barbecued human, broiled human, raw human…were these items on the menu of the day for our prehistoric ancestors? Quite possibly, according to genetic researchers.
Photograph copyright Charles & Josette Lenars/CORBIS

Claims for cannibalism among Neanderthals (notably at Krapina in Croatia) and modern humans have also been advanced. Perhaps the most compelling evidence comes from the transitional Mesolithic-Neolithic site at Fontbr"goua Cave in south-eastern France, excavated by Paola Villa, where cut-marked human and deer bones occur in the same assemblages, apparently butchered in closely analogous ways.

In the Americas, work on Anasazi and Fremont Indian sites dating to just 1,000 years ago are considered by scholars such as Tim White, Christy and Jacqueline Turner, and Shannon Novak to display a pattern of systematic butchery and cooking of human bodies.
British Archaeology, Issue 59, June 2001



'Do you people eat human bodies?'
By Rachael Bell


New Guinea Cannibal Chief


Historical Perspective Except from Herbert Ward's A Voice From the Congo as found in Gary Hogg's book, Cannibalism and Human Sacrifice: 'Do you people eat human bodies?' I said one day, upon entering a native village, and pointed to a quantity of meat, spitted upon long skewers, being smoke-dried over numerous smoldering fires. 'Io; yo te?' was the instant reply - 'Yes; don't you?' And a few minutes later the chieftain of the village came forward with an offering, which consisted of large and generous portions of flesh, only too obviously of human origin. He seemed genuinely disappointed when I refused. Historically shrouded in mystery, myth, symbolism, fear and speculation, cannibalism remains in most cultures one of the ultimate taboos. According to William Arens' book The Man-Eating Myth: Anthropology & Anthropophagi, the first known account of cannibalism came following an expedition to the West Indies, led by Christopher Columbus. Columbus and his crew supposedly discovered that the Carib West Indies tribe participated in a particularly gruesome practice of ritualistically eating the flesh of other humans.


Modern Day Cannibalism

Other cultures participated in endo- and exo-cannibalism for similar reasons, such as The North American Indians, known as the Iroquoian. They believed that sacrificing and consuming the bodies of their enemies would satisfy their war god and lead to their spirit being transferred and absorbed into their own bodies. The absorbed spirit was believed to empower the cannibal with the attributes of the dead person. Moira Martingale, author of Cannibal Killers, claims that this form of ritualistic cannibalism was practice by the Iroquoian culture as recently as 1838.

Survival Cannibalism - By Rachael Bell
Perhaps the only generally accepted form of cannibalism is when humans eat the flesh of other humans in an attempt to stay alive in adverse and desperate situations. Survival cannibalism is rare and explicable in many cases, yet is still an act that is often punishable by law. There have been several prominent cases of survival cannibalism over the last two hundred years, including that of the Donner Party expedition and the more recent cases that occurred in the Andes Mountains following a plane crash. The full story
By Rachael Bell 

Criminal Cannibalism
In many parts of the world cannibalism is not considered a crime in and of itself and it is often only recognized in concurrence with another crime. For example, in Britain and the United States of America, cannibalism is not considered to be a felony, but is socially unacceptable. Those who have been found to participate in the gruesome act are usually charged with another crime that is directly related to the act of cannibalism, such as murder, grave robbery or necrophilia.

In other cultures, what some deem to be an act of criminal cannibalism may be an acceptable element of another culture. For example, Japanese enemies were allegedly consumed during the height of World War II by tribes in Papua New Guinea, which was acceptable in the culture during that period.

There are many who refuse to believe that cannibalism is practiced in this modern, "civilized" age. However, there is much evidence suggesting that it does occur and with some frequency. There have been many documented cases of cannibalism, especially within the last 100 years.

There are four primary forms of criminal cannibalism:

Sexual cannibalism - During the 1920's Americans were confronted with the horrors of Albert Fish who was said to have raped, murdered and eaten a number of children. Fish was a sexual cannibal in the truest sense of the term and claimed to have experienced enormous sexual pleasure when he imagined eating a person or when he actually indulged his fantasies. Read; http://www.trutv.com/library/crime/criminal_mind/psychology/cannibalism/5.html

Aggression cannibalism - Edward Kemper
Many of the murders Kemper committed had a large sexual component to them: he raped some of his victims, killed them and then sexually molested the corpses. However, it is believed that the murders were primarily motivated by his feelings of anger and revenge, directly and indirectly towards his mother. In fact, Kemper claimed that the unpleasant relationship with his mother was what influenced him to act out his violent fantasies, which included cannibalism.

Ritualistic & Epicurean Cannibalism
Modern forms of spiritual and ritualistic cannibalism are very similar to that seen in tribal groups. However, the modern criminal version of this kind of cannibalism is more associated with satanic or cult group rituals, instead of tribes in remote locations of the world.

Edward Kemper

Spiritual and ritualistic cannibalism is not necessarily limited to groups. Many cases of individual cannibalism incorporate spiritual and ritualistic aspects into their practice. Cannibals such as Dahmer and Kemper claimed that when they consumed their victims, they believed that they spiritually became a part of them. They also believed that their cannibalism allowed them to absorb some of their attributes, such as power.

 Nicolas Claux

Also in France, Nicolas Claux was convicted of the 1994 murder of 34-year-old Thierry Bissonier. However, murder was not his only vice. Claux, who at one time worked at a children's hospital morgue in Paris, admitted to stealing flesh from the dead children and taking it home to eat. In a Crime Library article on Claux written by David Lohr, Claux claimed to have eaten the human flesh for its taste, stating that he preferred to eat it raw. He likened the taste of humans to steak tartare. Claux is also believed to be a Satanist, which could be another motivation behind his cannibalistic practices.

These various forms substantially overlap with one another. For example, one may consume human flesh for several purposes, such as to achieve a sense of power and control (aggression cannibalism), yet one may also find the taste to be agreeable (epicurean/nutritional cannibalism). Another may indulge in cannibalism in order to reach a higher spiritual affinity with the person they have devoured, simultaneously achieving intense sexual and gratification.

Cannibalism throughout the world had largely been believed eradicated – until now. In the past it was uncivilized pagan tribes people, or those without any belief in any form of god, that ate human flesh. A captive and later escaped Jesuit, one of the early martyrs of North America, was made to show his disfigured hands –their fingers had been gnawed off by Indian women– publicly in France. He returned to evangelize the same Indians in the southern Canadian province in preference to this kind of exposure. (Pic. on rt. of unknown man, possibly from a past Filipino tribe eating from a human leg)
 

 Cannibalism Still Exists in China & other regions of Asia


Has desensitized society become so depraved that it can pay to have its own children murdered and then be willing to purchase them at a market as a gourmet meat dish?

The following photographs are the first published that show people from a presumably civilized nation eating human beings.

Asian man washes, dissects and eats a human baby!

 Buying a jar of gourmet baby brains
Gourmet Baby Brains for sale


(Above Pic. of Chinese man slicing a human pancreas)

FETUS EATER LOSES MEDICAL LICENSE
June 12, 2005

Kansas City, USA; Fetus eater loses medical license.
The Kansas City Star reported yesterday that the State Board of Healing Arts revoked the license of fetus-eating abortionist Krishna Rajanna Saturday.

In April 2004 Rajanna's was the poster abortion mill during debate over abortion clinic regulation legislation. Reported the Lawrence Journal-World:

In a police statement taken during a theft investigation at the clinic, an employee who was a suspect in the fraud told police that Rajanna had been seen putting a fetus in the microwave and stirring it in his lunch.... Lawmakers appeared to accept the allegations presented by Kline and Williams as fact and expressed disgust. [Photo credit: Operation Rescue West. Inside are links to photos of Rajanna's abortion clinic office and frig.]

In other testimony....[Attorney General investigator Thomas] Williams told lawmakers the photos they were seeing showed that aborted fetuses were kept in a refrigerator with frozen dinners, sodas and medicine. But it wasn't clear from viewing the photos without explanation that the red object at the bottom of what appeared to be a Styrofoam cup was actually a fetus. Williams said the photos also showed surgical instruments were stored in a bathroom [and] carpet was bloody in the clinic.

Kansans for Life have published photos of Rajanna's office and staff refrigerator.

Quoting again from yesterday's Star:

[Rajanna's] attorney Robert Manske... told the board that revoking Rajanna's license would hurt poor patients....But board member Nancy Welsh, a Topeka-area doctor, said the board should not permit lesser standards of cleanliness and safety because a clinic's patients are poor.

Cannibalism throughout the world had largely been eradicated – until now. In the past it was uncivilized pagan tribal people, or those without any belief in any form of modern god, that ate human flesh. A captive and later escaped Jesuit, one of the early martyrs of North America, was made to show his disfigured hands –his fingers had been gnawed off by Indian women– publicly in France. He returned to evangelize the same Indians in the southern Canadian province in preference to this kind of exposure.

It has been reported that abortionists/midwives in China have eaten aborted babies in the belief that they will restore some degree of health (a variant of herbal medicine) and are reputed to be selling them for such purposes. It is not far fetched to believe that dead babies are being eaten. It is known that aborted babies are used for much experimental medical research and have been used in the manufacture of cosmetics. Aborted babies are for some facilities a commodity sold for profit.

Cannibal reveals man-eater network
From The Times' Roger Boyes in Kassel
January 7, 2004

ARMIN Meiwes, the increasingly confident Cannibal of Rotenburg, has been helping police unravel an international network of man-eaters.

From Austria to the US, willing victims going by names such as Hansel and Gretel queued up to be eaten by or at least exchange butchering details with the 42-year-old former soldier.

The chilling groundbreaking trial in Kassel, now in its fourth week, on Monday exposed not only the scope of modern cannibalism but also Mr. Meiwes's deluded ambitions for a world in which eating people could solve problems of famine and over-population.

Police witnesses told of two "truckloads" of printed emails and internet exchanges between Mr. Meiwes and the web of cannibals or potential victims.

Detective Isolde Stock said: "We downloaded over 3800 photographs from his computer."

A wealth of archeological and anthropological evidence discovered in Africa, Australia, New Zealand, the Far East and Middle East further suggests the far-reaching capabilities of cannibalistic practices. The motivations behind the practice of cannibalism vary cross-culturally and per situation and cannot be easily categorized. However, there are several forms of cannibalism that appear to be more prevalent in certain areas of the world and in certain situations.

Early modern era of documented Cannibalism

Cannibalism is very rampant in the other side of our planet, what i am trying to say is our world has great stories of cannibalism and it is really gruesome to know all these stuff. But what is interesting of knowing all these? Is not about that these people eat people because of their cruel culture or habit. But some of these people are in serious situations that they are force to eat human flesh of their dead buddies just to sustain their health and overcome hunger. Here are facts and stories for you to write-on regarding CANNIBALISM!

European explorers and colonizers brought home many stories of cannibalism practiced by the native peoples they encountered. The friar Diego de Landa reported about Yucatán instances, Yucatan before and after the Conquest, translated from Relación de las cosas de Yucatan, 1566 (New York: Dover Publications, 1978: 4), and there have been similar reports by Purchas from Popayán, Colombia, and from the Marquesas Islands of Polynesia, where human flesh was called long-pig (Alanna King, ed., Robert Louis Stevenson in the South Seas, London: Luzac Paragon House, 1987: 45-50). It is recorded about the natives of the captaincy of Sergipe in Brazil, "They eat human flesh when they can get it, and if a woman miscarries devour the abortive immediately. If she goes her time out, she herself cuts the navel-string with a shell, which she boils along with the secondine, and eats them both.'" (See E. Bowen, 1747: 532.)

Reports of cannibalism among the Texas tribes were often applied to the Karankawa and the Tonkawa. Though cannibals, the fierce Tonkawas were great friends of the white Texas settlers, helping them against all their enemies. Among the North American tribes which practiced cannibalism in some form may be mentioned the Montagnais, and some of the tribes of Maine; the Algonkin, Armouchiquois, Iroquois, and Micmac; farther west the Assiniboin, Cree, Foxes, Chippewa, Miami, Ottawa, Kickapoo, Illinois, Sioux, and Winnebago; in the South the people who built the mounds in Florida, and the Tonkawa, Attacapa, Karankawa, Kiowa, Caddo, and Comanche (?); in the Northwest and West, portions of the continent, the Thlingchadinneh and other Athapascan tribes, the Tlingit, Heiltsuk, Kwakiutl, Tsimshian, Nootka, Siksika, some of the Californian tribes, and the Ute. There is also a tradition of the practice among the Hopi, and mentions of the custom among other tribes of New Mexico and Arizona. The Mohawk, and the Attacapa, Tonkawa, and other Texas tribes were known to their neighbours as "man-eaters."

As with most lurid tales of native cannibalism, these stories are treated with a great deal of scrutiny, as accusations of cannibalism were often used as justifications for the subjugation or destruction of so-called "savages." However, there were several well-documented cultures that engaged in regular eating of the dead, such as New Zealand's Maori. In one infamous 1809 incident, 66 passengers and crew of the ship the Boyd were killed and eaten by Māori on the Whangaroa peninsula, Northland. (See also: Boyd massacre) Cannibalism was already a regular practice in Māori wars. Māori warriors fighting the New Zealand Government in Titokowaru's War in New Zealand's North Island in 1868-69 revived ancient rites of cannibalism as part of the radical Hauhau movement of the Pai Marire religion.

Other islands in the Pacific were home to cultures that allowed cannibalism to some degree. The dense population of Marquesas Islands, Polynesia, was concentrated in the narrow valleys, and consisted of warring tribes, who sometimes cannibalized their enemies. In parts of Melanesia, cannibalism was still practiced in the early 20th century, for a variety of reasons — including retaliation, to insult an enemy people, or to absorb the dead person's qualities.

This period of time was also rife with instances of explorers and seafarers resorting to cannibalism for survival. The survivors of the sinking of the French ship Medusa in 1816 resorted to cannibalism after four days adrift on a raft and their plight was made famous by Théodore Géricault's painting Raft of the Medusa. The misfortunes of theDonner Party in the United States are also well-known. After the sinking of the Essex of Nantucket by a whale, on November 20, 1820, (an important source event for Herman Melville's Moby-Dick) the survivors, in three small boats, resorted, by common consent, to cannibalism in order for some to survive. Sir John Franklin's lost polar expedition is another example of cannibalism out of desperation.

The case of R v. Dudley and Stephens (1884) 14 QBD 273 (QB) is an English case which is said to be one of the origins of the defense of necessity in modern common law. The case dealt with four crew members of an English yacht, the Mignonette, which were cast away in a storm some 1,600 miles (2,600 km) from the Cape of Good Hope. After several days one of the crew fell unconscious due to a combination of the famine and drinking seawater. The others (one possibly objecting) decided then to kill him and eat him. They were picked up four days later. Lack of unanimous consent to draw lots contravened The Custom of the Sea and was held to be murder

Early History of Cannimalism

Cannibalism is mentioned many times in early history and literature. It is reported in the Bible during the siege of Samaria (2 Kings 6:25-30). Two women made a pact to eat their children; after the first mother cooked her child the second mother ate it but refused to reciprocate by cooking her own child. A similar story is reported by Flavius Josephus during the siege of Jerusalem by Rome in 70 CE. Cannibalism was also well-documented in Egypt during a famine caused by the failure of the Nile to flood for eight years (1073-1064 BCE).

As in modern times, though, reports of cannibalism were often told as apocryphal second and third-hand stories, with widely varying levels of accuracy. St. Jerome, in his letter Against Jovinianus, discusses how people come to their present condition as a result of their heritage, and then lists several examples of peoples and their customs. In the list, he mentions that he has heard that Atticoti eat human flesh and that Massagetae and Derbices (a people on the borders of India) kill and eat old people. He also wrote that also the Tibareni crucify loved ones before they grow old; this points to likelihood that St. Jerome's writing came from rumours and does not represent reality accurately.

Researchers have found physical evidence of cannibalism in ancient times. In 2001, archaeologists at the University of Bristol found evidence of Iron Age cannibalism in Gloucestershire. In Germany Emil Carthaus and Dr. Bruno Bernhard have observed 1,891 signs of cannibalism in the caves at the Hönne (1000 - 700 BCE).

Middle Ages

Historical instances of widespread cannibalism are most often connected to extreme social upheavals, such as drought, plague and war, which result in devastating famine. For example, reports of cannibalism were recorded during the First Crusade, as famished Crusaders reportedly fed on the bodies of their dead opponents following the Siege of Ma'arrat al-Numan. Amin Maalouf also discusses further cannibalism incidents on the march to Jerusalem, and to the efforts made to delete mention of these from western history. During Europe's Great Famine of 1315–1317 there were many reports of cannibalism among the starving populations. In North Africa, as in Europe, there are references to cannibalism as a last, horrible, resort in times of famine.

For a brief time in Europe, an unusual form of cannibalism occurred when thousands of Egyptian mummies preserved in bitumen were ground up and sold as medicine. The practice developed into a wide-scale business which flourished until the late 16th century. This "fad" ended because the mummies were revealed to actually be recently killed slaves. Two centuries ago, mummies were still believed to have medicinal properties against bleeding, and were sold as pharmaceuticals in powdered form (see human mummy confection).

References to cannibalizing the enemy has also been seen in poetry written when China was repressed in the Song Dynasty, though the cannibalizing sounds more like poetic symbolism to express the hatred towards the enemy.

While there is universal agreement that some Mesoamerican people practiced human sacrifice, there is a lack of scholarly consensus as to whether cannibalism in pre-Columbian America was widespread. At one extreme, anthropologist Marvin Harris, author of Cannibals and Kings, has suggested that the flesh of the victims was a part of an aristocratic diet as a reward, since the Aztec diet was lacking in proteins. While most pre-Columbian historians believe that there was ritual cannibalism related to human sacrifices, they do not support Harris's thesis that human flesh was ever a significant portion of the Aztec diet.

Cannibalism in World War II

Many instances of cannibalism by necessity were recorded during World War II. For example, following the Soviet victory at Stalingrad in February of 1943, roughly 100,000 German soldiers were taken Prisoner of War (POW). Almost all of them were sent to POW camps in Siberia or Central Asia where, due to being chronically underfed by their Soviet captors, many apparently resorted to cannibalism. Fewer than 5,000 of the prisoners taken at Stalingrad would survive captivity. During the 872-day Siege of Leningrad, reports of cannibalism began to appear in the winter of 1941-1942, after all birds, rats and pets were eaten by survivors. Leningrad police even formed a special division to combat cannibalism.

Many written reports and testimonies collected by the Australian War Crimes Section of the Tokyo tribunal, and investigated by prosecutor William Webb (the future Judge-in-Chief), indicate that Japanese soldiers, in many parts of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, committed acts of cannibalism against Allied prisoners of war. According to historian Yuki Tanaka: "cannibalism was often a systematic activity conducted by whole squads and under the command of officers". In some cases, flesh was cut from living people. An Indian POW, Lance Naik Hatam Ali (later a citizen of Pakistan), testified that in New Guinea: «"the Japanese started selecting prisoners and every day one prisoner was taken out and killed and eaten by the soldiers. I personally saw this happen and about 100 prisoners were eaten at this place by the Japanese. The remainder of us were taken to another spot 50 miles [80 km] away where 10 prisoners died of sickness. At this place, the Japanese again started selecting prisoners to eat. Those selected were taken to a hut where their flesh was cut from their bodies while they were alive and they were thrown into a ditch where they later died."» Another well-documented case occurred in Chichijima in February 1945, when Japanese soldiers killed and consumed five American airmen. This case was investigated in 1947 in a war crimes trial, and of 30 Japanese soldiers prosecuted, five (Maj. Matoba, Gen. Tachibana, Adm. Mori, Capt. Yoshii, and Dr. Teraki) were found guilty and hanged. In his book Flyboys: A True Story of Courage, James Bradley details several instances of cannibalism of World War II Allied prisoners by their Japanese captors. The author claims that this included not only ritual cannibalization of the livers of freshly-killed prisoners, but also the cannibalization-for-sustenance of living prisoners over the course of several days, amputating limbs only as needed to keep the meat fresh.

Cannibalism Cont'

 Child Cannibalism
Child cannibalism, or fetal cannibalism describes the act of eating a child or fetus. Accounts, especially modern ones, are often dismissed as rumours or urban legends. However, there have been several media stories pursuing incidents involving the consumption of children and fetuses. Controversy was sparked when images showing what appeared to be human fetuses and babies being served in an array of dishes. Reports later explained that the images were part of an artist's exhibition...perhaps?

 Blood libel
Critics see the propagation of these purported rumours as a form of Blood libel, or accusing one's enemy of eating children, and accuse countries of using this as a political lever.

 Ritual practice
In 330-340 AD Alexandrian bishop Epiphanius claimed to have defected from a sect called the Phibionites, which were claimed to worship a snake, have sexual intercourse during religious ceremonies, and eat aborted fetuses - considered to be "the perfect mass". This account was used by the Christian church to attack its enemies. Historians are not positive if this was true.

 Benefits of an economy based on child cannibalism
Jonathan Swift's 1729 satiric article "A Modest Proposal" proposed the utilization of an economic system based on poor people selling their children to be eaten, claiming that this would benefit the economy, family values, and general happiness of Ireland. He used many instances of irony to express that his proposition was just as bad as what was really being done to help the poor.

MURDER AND CANNIBALISM - CAPTURED AMERICAN PILOTS

Reference has already been made in Murder and Cannibalism on the Kokoda Track to the facts that cannibalism of Allied prisoners of war by the Imperial Japanese military was not a rare occurence in the Pacific islands and was not necessarily related to an absence of normal food.This disgusting practice is probably indicative of the depths of depravity to which the Imperial Japanese Army had sunk after several years of genocidal behaviour in China. Japan's brutal and unprovoked war against China began in 1937, and this war was used to train the Japanese military for Japan's wider aggression that began with the sneak attack on Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941. Having brutally murdered millions of captive Chinese civilians and prisoners of war, both men and women, children and elderly, it is really not surprising to find that Japanese troops were capable of engaging in the disgusting practice of cannibalism.

Lord Russell relates the story of a young American pilot who was captured, murdered, and eaten by Japanese officers on the island of New Britain. The story is narrated by Havildar Chandgi Ram who had been shipped to New Britain with other Indian Army prisoners of war and forced to work as a slave labourer for the Imperial Japanese Army.

"On 12 November 1944, I was digging a trench for the Japanese in the Totabil area of New Britain. About 1600 hours, a single-engined United States fighter plane made a forced landing about a hundred yards away from where I was working. The Japanese from Go Butai Kendebo Camp rushed to the spot and seized the pilot, who could not have been more than twenty years old, and had managed to scramble out of the plane before the Japs could reach him.

"About half an hour from the time of the forced landing, the Kempei Tai * beheaded the pilot. I saw this from behind a tree and watched some of the Japanese cut flesh from his arms, legs, hips and buttocks and carry it off to their quarters. I was so shocked at the scene and followed the Japanese just to find out what they would do with the flesh. They cut it in small pieces and fried it.

"Later that evening, a senior Japanese officer, of the rank of major general, addressed a large number of officers. At the conclusion of his speech, a piece of fried flesh was given to all present who ate it on the spot."

From "The Knights of Bushido" by Lord Russell of Liverpool, published 2002 by Greenhill Books, London, at pages 235-239.

* The Kempei Tai were the Japanese military secret police.

Being aware that some people would question the reliability of this eyewitness evidence of murder and cannibalism, and that it was condoned by senior Japanese army officers, Lord Russell provides extracts from the testimony of Major Matoba before a military tribunal on Guam after the Japanese surrender. Major Matoba describes a number of occasions on which the flesh of murdered prisoners of war was consumed in the Japanese officers' mess. This disgusting behaviour took on the character of a festive occasion, with the flesh being washed down with sake. Very senior army and navy officers attended the officers' mess when human flesh was consumed and Major Matoba claims that they encouraged this vile behaviour.

Lord Russell then cites the text of a Japanese Army order issued by Major Matoba. This battalion order explicitly deals with the procedure for cannibalism of a named American aviator Lieutenant (jg) H---. For the sake of the feelings of the family of this young pilot, I will not include the full surname here. The name is given by Lord Russell in "The Knights of Bushido" at page 236.

Although apologists for cannibalism by the Imperial Japanese military, including Major Matoba, suggest that shortage of normal food was the likely cause of this depraved behaviour, neither this story nor the cannibalism on the Kokoda Track can be attributed to starvation. New Britain is a very large island off the north-eastern coast of the main island of New Guinea. New Britain has rich volcanic soil and produces an abundance of easily grown natural foods, including paw paw, coconut, and various types of sweet potato.

Witchcraft & Paganism

Basic Philosophy of Wicca or Witchcraft

 The photo below was taken by one of the, ahem...witches MS. by their cabin mates, Friday night on their way to ritual Mirror of Our Souls:

Wicca, or Witchcraft, is a so-called earth religion ...a re-linking with the life force of nature, both on this planet and in the stars and space beyond. In city apartments, in suburban backyards, and in country glades, groups of women and men meet on the new and full moons and at festival times to raise energy and put themselves in tune with these natural forces. They honor the old goddesses and gods, including the Triple Goddess of the waxing, full, and waning moon, and the Horned God of the sun and animal life, as visualizations of immanent nature. (Pic, on left of the ugly witch sisters)

Witchcraft Rituals: April 30 - May Eve - Beltaine (Beltane)

 April 30 - May Eve - Beltaine
'Beltane' means 'fire of Bel', Belinos being one name for the Sun God, whose coronation feast we now celebrate. As summer begins, weather becomes warmer, and the plant world blossoms, an exuberant mood prevails. It is a time of unabashed sexuality and promiscuity. Young people spend the entire night in the woods 'a-maying', and dance around the phallic Maypole the next morning. Older married couples may remove their wedding rings (and the restrictions they imply) for this one night. May morning is a magical time for 'wild' water (dew, flowing streams, and springs) which is collected and used to bathe in for beauty, or to drink for health. The Christian religion had only a poor substitute for the life-affirming Maypole - namely, the death-affirming cross. Hence, in the Christian calendar, this was celebrated as 'Roodmas'. In Germany, it was the feast of Saint Walpurga, or 'Walpurgisnacht'. An alternative date around May 5 (Old Beltaine), when the sun reaches 15 degrees Taurus, is sometimes employed by Covens. (The name 'Lady Day' is incorrectly assigned to this holiday by some modern traditions of Wicca.)

 Witchcraft: TWO WITCHES A Modern Craft Fairy-Tale
Once upon a time, there were two Witches. One was a Feminist Witch and the other was a Traditionalist Witch. And, although both of them were deeply religious, they had rather different ideas about what their religion meant. The Feminist Witch tended to believe that Witchcraft was a religion especially suited to women because the image of the Goddess was empowering and a strong weapon against patriarchal tyranny. And there was distrust in the heart of the Feminist Witch for the Traditionalist Witch because, from the Feminist perspective, the Traditionalist Witch seemed subversive and a threat to "the Cause."

 December 21 - Winter Solstice - Yule
'Yule' means 'wheel', for now the wheel of the year has reached a turning point, with the longest night of the year. This is the seed-point of the solar year, mid-winter, time of greatest darkness when we seek within ourselves to comprehend our true nature. In virtually all Pagan religions, this is the night the Great Mother Goddess gives birth to the baby Sun God, because from this day forward, the days begin to lengthen, light is waxing. The Christian religion adopted this theme as the birthday of Jesus, calling it 'Christmas'. The alternative fixed calendar date of December 25th (called 'Old Yule' by some Covens) occurs because, before various calendar changes, that was the date of the solstice.

 Love Spells: The Ethics of Love Spells
Why so many books containing so many love spells? Why such an emphasis on a kind of magic that I, personally, have always considered very negative? And to make matters even more confusing, the books that do take the trouble of dividing spells between 'positive' and 'negative' magic invariably list love spells under the first heading. After all, they would argue, love is a good thing. There can never be too much of it. Therefore, any spell that brings about love must be a GOOD spell. Never mind that the spell puts a straightjacket on another's free will, and then drops it in cement for good measure.

SEXUAL COME-ONS AT PAGAN FESTIVALS - An Open Letter to the Web of Oz
Like many another Neo-Pagan, I began life under the heavy indoctrination of Christian precepts. Like many others, I found this upbringing to be not only painful, but psychologically damaging, as well. It has taken years of disciplined work to shrug off the feelings of guilt and self-recrimination foisted upon me during those years. Especially, I remember the pain of being taught to feel shame and remorse over each and every thought I had of a sexual nature. And any overt sexual act (other than narrowly defined exceptions) was anathema -- a cause for eternal damnation.

 THE PENTAGRAM
The pentagram, or five-pointed star, may be the most misunderstood religious symbol around these days. Being the most common symbol of Neo-Pagan Witchcraft, it has nevertheless been denigrated by movie and publishing industries which seem 'hell-bent' on connecting it with Satanism and other malevolent practices. However, like the Roman Cross or Crucifix, it is only when the symbol is INVERTED that it alludes to negativity. And even then, there are exceptions, as we shall see.

The most famous kind of Witchcraft is Wicca, but there are many other kinds of Witchcraft both modern and ancient from cultures all over the world.

Witchcraft is the oldest known religion (based on archaeological evidence, including small Goddess figurines, burial rituals, ivory witchcraft tools, and botanical plant remains) and witchcraft is the fastest growing religion in the United States.

Reliable archaeological and historical evidence on traditional witchcraft is limited and consists mostly of accounts of Christians falsely accusing other Christians, Jews, and women of being witches during the Burning Times. Most modern witchcraft is based on some combination of archaeology, family oral traditions, modern reconstructions and interpretations, and such activities as dreams, visions, divination, and other subjective sources.

Witchcraft is the fastest growing religion in the United States and Great Britain and has surpassed (or will soon surpass, depending on who does the polling) Judaism as the third most populous religion in the U.S. (Christianity is the most populous religion in the U.S. and Islam is second). Islam is the fastest growing religion in the world (primarily because of high birth rates, not because of new conversions). Buddhism is the fastest growing religion in Australia. The Falun Dafa or Falun Gong religion is the fastest growing religion in China. The leading voice among world Witches is witchvox.org. Witchvox is a great web site with listings for a wide variety of witchcraft practices and beliefs.

Witch; A witch is a female shaman, typically including divination (astrology, palmistry, Tarot, I Ching, etc.), healing (herbal medications, aromatherapy, massage, sacred sexuality, etc.), and magic. (see note below about male witches)

Witchcraft; The practice of any of the arts of a witch or the religion of a witch.

Warlock; Wizard; traitor. From Old English wær covenant + -loga one who denies (related to leogan to lie), literally meaning “oath-breaker”. This term reflects medieval Christian propaganda and does not accurately describe a male witch.

There is a lot of confusion over exactly what witchcraft is. Part of this confusion is because “witch” has a lot of different meanings, and the number of meanings is expanding rapidly. The preceding definition is a root definition, from which the many modern definitions are derived. Obviously there will be a lot of modern witches who don’t match the root definition. Teen Witch is not trying to exclude them. Once you understand the root definition, it becomes easier to understand how the many modern varieties came into existence.

In particular, Teen Witch is not trying to discriminate against guys. Of course men can be witches. Traditionally, witches are women, but there have always been a small number of male witches. In modern times it is much more common for males to become witches.
Early witchcraft

The origins of witchcraft were early human efforts to deal with women’s mysteries, particularly the menstrual cycle, pregnancy, and childbirth. Nobody is certain when witchcraft first started, although it probably started around the same time that pre-humans mastered fire (around 400,000 years ago). The oldest evidence of witchcraft is a piece of whalebone from 106,000 years ago that has a crude calendar marking the phases of the moon and a woman’s menstrual cycle.

Early witchcraft combined magic ritual with herbal preparations, built on millennia of lore passed down through generations of wise women.

As one example, consider the use of the rose. Modern science has revealed that the rose hip (the sweet part at the center of a rose) has the highest concentration of iron of any plant (it is also an excellent source of vitamin C). A woman loses a lot of iron during her period, and a natural supplement of iron has obvious positive benefits. Additionally, there are a few dozen minor trace ingredients in rose hips, many of which help stabilize a woman’s emotions and moods while on her period.

Obviously early witches didn’t know the scientific details, but they did know that eating rose hips (either fresh, or dried rose hips used to make rose hip tea) helped during menstruation. So, taking rose hips during menstruation became a fairly standard part of witchcraft.

In fact, it is this witchcraft practice that led to the association of roses with romance. Before Christianity, the use of rose hips or rose hip tea during a woman’s period was fairly common knowledge. The men who were close to a woman (particularly her husband or mate) would make sure that they brought their lover plenty of roses during her period. And obviously a man would have to be on intimate terms with a woman to know the right timing for when to bring roses.

Several Christian popes attempted to eliminate the practice of witchcraft, including outlawing growing or possessing flowers with the death penalty (because witchcraft made so much use of various flowers for herbal preparations). This harsh penalty caused a lot of the common knowledge about the herbal effects of various flowers to be lost in Western civilization, but the association of roses with romance and love remained long after the actual witchcraft meaning was lost.

Witchcraft, like any living religion, has blossomed and grown and changed through the millennia, and now has lots of different forms. But all of those new forms can be traced back to early female shamanism.

 Kinds of Witchcraft
Just about every culture in the world had at least one form of witchcraft. There are several hundred common forms of witchcraft practiced in the United States, Great Britain, and around the world, the two most common being eclectic witchcraft and Wicca.

Eclectic Witchcraft is an individual approach in which a witch picks and chooses from many different traditions and creates a personalized form of witchcraft that meets her needs and abilities.

Wicca is a loosely connected group of about 150 modern Western witchcraft religions. Tameran Witchcraft is any modern form of witchcraft based at least in part on ancient Egyptian witchcraft, including some forms of eclectic witchcraft and some forms of Wicca. Kemetic Witchcraft is an attempt to exactly recreate ancient Egyptian witchcraft, usually one particular time period in ancient Egyptian history.

 Paganism & Witchcraft
Originally “pagan” was used as a term of derision by city dwellers in the Roman Empire to make fun of the more superstitious version of Hellenism (the Greek religion) practiced in rural areas (from Latin paganus for “rustic”).

When the Christians took military control of the Roman Empire, they quickly stamped out non-Christian religions in the cities, but many witches, Jews, Hellenists, Gnostics, Zoarastrians, Mithraists, Hermeticists, and those of many other smaller religions fled to the mountains or to India or China. The Christians picked up the term “pagan” and applied it to all non-Christian religions, including witchcraft.

Later, Muslims (members of the religion Islam) borrowed the word “pagan” to mean all non-Muslims, including witches.

While some Christians continued to use “pagan” to mean non-Christian and some Muslims continued to use “pagan” to mean non-Muslim, the word came to mean any person who didn’t worship the “One God”, that is, everyone except for Christians, Muslims, and Jews. [NOTE: This is the most common meaning.]

Another variation of “pagan” was everyone except for Christians, Muslims, Jews, and atheists.

And then yet another variation was everyone except for Christians, Muslims, Jews, atheists, and members of Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, and similar aesthetic Asian religions (that is, “pagan” meaning those who are members of pantheistic, polytheistic, and/or witchcraft/shamanic religions).

“Pagan” could also mean anyone who wasn’t religious in a society completely dominated by either Christians or Muslims, that is, atheists, agnostics, and “wayward” members of Christianity or Islam, whichever was dominant.

And in recent decades, the term “pagan” has often been used as a shorter version of “Neo-Pagan”, including witches.

 Christian Witches
There are many Christian Witches right now today — and have been for as long as the Christian Church has existed.

But the official Roman Catholic position is that Witchcraft (of any kind) is heresy — and they used to put Christian Witches to death for it.

Some modern Wiccans honor Jesus as their male God and honor Mary (or Isis, who is also known as the Black Madonna) as their female Goddess. There are Witches that only worship the “official” Christian trinity, or just Jesus, or just the Christian God. And there are Witches that combine worship of Jesus with other Gods and/or Goddesses.

You have to decide in your own heart what you think is right for you.…

 Natural Witches
A natural Witch is someone who has a natural Witch talent. If you are a natural Witch, your natural Witch talent will become obvious. Usually this happens fairly early in life, but it can be delayed until late in life.

The most common natural Witch talent is having dreams that foretell the future. Another common natural Witch talent is being naturally accurate with runes, tarot, or other divination.

Anybody can become a Witch, but you have to be born with a Witch talent to be a natural Witch.

If you have a natural Witch talent, learning about Witchcraft and magic will help you learn how to control your natural Witch talent.

 Becoming a Witch
Becoming a Witch is pretty much the same as becoming a Buddhist, Christian, Muslim, Jainist, etc. If in your heart you know it is right for you, then you make the decision to become a Witch.

While there are some forms of Witchcraft that have specific entry requirements, most forms of Witchcraft are a personal decision. If you believe that you are a Witch, then you are a Witch.

You can perform meditation or other ritual to help you determine if Witchcraft is right for you.

 "Oh hell...where do I sign up?"

You can also perform some kind of initiation ritual. Some Witchcraft traditions have specific initiation rituals. Other Witchcraft traditions call for the individual to create their own initiation ritual. And some Witchcraft traditions have no initiation at all.

It is best to learn about Witchcraft from a practicing Witch, but many Witches are self-taught.

Well, I guess with so many magic spells flowing around...there's bound to be an increase in the frog population.

 Modern day Children Sacrifices in the UK
Children are being trafficked into the UK from Africa and used for human sacrifices, a confidential report for the Metropolitan Police suggests.

Children are being beaten and even murdered after being labeled as witches by pastors, the report leaked to BBC Radio 4's Today programme said.

Police face a "wall of silence" in investigations because of fear and mistrust among the groups involved.

It follows the case of a girl who was accused of witchcraft by her guardians.

Three people, including the girl's aunt, were convicted of trying to "beat the devil out of" the un-named 10-year-old - originally from Angola.

The report was commissioned by the Met after the death of Victoria Climbie in February 2000 and because of concerns over so-called faith crimes.

The 10-month probe was also intended to be part of efforts to "open a dialogue" with Asian and African communities to prevent child abuse in the London boroughs of Hackney and Newham.

Information was gathered with the help of social workers, human rights lawyers and race relations experts from within these ethnic minority groups.

Today programme reporter Angus Stickler, who obtained the police report due to be published later this month, described it as "absolutely chilling".

"The most gruesome details come from the African communities," he said.
'Dead meat'

It said that people who are desperate seek out churches to cast spells for them.

"Members of the workshop said for spells to be powerful it required a sacrifice of a male child unblemished by circumcision," the report said.

Contributors said boys were being trafficked into the UK for this purpose, but did not give details because they said they feared they would be "dead meat" if they told any more. There were also claims that youngsters were being smuggled into the UK as domestic slaves and for men with HIV who believed if they had sex with a child they would be cleansed.

One HIV outreach worker who spoke to the BBC News website said a small minority of Africans who came to his sessions had begun to mention this as a possible solution to their problems.

The authors of the report point out that these claims are only allegations.

They also claim that children could be in "serious and possible life-threatening situations." It is not clear how widespread the practices are within African communities, but those working with minority groups suggest it is fairly small-scale.

The report also spoke of a wide gulf between child protection agencies and those in the communities involved, which means people are reluctant to get in touch with the authorities. Police described this as a "wall of silence" prompted by concerns that individuals would be "betraying" their family, community and faith if they spoke out.

It also acknowledged the sensitivity of the issue as the abuse was a product of individuals' faith and beliefs.

Independent adviser to the Met John Azah said that since the Climbie case and the ritualistic murder of a black child known as "Adam", there were concerns the police were only touching the "tip of the iceberg". "A few weeks ago the Met put out a number of 300 black children missing from schools.

"There's no evidence that any of these children have been traced.

"Therefore perhaps there's something terrible happening out there which we are not aware."

This was why the police, quite rightly, were doing quite a lot of work to see if children were being murdered or not, he added.

But Dr William Les Henry, a lecturer in sociology at Goldsmith's College, said there was an element of racism about the report.

He said: "The model that they're based on, they always seem to base their models on the fact that Africans are less civilized, less rational, so their whole systems of rationality are irrational."

Home Secretary Charles Clarke said it was important countries worked together to tackle crimes related to people-trafficking.

Witchcraft Mutilation
The Met had a special unit to address these particular issues, he said.

"But it's classically an issue, like all people-trafficking issues, where people are being moved across the whole world, essentially for money, by very substantial criminal organizations."

The challenge was how could the organizations most effectively be contested, he said. The report called for the social services department to determine how many faith organizations exist and where they are situated.

But Pastor Nims Obunge from the Freedom's Arc Church emphasized that most African churches were entirely legitimate and overseen within a wider structure.

"We do not condone any form of cultish practices and I think we need to define the difference between a cult and a church, that's an important thing and I'm a bit wary when we use the term 'church' in a loose fashion."

Aunt helped to torture girl, 8, for being a Witch

The report also urged the Met to highlight the work of child protection agencies to try to encourage the reporting of crimes. (Pic on right of Sita Kasanga) who was one of three people that tortured an 8 year old girl she believed to be a witch) Yet another case having similarities with that of Victoria Climbié, the eight-year-old African girl who was murdered in east London, another female child was mistreated, starved and traumatized after she too was claimed to be possessed by the devil. (It's bewildering why these freaks believe that these innocent children are possessed by demons, when they are they ones possessed...with ignorance and superstition) MS.

Child in “witch” case weeps

An orphaned refugee who was allegedly tortured after adults caring for her branded her a witch broke down in tears yesterday as she gave evidence.

The child, now 10, is alleged to have been stuffed in a laundry bag by her aunt and Sita Kasanga, both from Hackney in east London, who deny conspiracy to murder and child cruelty charges.

Source:- The Guardian Wednesday 11 May 2005

Boys 'used for human sacrifice'

Children are being trafficked into the UK from Africa and used for human sacrifices, a confidential report for the Metropolitan Police suggests.

Children are being beaten and even murdered after being labeled as witches by pastors, the report leaked to BBC Radio 4's Today programme said.

Police face a "wall of silence" in investigations because of fear and mistrust among the groups involved.

It follows the case of a girl who was accused of witchcraft by her guardians.

Three people, including the girl's aunt, were convicted of trying to "beat the devil out of" the un-named 10-year-old - originally from Angola.

The report was commissioned by the Met after the death of Victoria Climbie in February 2000 and because of concerns over so-called faith crimes.

The 10-month probe was also intended to be part of efforts to "open a dialogue" with Asian and African communities to prevent child abuse in the London boroughs of Hackney and Newham.

Information was gathered with the help of social workers, human rights lawyers and race relations experts from within these ethnic minority groups.

Today programme reporter Angus Stickler, who obtained the police report due to be published later this month, described it as "absolutely chilling".

"The most gruesome details come from the African communities," he said.

"This report talks of rituals, of witchcraft, being practiced in churches in London. It is described as big business."

'Dead meat'

It said that people who are desperate seek out churches to cast spells for them.

"Members of the workshop said for spells to be powerful it required a sacrifice of a male child unblemished by circumcision," the report said.

Contributors said boys were being trafficked into the UK for this purpose, but did not give details because they said they feared they would be "dead meat" if they told any more.

There were also claims that youngsters were being smuggled into the UK as domestic slaves and for men with HIV who believed if they had sex with a child they would be cleansed.

One HIV outreach worker who spoke to the BBC News website said a small minority of Africans who came to his sessions had begun to mention this as a possible solution to their problems.

The authors of the report point out that these claims are only allegations.

They also claim that children could be in "serious and possible life-threatening situations".

"A few weeks ago the Met put out a number of 300 black children missing from schools.

"There's no evidence that any of these children have been traced.

"Therefore perhaps there's something terrible happening out there which we are not aware of."

This was why the police, quite rightly, were doing quite a lot of work to see if children were being murdered or not, he added.

But Dr William Les Henry, a lecturer in sociology at Goldsmith's College, said there was an element of racism about the report.

He said: "The model that they're based on, they always seem to base their models on the fact that Africans are less civilized, less rational, so their whole systems of rationality are irrational."

The report called for the social services department to determine how many faith organisations exist and where they are situated.

But Pastor Nims Obunge from the Freedom's Arc Church emphasised that most African churches were entirely legitimate and overseen within a wider structure.

"We do not condone any form of cultish practices and I think we need to define the difference between a cult and a church, that's an important thing and I'm a bit wary when we use the term 'church' in a loose fashion."

The report also urged the Met to highlight the work of child protection agencies to try to encourage the reporting of crimes.

The Met said the report was drawn up after workshops debating issues such as female genital mutilation, physical chastisement, forced marriage and faith-related child abuse were held.

It added: "The recommendations in the report are being carefully considered at the highest levels in the MPS in conjunction with partner agencies and community groups."

Home Secretary Charles Clarke said it was important countries worked together to tackle crimes related to people-trafficking. The Met had a special unit to address these particular issues, he said.

"But it's classically an issue, like all people-trafficking issues, where people are being moved across the whole world, essentially for money, by very substantial criminal organizations."

The challenge was how could the organizations most effectively be contested, he said.

"The local Police stated that for the spells to be powerful it is required to sacrifice a male child unblemished by circumcision"

Starved and beaten with nails: Kinshasa's young 'witches' cast out by slum preachers

If the preachers who spread their message on the banks of the Congo are to be believed, the face of evil is found in the despairing gaze of an abandoned child.

With their pinched faces and thin limbs, the ragged street children found throughout Kinshasa, the Democratic Republic of Congo's fetid capital, are the bearers of wickedness and sin.

Most have been cast out of their homes for being "witches" and, supposedly, bringing every kind of misfortune on their families.

A visceral fear of "possessed" children is sweeping Congo's cities, causing tens of thousands of boys and girls to be abandoned and abused.

Many are beaten, starved and tortured during exorcism ceremonies carried out by evangelical pastors in slum churches. These unscrupulous preachers exploit deeply ingrained beliefs in a world of evil spirits.

Across Africa, Christian congregations are expanding at a pace not seen since the earliest days of the Church. About 1,400 new denominations emerge every month, according to one estimate, and Africa's churches now hold 390 million worshippers - more than three times the total of 35 years ago.

But these churches are often tumbledown shacks, presided over by pastors who know more about greed and sadism than theology.

In Congo and neighbouring Angola, children are denounced as witches on a huge scale. In Kinshasa alone, 70 per cent of the city's street children have been abandoned for this reason.

Both countries endured years of civil war in which child soldiers were responsible for atrocities. Aid workers believe this might help to explain a deep fear of the young found among many Congolese and Angolans.

One child "sorcerer" is 12-year-old Jean, who wears a torn vest, red shorts and scuffed bedroom slippers. They are his only possessions. The squalor of Matonge slum has been his home ever since he was cast out. His alleged crime was to have placed a fatal curse on his grandmother. Even before her death, Jean's uncle and aunt were already waging a vendetta against him, accusing him of witchcraft or kindoki.

"They were beating me," he said. "My sisters and my brother were going to school but they stopped me from going because they said I was kindoki. They stopped paying my school fees. If someone was sick, they would say 'this is because of your kindoki'."

His grandmother's death made Jean's life unbearable. "There was a day when she was feeling ill after she ate some food. Later that night, she died," he said. "My uncle and my aunt said I had cursed the food and killed her. I was not even there when she was eating, I was playing football with my friends, but they still accused me."

Jean added: "My uncle started beating me with a stick with nails in it. I hid under the chair. He pulled me out and carried on beating me. I thought he was going to kill me. I managed to get away from him and run away from the house."

That final beating occurred when Jean was 10. His mother, Christine, was away when the vendetta drove him on to the streets. Otherwise, Jean believes she would have rescued him.

This fear of child witches has reached a section of Britain's African community.

In July, Sebastian Pinto, Sita Kasanga and another woman, whose name was withheld, were jailed at the Old Bailey for between four and 10 years for torturing an eight-year-old girl.

She was beaten and had chili peppers rubbed into her eyes after she was denounced as a "witch". The guilty adults, including the girl's aunt, came from Cabinda, a tiny Angolan enclave in Congolese territory, less than 200 miles west of Kinshasa.

Congo's capital is filled with pastors who claim they can expel the devil from "possessed" children.

Mama Louise Mujinga, 55, shares a filthy compound with 15 child "witches". Her methods of exorcism are relatively mild. She does not use beatings or torture. Instead, she starves the children for nine days, restricting them to one slice of bread and one cup of water at sunset. "They have to suffer to give themselves to God and be delivered from the devil," she said. Her charges often change into animals by night, she believes.

"You, what have you transformed into?" she asked an awe-struck boy. "A rat," he replied. "And you?" asked Mama Mujinga, singling out another. "A cat," he said.

Another boy said he regularly became a pig, while one claimed to become a goat.

"They are very dangerous," said Mama Mujinga. "Look at this boy. His mother had an 11-month pregnancy. Only when I cast out the devil from him could his mother deliver.

"And this one. He paralyzed his father. The man could not move. So I had to throw out the evil spirit. I am lucky I have my prayers to protect me."

Save the Children is trying to rescue child victims from unscrupulous pastors. Stephen Blight, the charity's programme director in Kinshasa, said: "I have seen kids chained up in crowded, unsanitary conditions for days in preparation for 'deliverance'.

"They are often starved and these are young kids of five, six or seven. They are often forbidden from drinking water and subjected to such things as anal purges, beatings and having hot oil poured over them."

About 2,000 children, cast on to the streets or held by pastors, have been rescued by Save the Children and reunited with their families in the past two years.

All that Jean wants is to see his mother and attend school. "When I see other children going to school, I think, 'If my mother was with me, I could also be going to school'," he said.

‘Babies in attic’ police dig up garden

Police investigating the deaths of three babies started digging up a back garden yesterday after sniffer dogs identified at least six sites of interest.

The dig is taking place at the former home of Ann Mahoney on the Gurnos estate in Merthyr Tydfil. The dogs are specially trained to find human remains.

The activity follows the remains of three babies being found in the attics of two houses nearby on the same estate.

Source:- Western Mail Wednesday 11 May 2005

According to Richard Hoskins, an expert in African religions at King's College University who gave evidence in the trial, the belief that children might be "infected" by witchcraft has traditionally existed in the religious cultures of Angola and other African nations.

The Met said the report was drawn up after workshops debating issues such as female genital mutilation, physical chastisement, forced marriage and faith-related child abuse were held.

It added: "The recommendations in the report are being carefully considered at the highest levels in the MPS in conjunction with partner agencies and community groups."

Human sacrifice; the act of homicide (the killing of one or several human beings) in the context of a religious ritual (ritual killing). Its typology closely parallels the various practices of ritual slaughter of animals (animal sacrifice) and of religious sacrifice in general.

Human sacrifice has been practiced in various cultures throughout history. Victims were typically ritually killed in a manner that is supposed to please or appease gods, spirits or the deceased. Closely related practices found in some tribal societies are cannibalism and headhunting.

By the Iron Age, with the associated developments in religion (the Axial Age), human sacrifice was becoming less throughout the Old World, and came to be widely looked down upon as barbaric already in pre-modern times (Classical Antiquity). Blood libel is a false charge of ritual killing against such taboos.

Even if not ostensibly connected with religion, infliction of capital punishment is often highly ritualized and thus difficult to distinguish from human sacrifice. Death by burning historically has aspects of both human sacrifice (Wicker Man, Tophet) and capital punishment (Brazen bull, Tamar, tunica molesta). Execution by burning of Christian heretics was introduced by Justinian I in the 6th century. Detractors of the death penalty may consider all forms of capital punishment as secularized variants of human sacrifice. Similarly, lynching, pogroms and genocides are sometimes interpreted as human sacrifice following Theodor W. Adorno.

In modern times, some actually disbelieve that the ubiquitous practice of animal sacrifice has virtually disappeared (or has been re-cast in terms of ritual slaughter) from all major religions, human sacrifice has become very rare indeed. This is far from true and animal sacrifices occur daily throughout the Hindu regions of Nepal and India. Another misconception is that most religions condemn the practice and present-day secular laws treat it as murder.

Nonetheless it is still occasionally seen today, with reports from the 2000s from India and Sub-Saharan Africa (multi killings), but also isolated cases in the immigrant African Diaspora in Europe.

The idea of human sacrifice has its roots in deep prehistory, in the evolution of human behaviour. Mythologically, it is closely connected, or even fundamentally identical with animal sacrifice. Walter Burkert has argued for such a fundamental identity of animal and human sacrifice in the connection of a hunting hypothesis which traces the emergence of human religious behaviour to the beginning of behavioral modernity in the Upper Paleolithic (roughly 50,000 years ago). There has been a lot of debate on the primacy of myth vs. ritual, and the presence of a myth of human sacrifice should not be taken as necessarily implying the historical existence of the actual practice: human sacrifice may be taken as the re-enactment of an older myth, or conversely a myth can be taken as a memory of an earlier practice of human sacrifice.

Theistic rationalizations of human sacrifice may involve the idea of offering to deities as payment for favorable interventions in an event of special importance, to forestall unfavorable events, or to purchase disclosures about the physical world.

 India's Sacrifices to Idols of their Hindu Goddess Kali

Killing for 'Mother' Kali

(Drawing of Kalika Devi, (c) Jan Bailey 1999) For the magic to work, the killing had to be done just right. If the goddess were to grant Khudu Karmakar the awesome powers he expected from a virgin's death, the victim had to be willing, had to know what was happening, watch the knife, and not stop it. But even tranquilizers couldn't lull 15-year-old Manju Kumari to her fate. In his police confession, Karmakar says his wife, daughter and three accomplices had to gag Manju and pin her down on the earthen floor before the shrine. In ritual order, Karmakar wafted incense over her, tore off her blue skirt and pink T shirt, shaved her, sprinkled her with holy water from the Ganges and rubbed her with cooking fat. Then chanting mantras to the "mother" goddess Kali, he sawed off Manju's hands, breasts and left foot, placing the body parts in front of a photograph of a blood-soaked Kali idol. Police say the arcs of blood on the walls suggest Manju bled to death in minutes.

Human sacrifice has always been an anomaly in India. Even 200 years ago, when a boy was killed every day at a Kali temple in Calcutta, blood cults were at odds with a benign Hindu spiritualism that celebrates abstinence and vegetarianism. But Kali is different. A ferocious slayer of evil in Hindu mythology, the goddess is said to have an insatiable appetite for blood. With the law on killing people more strictly enforced today, ersatz substitutes now stand in for humans when sacrifice is required. Most Kali temples have settled on large pumpkins to represent a human body; other followers slit the throats of two-meter-tall human effigies made of flour, or of animals such as goats.

In secret ceremonies, however, the grizzly practice lives on in India. Quite simply, say the faithful known as tantrics Kali looks after those who look after her, bringing riches to the poor, revenge to the oppressed and newborn joy to the childless. So far this year, police have recorded at least one case of ritual killing a month. In January, in the southern state of Andhra Pradesh, a 24-year-old woman hacked her three-year-old son to death after a tantric sorcerer supposedly promised unlimited earthly riches. In February, two men in the eastern state of Tripura beheaded a woman on the instructions of a deity they said appeared in their dreams promising hidden treasures. Karmakar killed Manju in Atapur village in Jharkhand state in April, 2008. The following month, police dug up the remains of two sisters, aged 18 and 13, in Bihar, dismembered with a ceremonial sword and offered to Kali by their father. Last week on the outskirts of Bombay, maize seller Anil Lakshmikant Singh, 33, beheaded his neighbor's nine-year-old son to save his marriage on the advice of a tantric. Said Singh: "He promised that a human sacrifice would end all my miseries."

Far from ancient barbarisms that refuse to die, sacrifice and sorcery are making a comeback. Sociologists explain the millions who now throng the two main Kali centers in eastern India, at Kamakhya and Tarapith, as what happens when the rat race that is India's future meets the superstitions of its past. Sociologist Ashis Nandy says: "You see your neighbor doing well, above his caste and position, and someone tells you to get a child and do a secret ritual and you can catch up." Adds mysticism expert Ipsita Roy Chakaraverti: "It's got nothing to do with real mysticism or with spiritualism. It comes down to pure and simple greed." Tarapith in particular is a giant building site of new hotels, restaurants and stalls selling plastic swords and postcards of Kali's severed feet. Judging by the visitors here, Kali appeals to both rich and poor: the rows of SUVs parked outside four-star hotels belong to the ranks of businessmen and politicians lining up with their goats behind penniless pilgrims. ("The blood never dries at Tarapith," whispers one villager.)

There are no human sacrifices at the temple these days, or so proclaimed. But the mystique of ritual killing is so powerful that even those who actually don't perform it claim to do so. In their camp in the cremation grounds beside the temple, a throng of tantrics tout for business by competing to be as spooky as possible, lining their mud-walled temples with human skulls and telling tall tales of human sacrifice. "I cut off her head," says 64-year-old Baba Swami Vivekanand of a girl he says he raised from birth. "We buried the body and brought the head back, cooked it and ate it." He pauses to demand a $2 donation. "Good story, no?" While most of this is innocent, some followers, like Karmakar, are inevitably emboldened to take their quest for power to the extreme. Karmakar, like many others, was caught. But in the dust-bowl villages of India, where superstition reigns and blood has a dark authority, the question is how many other "holy men" have found that ultimate power still rests in the murderous magic of a virgin sacrifice.

Hinduism cont'

Man sacrifices wife for kali, eats her tongue

Press Trust of India
Posted online: Friday, July 09, 2004 at 1627 hours IST

Dehradun, July 9, 04: A woman was hacked to death allegedly by her husband to propitiate goddess kali to "cure" their son who was said to be under influence of a ghost in the Rajpur area of the city.

Bharat Lal was offering prayers at the kali temple along with his wife Kamla Devi when he hacked her to death with a sharp-edged weapon on Thursday evening as the couple's three children watched, police said.

Lal also cut off his wife's tongue and ate it before setting her body afire. The gory incident took place in the presence of the couple's three children. Lal has been arrested and a case of murder has been against him.

During interrogation Lal admitted to killing his wife.

Sacrificial offering to Goddess Kali -- youth cut out his tongue

Oct 16 2007

A youth on Monday chopped off his tongue and offered it to Godess Kali at a temple on Sitapur Road here.
   
Pradeep Kumar reached the temple this morning and after paying obeisance cut his tongue and offered it to the Goddess.
   
The youth fell unconscious and remained in that state for around half an hour in the temple as others present there were busy in singing 'kirtan'.
   
Later, the youth was taken to hospital where his condition was stated to be serious.

Indian cult kills children for goddess Kali

'Holy men' blamed for inciting dozens of deaths

* Dan McDougall in Khurja, India
* The Observer, Sunday 5 March 2006
* Article history

A painted image of the Hindu goddess Kali is propped up against a stone in the dirt, her long red tongue goading terrified worshippers into submission. From one of her eight flailing arms a severed head dangles, her neck is adorned by a necklace of bleached human skulls.

There are bloodstains on the cracked wall behind the terrible postcard-size image and, around the dark room, splattered gore on the heavy wooden furniture. These dark marks bear witness to a child sacrificed in the name of the abominable goddess.

Through the doorway, in the distance, colourfully dressed women are bent double, toiling in the fields, their faces worn and wrinkled from the sun, their hands cracked from digging at the dry earth from dawn until dusk.

It's an intolerable life in the remote village of Barha, a squalid collection of mud-bricked farmers' dwellings in the heart of the impoverished province of Khurja, Uttar Pradesh. This corner of rural India is a lawless place of superstitions and deep prejudice. The region, known for its sugarcane, is a tortuous eight-hour drive from Delhi and a lifetime away from the 21st century.

In Bulandshahr, the nearest town of any description, locals whispered darkly of happenings in Barha. Their advice was unanimous: 'Don't go. It is an evil place. The people there are cursed.'

Sumitra Bushan, 43, who lived in Barha for most of her life, certainly thought she was cursed. Her husband had long abandoned her, leaving her with debts and a life of servitude in the sugarcane fields. Her sons, Satbir, 27, and Sanjay, 23, were regarded as layabouts. Life was bad but then the nightmares and terrifying visions of Kali allegedly began, not just for Sumitra but her entire family.

She consulted a tantrik, a travelling 'holy man' who came to the village occasionally, dispensing advice and putrid medicines from the rusty amulets around his neck.

His guidance to Sumitra was to slaughter a chicken at the entrance to her home and offer the blood and remains to the goddess. She did so but the nightmares continued and she began waking up screaming in the heat of the night and returned to the priest. 'For the sake of your family,' he told her, 'you must sacrifice another, a boy from your village.'

Ten days ago Sumitra and her two sons crept to their neighbour's home and abducted three-year-old Aakash Singh as he slept. They dragged him into their home and the eldest son performed a puja ceremony, reciting a mantra and waving incense. Sumitra smeared sandalwood paste and globules of ghee over the terrified child's body. The two men then used a knife to slice off the child's nose, ears and hands before laying him, bleeding, in front of Kali's image.

In the morning Sumitra told villagers she had found Aakash's body outside her house. But they attacked and beat her sons who allegedly confessed. 'I killed the boy so my mother could be safe,' Sanjay screamed. All three are now in prison, having escaped lynch mob justice. The tantrik has yet to be found.

Police in Khurja say dozens of sacrifices have been made over the past six months. Last month, in a village near Barha, a woman hacked her neighbour's three-year-old to death after a tantrik promised unlimited riches. In another case, a couple desperate for a son had a six-year-old kidnapped and then, as the tantrik chanted mantras, mutilated the child. The woman completed the ritual by washing in the child's blood.

'It's because of blind superstitions and rampant illiteracy that this woman sacrificed this boy,' said Khurja police officer AK Singh. 'It's happened before and will happen again but there is little we can do to stop it. In most situations it's an open and shut case. It isn't difficult to elicit confessions - normally the villagers or the families of the victims do that for us. This has been going on for centuries; these people are living in the dark ages.'

According to an unofficial tally by the local newspaper, there have been 28 human sacrifices in western Uttar Pradesh in the last four months. Four tantrik priests have been jailed and scores of others forced to flee.

The killings have focused attention on Tantrism, an amalgam of mystical practices that grew out of Hinduism. Tantrism also has adherents among Buddhists and Muslims and, increasingly, in the West, where it is associated with yoga or sexual techniques. It has millions of followers across India, where it originated between the fifth and ninth centuries. Tantrik priests are consulted on everything from marital to bowel problems.

Many blame the turn to the occult on the increasing economic gap between rural and urban India, in particular the spiralling debts of cotton and tobacco farmers, linked with high costs of hybrid seed and pesticides, that has led to record numbers of farmers committing suicide.

According to Sanal Edamaruku, president of the Indian Rationalist Association, human sacrifice affects most of northern India. 'Modern India is home to hundreds of millions who can't read or write, but who often seek refuge from life's realities through astrology or the magical arts of shamans. Unfortunately these people focus their horrific attention on society's weaker members, mainly women and children who are easier to handle and kidnap.'

Tantriks caught up in the crackdown in Uttar Pradesh say their reputation is being destroyed by an insane minority. 'Human sacrifices have been made in this region since time immemorial,' says Prashant, a tantrik who runs a small 'practice' from his concrete shell of a home on the outskirts of Bulandshahr. 'People come to me with all sorts of ailments. I recommend simply pujas and very rarely animal sacrifices.'

In her squalid home Ritu Singh rocks back and forth, beating her chest in grief. She has been mourning since the day her son Aakash's body was discovered in a sewer outside Sumitra Bushan's home. Her husband, Rajbir, said: 'We expect them to be jailed or fined but they won't spend longer than a few years in prison for what they have done. They were my neighbours, they ate in our house. The Tantrik who made them do this has disappeared, they will never find him.'

Orissa girl sacrificed for good harvest
2009-04-27 11:29:56

Bhubaneswar: A 10-year-old girl in an Orissa village was beheaded by her grandfather, who believed that sowing seeds mixed with her blood would yield a bumper crop, police said on Monday.

The barbaric incident, spurred by age-old superstitions, took place on Sunday at the tribal-populated Adapathar village in Sambalpur district, over 450 km from here. The heinous crime came to light after villagers caught the man, Rajesh Hembram, and handed him over to the police.

Hembram, 52, has around three acres of agricultural land. To get a good harvest, he had planned in advanced to sow seeds mixed with the blood of his granddaughter on Akshaya Tritiya on Monday, a day considered auspicious by Hindus, police said.

'He cut off his granddaughter Bernaka Kandulana's head with an axe in a room when nobody was at home and drained her blood into a pot,' P.C. Nayak, inspector in charge of the local police station, said.

'We found some seeds in a steel pot that were mixed with blood,' he said. 'The man has been arrested and has confessed that he kept it to sow in his field on Akshaya Tritiya,' he said. Bernaka's head and the remaining part of the body were also found in the same room, the official added. (Sick people)

Sorcerer sacrifices boy for occult powers

By Indo-Asian News Service

Kolkata, Sunday, July 21 (IANS) Police have arrested a man for beheading a 13-year-old boy and offering his blood to an occult deity in a West Bengal village.

The gruesome incident took place on Friday at Dararkandi village in the central district of Murshidabad, some 200 km from here, police said Sunday.

According to district police official Gautam Banerjee, the culprit, identified as Pintu, had been arrested. "He has confessed to killing Rezaul Karim."

Pintu said he practiced black magic and wanted to acquire mystical powers. He had been advised by a sorcerer to sacrifice a young boy for the purpose. He said he had been on the look out for a potential victim for a long time.

The victim turned out to be Karim, whose family worked on Pintu's farmstead as contract labours, Banerjee said.

On Friday, Pintu lured Karim to a desolate part of the village and killed him with a cleaver. He made the offering to the occult deity and quietly returned home.

"When Karim did not return home till late in the evening, a search was launched. As the boy had last been seen with Pintu, the latter was questioned. Then the culprit panicked and broke down. Later, he took the police to the spot where he had hidden Karim's body," Banerjee said.

Police said they were looking for Pintu's accomplice.

Human sacrifice is not unknown in West Bengal or neighbouring Orissa where illiterate and backward communities appease occult deities with human lives to escape their conditions.

Parents held for AP girl's 'sacrifice'

Shireen in Hyderabad

The Rangareddy district police on Tuesday solved the case of human 'sacrifice' on the outskirts of Hyderabad with the arrest of the parents of the victim.

Superintendent of Police M V Dinakar Prasad presented the mother of the hapless child at a media conference on Tuesday night. The remorseful mother narrated the incident and said that while she held her youngest daughter to the ground, her husband Pagadala Das slit the little child's throat with a sharp weapon.

She confessed that they had perpetrated the grisly crime with the motive of extorting money from the owner of a stone-crusher unit to pay off their debts.

"It was my husband and I who killed our three-year-old baby girl, Vennela. After we took her to the premises of the crusher, I firmly held the baby while my husband performed the grisly sacrifice," Balamma told newsmen.

The district police chief said that the investigation into the case revealed that Das and Balamma killed their youngest daughter at around 0400 hours on Monday and placed her body on the crusher machine "with the fond hope of extorting money from the owner".

He said that both the parents of the victim were arrested and the police was investigating the role of some of the relatives of the couple in the incident.

Giving details of the case, the superintendent of police said that the couple had borrowed Rs 50,000 from a contractor, Narayana Reddy in November 1998.

"The couple still owed about Rs 25,000 to Narayana Reddy. Due to non-payment of the dues, Narayana Reddy had even locked the house of Pentaiah and was pressing for repayment. Pentaiah also came to Taramathipet (the village where the human sacrifice incident was reported) on Sunday afternoon demanding the money. The parents of Vennela preferred to sacrifice her. They spared the eldest daughter as she was already getting ready to work and earn," Dinakar Prasad said.

The official said that the accused worked on this sinister plan, in view of an earlier incident in the crusher unit.

In a case of accidental death in the crusher plant, an old man E Ramulu (75) died. The then owner of the crusher paid a compensation of about Rs 30,000 to the victim's family.

"The parents of the girl planned to get similar compensation from the new owners of the crusher," he pointed out.

He said that the crusher unit at Taramathipet employed a large number of workers, mostly from the Wadder community.

The crusher was originally owned by one Subhani who sold it to Malakondaiah and three others on July 1 this year.

When the owner came there, the uncle and father of the girl demanded 'compensation' for the killing of the girl as 'human sacrifice'.

Initially, the parents of the victim tried to mislead the police by telling them the concocted story that their daughter was missing from around 0300 hours on Monday and that her body was discovered at the crusher after a frantic search.

However, the police which picked up some holes in their story promptly took them into custody and interrogated them. The parents broke down and confessed to the killing.

2 arrested in Tripura for sacrificing a woman to get at hidden treasure

The police in Tripura said on Friday that they had arrested two men who had confessed to beheading a young woman in a bizarre sacrifice ritual.

"One of the killers said he was directed by God in a dream to sacrifice three women and in return would be given the key to a hidden treasure," a police spokesman told AFP by phone from the state capital, Agartala. "The two men beheaded the woman and left the body in a nearby jungle," the spokesman said.

The police said the killers, now in a state of "hysteria" in the lockup, still believed they could "complete the unfinished task" of sacrificing two more women to get the hidden treasure.

"One of them said they would definitely try to posses the hidden treasure containing gold, money, and other valuables, as told by God, after they come out of jail."

Four-year-old sacrificed in Uttar Pradesh

Driven by the desire to get a son at any cost, a resident of Rumpura Buzurg village in Bareilly district of Uttar Pradesh sacrificed his neighbour's four-year-old child.

Five people including two women have been arrested in this connection after preliminary investigations.

Superintendent of Police, Bareilly (rural) Gulab Singh Saturday said Naresh Pal, who had four daughters, was advised by an 'ojha' to sacrifice a boy, if he wanted a son.

On August 15, Naresh, with some of his relatives lured away his neighbour Nanhelal's son Akash with sweets. They later beheaded the boy with a sharp-edged weapon, threw his body in a pond and buried the head.

Nanhelal lodged a report in the Bhamura police station about Akash's sudden disappearance. Later, on finding his son's headless body floating in the lake he lodged a report against Naresh and his family members.

On interrogation, the family confessed to sacrificing the boy and the weapon used in the crime was recovered.

'Priestess' arrested for 'child sacrifice'
Syed Amin Jafri in Hyderabad

The family of a priestess, in a village near Karimnagar in Andhra Pradesh, has been subjected to social boycott for allegedly indulging in child sacrifice.

Gandham Pochamma, main accused in the case, has been arrested, and a case has been filed against her under Sections 302 (murder) and 201 (concealing evidence) of the Indian Penal Code.

Her family meanwhile has been lodged in the local police station to save them from the fury of the villagers who had, when the news broke, ransacked the house of the accused and set it afire.

This follows the killing of an 11-month-old on May 24.

A post-mortem was conducted on the child's body this Friday at the Karimnagar district hospital, and Superintendent of Police R S Praveen Kumar said that no external injuries were found. The bones and marrow have been sent for further testing to the state Forensic Science Laboratory.

The body was cremated, late on Friday, while police patrolled the tension-ridden area. Nearly 20 families of the Babajilu caste, to which the accused belongs, have meanwhile fled the village in fear of their lives.

As per police sources, the child, Naveen -- only child of village tailor Sonakala Sudhakar and his wife Vanita -- went missing around 3.30 PM on May 24, which happened to be an amavasya day. The family rents a portion of Pochamma's house.

The body of the child was found, after much searching, late that same night in the septic tank of the house.

The rest is the stuff of rumour -- incendiary rumour, that has turned the village aflame.

It is claimed that Pochamma invited 10 families of her community to a feast, that she kidnapped the baby, that a garland of neem leaves was put around its neck and that after the feast, a special puja was offered and the child sacrificed to propitiate the village deity for attaining "spiritual powers" and recovering a hidden treasure.

The police, for now, have filed a case of murder and are investigating.

Pochamma, the central figure in the story, is the second wife of Ramdas, a palmist who lives in Nepal and visits his home in the village every once in a while. Ramdas, who practices his fortune-telling art in Nepal and performs rituals as requested by foreign tourists, owns two homes in the village.

He also has two wives, and 14 children, including nine from Pochamma.

Sacrificing for 'Kali'

Ariti Jankie; Monday, May 11th 2009

Two years ago, Hamid Mohammed died after drinking from a poisoned soft drink served during a Kali puja that involved the sacrificing of goats and roosters. The puja was meant to bring a farmer a bountiful crop.

Villagers believe Mohammed was killed by the demons evoked. Mohammed's unsolved death stirred again the unease many people feel about the
rituals involved in prayers which are shunned by some mainstream Hindus as demonic. Where does the truth lie?

Lying flat on his back, a temple devotee raised his hands and feet in the air. Another devotee strikes his torso with a length of rope. The rope is strengthened by a wire and the whipper finishes the assault with three rapid strokes. The flogged devotee stands up seemingly unaffected.

A lighted camphor is then placed on his tongue. Withstanding the open flame is proof again of his faith in Mother Kali. The scene is enacted not in a India or Indonesia, but here in Trinidad.

Dressed in tiger skin with skulls strung around her neck, her tongue protruding with a hunger for blood, the dark skinned Kali is worshipped by some Hindus throughout the world.

At the end of the worship and/or ordeal, those who emerge physically unaffected are said to possess "Shakti" or the divine power of goddess Kali.

The ritual takes place at several Kali temples throughout the country and those who gain the power are said to be healers. They drive evil spirits from the body and cure all ailments.

One Kali temple leader, Ramdalip Ramroop, said that "Kal" means iron and according to Hindu scripture, the world has entered the age of Kaliyug or iron age. He said that the way worship was performed must also change, to conquer the demons that exist in these harsh times.

At his Bandi Hanuman Shakti Mandir at St Mary's Village, Moruga, Kali worship is conducted on Saturdays.

A group of 18 regular worshippers conduct ritual worship in which flames are lit on opened dry coconuts and sacred mantras recited, while devotees face the four corners of the world. The worship is followed by singing and devotees believe that the "shakti" or power of the goddess Kali would descent upon them.

Manifestations of God take place within the devotees, Ramroop said.

In another type of Kali worship, goats, pigs and chickens are sacrificed every Sunday morning at Mootoo temple, Pasea Extension, Tunapuna. The temple is owned by a family who has been performing Kali pooja for more than 100 years.

The woman who heads the temple is known simply as "Tanty".

Head of the Lincoln Brown family, Tanty said that her father-in-law arrived in Trinidad from Tamil Naidu (formally Madras), India, and started the pooja here in Trinidad.

"When I joined the family, I began performing the pooja and now my three children take part in the rituals every Sunday morning," she said.

Kali is a female form of God in the Hindu religion. She is invoked for the destruction of evil, eradication of disease and for victory in battle with the enemies. Kali Mai (mother) is another form of the compassionate Mother Durga.

At Waterloo, Carapichaima, Princes Town and other areas, Kali Mai pooja is performed by communities for protection against diseases.

Married women perform a "begging" ritual walking through the villages and singing praises to Kali Mai. They stop at the entrance of each home and collect rice, flour, cash and other offerings. The next day a community worship is done by a pundit and attended by villagers. Kali Mai pooja takes place on an annual basis, and those who understand its origins and purpose do not fear it.

Kali worshippers said that the goddess protected them from evil and kept them safe from harm's way.

"The Mother Kali destroys ignorance, removes humiliation, the degradations of poverty and helps us to shine among the human race," one devotee said.
 (
I wish these people would just think about this for one second, but then they obviously can't think...whatsoever. MS. 10-08-09)

Child sacrifice in Sambalpur

EXPRESS NEWS SERVICE  

BHUBANESWAR, May 3: An incident of child sacrifice has come to light in Gulunda village, 25 km from Sambalpur, and four members of a neighbour's family have been arrested for the crime. Sources said the family had killed seven-year-old Mithun Mallick on April 26 to propitiate local deity Dhan Mouli.

District superintendent of police, Gopabandhu Mallick, while claiming that it was a case of gagging, said that the four arrested were produced before the sub-divisional judicial magistrate, Sambalpur, who remanded them to police custody on Thursday. The four accused include Jharu Bariha, his wife, Golapi, and sons, Gangaram and Jenamani.

According to police, Mithun, son of Sara and Madhia Mallick, had gone to a river nearby for a morning bath on April 26. When he did not return home even at 1 pm, Mithun's family began to look for him. After a frantic search, the boy's father reported him missing at Dhama police station. Later in the evening, Mithun's body was found in a nearby mango orchard. Surprisingly,Mithun's family had thoroughly searched the orchard in the daytime but had not been able to find him there.

Suspicion fell on the neighbours -- Barihas -- as they were the only persons living in the orchard. Police searched the house of the Barihas and discovered Mithun's blood stained pant there. During interrogations, it was revealed that Mithun was picked up by Jharu Bariha's two sons when he was returning home from the river. They are stated to have confessed to murdering the boy.

Mallick said the boy was killed by gagging and that no injuries were found on his body during post-mortem.

Mother 'sacrifices young son to find treasure trove'

Story filed: 07:36 Wednesday 16th January 2002

A mother in southern India allegedly murdered her young son after a witch doctor told her it would make her rich.

The Patrike newspaper says the pair from Muchintala village in Andhra Pradesh have disappeared.

Police say she murdered her two-year-old son with an axe after she was told it would help her find a treasure trove.

The witch doctor allegedly said she had to sacrifice the child to Goddess Kali.

It's thought she applied ash, vermilion and turmeric powder to the body of the sleeping child before axing him into three pieces.

The following morning she claimed her son had died in the night. Suspicions were aroused when she refused to allow villagers, who had arrived to offer condolences, to see the body.

A neighbour who discovered the body says: "I cannot imagine any woman doing this to her child for all the riches of the world."

Police are looking for the pair.

A police spokesman said: "It is wishful thinking but one can only hope that the child's death has opened people's eyes to the dangers of ignorance."

Police arrest priest for 'sacrificing young boy'

A Hindu temple priest in India has been arrested for allegedly sacrificing the life of an eight-year-old boy.

Officers say the priest chopped off the boy's head and hid the torso in bushes near the temple in Bijnor.

The incident came to light when the boy was reported missing after he had gone to the Shiv temple to play with his friends.

His body was later recovered from the nearby bushes, Press Trust of India reported.

Story filed: 12:23 Thursday 3rd January 2002

7-yr-old ‘sacrificed’ by village tantrik
S. Raju; (Bulandshahr, November 30)
When seven-year-old Brijesh stepped out to play on Tuesday, he wasn't destined to come back. His dismembered body was found in a dung-heap in an isolated area in Tueaur Buzurg village the following day. The suspect: the village tantrik.

Tueaur Buzurg is a sleepy little village in Bulandshahr district. But life here has changed after Brijesh's death — tension is running high. People say the boy was sacrificed — his face was charred and flesh was cut from his wrists. Signs that he was killed in a ritual manner, they say.

SSP Rajeev Krishna says that the boy's killing could be the act of a tantrik who perhaps wanted to seek siddhis (occult powers). "The tantrik and his son have been arrested and a case has been registered against them," says Krishna. However, he says the case needed to be probed further.

Brijesh's grandfather Kewal Singh says that after the boy went missing, the family started a search that lasted well into the night. In the morning a body was found in a heap of cow dung — it was identified as Brijesh's.

Villagers say that footprints found near the body led to tantrik Ramprasad's house. Ramprasad and his son Jitendra had for years performed tantrik kriyas in a house in the village. The villagers have an explanation for the boy's charred face. The say that the tantrik held the little one's face over the hawan fire.

The villagers allege that the police initially tried to pass off the boy’s death as a case of simple murder due to personal enmity. It was only after the villagers protested that the police arrested the tantrik. They point out that the boy's fingernails were plucked out.

People in the village say the police have been callous. A senior police officer says the boy may have been killed on account of a personal enmity. He says the boy was strangled and some wild animal must have eaten the flesh.

However, the officer doesn't have a satisfactory explanation for one thing: how did the boy's face turn sooty black?

Man Cuts Off Hand In Sacrifice To Kali
Robert Paul Reyes

Oh, but you argue, that's the Old Testament, the Jesus of the New Testament is kinder and gentler than Jehovah and he would never order his disciples to do anything brutal or stupid.

The Gospel of Mark 9:43: And if they hand offend thee, cut if off: it is better for thee to enter into life maimed, than having two hands to go into hell, into the fire that never shall be quenched.

My guess is that there are more Christians who have chopped off an offending hand in obedience to the Gospels than there are Hindus who have chopped of a hand as a sacrifice to Kali.

Hindu Sacrificial Summary

[FairfieldLife] Human Sacrifice in India

Jason
Fri, 10 Jul 2009 04:51:05 -0700

Like many pagan societies, human sacrifice has been and still a practice among Hindu's. The belief of Kali and Shaki, the dark deities of violence, have been major influencers in human sacrifice including child sacrifice. I was horrified to learn that children were sacrificed to these goddesses in the past and in present times!! Dozens of kids are reported to have been sacrificed to this deity!

Kali sacrifice ritual:

"O man, through my good fortune thou hast appeared as a victim; therefore I salute thee ... I shall slaughter thee to-day, and slaughter as a sacrifice is no murder." Thus meditating on the human-formed victim, a flower should be thrown on top of its head with the mantra: "Om, Aim, Hriuh, Sriuh." Then, thinking of one's own wishes, and referring to the Goddess, water should be sprinkled on the victim. Thereafter,
the sword should be sprinkled on the victim. Thereafter, the sword should be consecrated with the mantra: "O sword, thou art the tongue of

Chandika" ...
The sword, having thus been consecrated, should be taken up while repeating the mantra: "Am hum phat," and the excellent victim slaughtered with it.

1972 a leader in Maharashtra state- in order to find a treasure - offered blood from I I virgin girls to Manja.

Some time ago, two brothers named Siddharth and Ravi asked their 21 year old sister Shobha to take a bath and come for prayers to a nearby temple in Kerala State. To her horror, the brothers pierced her with a sword and iron rods chanting mantras. Withering in pain, she begged for pity, but she was cut to pieces and her body burned bit by bit. The brothers had done it to unearth a hidden treasure. At first they tried to find another victim but when they failed to find another virgin girl, they sacrificed their own sister. Only Brahmin children are exempted by the Vedas from human sacrifice.

It was reported by India Officals that in 2006 a large number of children sacrificed!

"A recent report by United Press trust of India (UPI) stated that during the past three years more than 2,500 young boys and girls were sacrificed to goddess Kali in India. Another of AFP's recent reports say: hundreds of young boys and virgin girls are sacrificed every month for the deity Kali. In one case Rama Sewak hacked his eight year old son to death in broad daylight in Dehii because goddess Kali had told him he would come back to life and bring him good fortune."

Supported by religious texts!!

"Let the head and blood of a human victim be presented on the right side of Devi (Kali), and the sacrificer address her standing in front. Let the head and blood of birds be presented on the left and the blood of a person's own body in front. Let the ambrosia proceeding from the heads of carnivorous animals and birds be presented on the left hand as also the blood of all aquatic animals."
-- [Kali Purana, Rudhir Adhyaya -Chapter of blood-]

2.2 Karpuradistotra
"O dark one, wondrous and excelling in every way, becomes the accomplishment of those worshippers who living in this world freely make offering to Thee in worship of the greatly satisfying flesh, together with hair and bones, of cats, camels, sheep, buffaloes, goats and men."
-- [Karpuradistotra Verse 19]

Yajur Veda 30
Inspire, O Vivifier God, the sacrifice, inspire the lord of the sacrifice to take his share! We call upon the Lord, distributor of wonderful bounty, the One who looks upon men. I bind to the stake in form of a token: ... for Strength a servant, ... for Pastime a prostitute, for Lust a woman with a spotty skin, ... Now he binds to the stake the following eight types of men: one too tall one too short; one too stout one too thin; one too pale one too dark; one too bald one too hairy; all to be offered to Prajapati.

-- [Yajur Veda 30:1-22] See also: The Gayatri mantra (RV III, 62, 10); Rig-Veda 5:82,5 (§ IV 8).

Harper's Dictionary (Comment)
Harper's Dictionary of Hinduism notes that there is a connection in practice between the rituals of the horse-sacrifice and that it may have been the model for the human sacrifices within Hinduism. It is not clear, however which form is the earlier model and it could equally be the other way around or it may be that both rituals are merely variations of an even earlier theme.

Other Barbarism inspired by Kali and Shaki!

The Britannica Encyclopedia (2005 edition) 3.12) recounts how the "Binderwurs of central India ate their sick and aged in the belief that the act was pleasing to their goddess, Kali." Cannibalism may also have been common among followers of the Shaktism cults in India. [28]

3.13 Kali and the Thuggee In India, ... people offered lives to village goddesses, and followers of Kali sacrificed a male child every Friday evening. ... Members of India's Thuggee sect strangled people as sacrifices to appease the bloodthirsty goddess Kali, a practice beginning in the 1500s. The number of victims has been estimated to be as high as 2 million. Thugs were claiming about 20,000 lives a year in the 1800s until British rulers stamped them out. At a trial in 1840, one Thug was accused of killing 931 people. Today, some Hindu priests still
sacrifice goats to Kali. [29]

3.14 Kali Sacrifice (Combined Comment)

Even one [human] sacrifice to the bloodiest goddess in the Hindu pantheon, Kali, would keep the goddess happy for a thousand years. [30] This would not prevent her worshippers from attempting to make her very happy, ... [31] also according to Spencer the Hindu goddess Kali demanded human sacrifice. [31a]

3.16 Child sacrifice

In India, child sacrifice was practiced to the goddess Kali. [33]

3.20 India Kali worship

Kali was the goddess of death and darkness, demanded human flesh. From ancient times, the sacred scriptures of the Hindus, the Vedas, spoke of the desire of the gods for human sacrifice: "The sacrificer will sacrifice a man first for man is the first of all animals. Thus he slaughters the victim according to its form and according to its excellence" (Shatapata Veda).

The bottom line is that all religions inspire their worshippers to commit idiotic, brutal and violent acts. How does the World survive...sterilize the religious! MS. 08-10-09

Mass human sacrifice unearthed in Peru
News Article; 16:10 04 October 2002
NewScientist.com news service; Emma Young

The fishermen were stabbed through the collarbone, straight into the heart   Photo: Reuters

The fishermen were stabbed through the collarbone, straight into the heart Photo: Reuters

The ancient sacrificed remains of 200 fishermen had been excavated from a beach in Peru. Archaeologists believe they were kneeling, tied and blindfolded, facing the waves, then stabbed through the heart as an offering by their conquerors to Ni, god of the sea. ( Photo on left of discovered fisherman. He had been stabbed through the collar-bone into the heart)

The grisly find represents the biggest case of human sacrifice discovered in South America. Hector Walde, chief of the excavation project at Peru's National Institute of Culture, says the men probably died in a victory ceremony conducted by the Chimu people in about 1350 AD.

Of the 200 bodies, 107 were found intact. Many are arched backward, as if in their death throes. "It's impressive to think that, even though 600 years have gone by, the pain and anguish these people went through when they died can be seen in the cadavers and even the outlines they left in the sand," Walde told Reuters.

The find is "absolutely fascinating", says John Collis, an archaeologist at the University of Sheffield, UK who works on human sacrifice. "It does sound like an unusually large find, though human sacrifice at that time was fairly common in some parts of the world," he says.

However Collis says it is impossible to be precise about the reason for the slayings: "Human sacrifice can happen for a number of reasons - sometimes, it's as revenge, sometimes as appeasement, and sometimes as thanksgiving."

The remains of the fishermen were discovered by accident close to the modern-day town of Huarmey, about 275 kilometres north of Lima. The archaeologists were conducting an impact assessment for a port project connected to a copper and zinc mine.

Near to the bodies, Walde's team found jugs filled with grains and drinks, a fishing net and other everyday items. They were probably left by wives or children of the dead, or older people in the community, Walde says.

Relatively little is known about the Chimu civilisation, which lasted from about 1100 to 1476, when it was defeated by the Inca. At their height of power, the Chimu ruled about 620 square miles. The new discovery is important because it confirms a theory based on etchings and writings that large ritual killings were practised in the region. "This confirms that the Chimu were part of a long religious tradition that included sacrifices in their ceremonies," Walde said.

 Human Sacrifice performed by the Mayans, Chichen Itza
Human sacrifice has been practiced on a number of different occasions and in many different cultures. The various rationales behind human sacrifice are the same that motivate religious sacrifice in general: Human sacrifice is intended to bring good fortune and to pacify the gods, for example in the context of the dedication of a completed building like a temple or bridge. There is a Chinese legend that says there are thousands of people entombed in the Great Wall of China. In ancient Japan legends talk about Hitobashira ("human pillar"), in which maidens were buried alive at the base or near some constructions as a prayer to ensure the buildings against disasters or enemy attacks. For the re-consecration of Great Pyramid of Tenochtitlan in 1487, the Aztecs reported that they killed about 80,400 prisoners over the course of four days. According to Ross Hassing, author of Aztec Warfare, "between 10,000 and 80,400 persons" were sacrificed in the ceremony.

Human sacrifice was can also have the intention of winning the gods' favour in warfare. Famously, Iphigeneia was to be sacrificed by her father Agamemnon for success in the Trojan War. According to the Hebrew Bible, Jephthah sacrificed his daughter after making a promise to Yahweh (Judges 11).

  • Another motivation for human sacrifice is burial: in some notions of an afterlife, the deceased will benefit from victims killed at his funeral. Mongols, Scythians, early Egyptians and various Mesoamerican chiefs could take most of their household, including servants and concubines, with them to the next world. This is sometimes called a "retainer sacrifice," as the leader's retainers would be sacrificed along with their master.

  • Another purpose is divination from the body parts of the victim. According to Strabo, Celts stabbed a victim with a sword and divined the future from his death spasms.

  • Headhunting is the practice of taking the head of a killed adversary, for ceremonial or magical purposes, or for reasons of prestige. It was found in many pre-modern tribal societies.

While human sacrifice may be a ritual practiced in a stable society, and may even be conductive to enhance societal bonds (see sociology of religion), both by creating a bond unifying the sacrificing community, and in combining human sacrifice and capital punishment, by removing individuals that have a negative effect on societal stability (criminals, religious heretics, foreign slaves or prisoners of war). But outside of civil religion, human sacrifice may also result in outbursts of "blood frenzy" and mass killings that destabilize society. Thus, the Thuggee cult that plagued India was devoted to Kali, the goddess of death and destruction. According to the Guinness Book of Records the Thuggee cult was responsible for approximately two million deaths. The bursts of capital punishment during European witch-hunts, or during the French Revolutionary Reign of Terror show similar sociological patterns (see also moral panic).

Many cultures show traces of prehistoric human sacrifice in their mythologies, but have ceased to practice them before the onset of historical records. The story of Abraham and Isaac (Genesis 22) is an example of a myth explaining the abolition of human sacrifice. Similarly, the Vedic Purushamedha, literally "human sacrifice", is already a purely symbolic act in its earliest attestation. According to Pliny the Elder, human sacrifice in Ancient Rome was abolished by a senatorial decree in 97 BC, although by this time the practice had already become so rare that the decree was mostly a symbolic act. Human sacrifice once abolished is typically replaced by either animal sacrifice, or by the "mock-sacrifice" of effigies, such as the argei dolls in ancient Rome.

 Self Sacrifice
Self-sacrifice, the act of deliberately killing oneself or following a course of action that has a high risk or certainty of suffering or death (which could otherwise be avoided), in order to achieve a perceived religious benefit. It is a powerful theme with a well-established place in many cultures, myths, religions and societies.

 Ancient South American Religions

The Moche of The Andes.

The Moche Indians inhabited the north coast of Peru from roughly 50 A.D. to 900 A.D. The Moche primarily are known for their fabulous pottery. They are famous for their singular mastery in recording the realism of a variety of animals, people, and daily life, all captured in ceramic. Portrait vessels are the greatest achievement of the Moche civilization with the production of true portraits of individuals in vivid detail and in three-dimensional ceramic sculpture.

Although the skill of Moche artisans is amazing, the Moche are known mainly because of their bizarre religious practices. Much of what we know about the Moche's ceremonial life comes from examination and interpretation of their art. Until recently, scientists thought that the violent scenes portrayed in Moche art were Moche folklore. In recent years, however, excavations have unearthed some of the real-life props and characters that took part in the drama of human sacrifice. Below is an artistic depiction of the Moche sacrifice ceremony. Here, prisoners of war have their throats cut and their blood consumed by the lord of the Moche.

In other religious scenes, warfare is depicted as Moche versus Moche based on the kind of clothes depicted in the scenes. This appears to be ritual warfare where honor could be won or lost. Moche warriors fight each other dressed in elegant ceremonial costumes. Warfare is always shown to be one on one. Winning is portrayed by the clothing of the defeated person beginning to fall away. The point seems to be the capture and not the killing -- which is rarely found in their art. Moche prisoners are stripped and "roughed up"-making them bleed. The nude prisoners are let to a procession of pyramids where sacrificing is going on in the background. After the sacrifice, the bodies were dismembered. Did the priests/leaders gain some sort of power from drinking their blood? It can be assume so. It may have been a ritual where the power of the dead soul was consumed to gain strength to seek the visions and wisdom of the supernatural world. In this sense, this is not unlike the ritual warfare seen in the Mayan Kingdoms of Central America.

In the end, sacrifices were not enough to help maintain this great society through periods of violent flooding and tectonic activity. It has been hypothesized that the sacrifices grew even more gruesome as the desperate Moche leaders tried to gain the attention of the Gods. Could the sacrifice hundreds of years later of a young Inca Maiden appease the mountain gods of the Andes? It appears that the people of the Andes attempted, however, to stop the earth from moving - as the planet continues to do today. (Photo on left; Gold Sacrificial Blade)

No matter how bizarre the sacrifices got, The Decapitator God could not stop the forces of nature. Ritually buried skeletons of teenage females have been found with legs pulled out of their sockets and skulls bashed in.

*The anthropomorphic Decapitator God is often found near sacrificial alters. He is half human--half spider with interlocking fangs. He is sometimes shown holding a head in one arm and a knife in another.

These are the uniforms of the Moche warriors. If you look closely enough, you will notice how unpractical they are for real combat. This aspect lends credence to the theory that the Moche were fighting each other for ritual and spiritual superiority, not for political of economic gain.

 Tombs of the Moche
Tombs: Located in the Jequetepeque Valley located in the northern portion of the territory ruled by the Moche. Each tomb's chamber was made from mud brick, and roofed with large wooden beams. The principal occupant of each tomb was lying face up in an extended position, with mains of complete llamas, humans, or both, at their feet. In these tombs the principle occupant was flanked by other individuals. Hundreds of ceramic vessels and metal objects, including ceremonial knives, lance points, sandals, cups, masks, and jewelry, had been placed in the tombs as offerings. Each tomb had a tall goblet which is a prominent feature in all Sacrifice Ceremonies.

The most elaborate of the three tombs is the tomb of the Priestess, above Photo, where the richest Moche burial site ever excavated was found. This tomb demonstrates that Moche power and wealth were not the exclusive domain of males. Some of the artifacts found in the tomb provides evidence that the Moche were involved with long-distance trading with artifacts brought from 70 miles to the east and went as far as 350 miles to the south. The most remarkable aspect of the woman's tomb was the objects found in the tomb allow identification that she was one of the Priestesses, who is depicted in Moche art.

The site of the tombs had certain characteristics in common. Each was located on an elevated area that rises naturally above the intensively cultivated valley floor and is near, but not immediately adjacent to, a river. Each was a major ceremonial complex, with multiple pyramids that for centuries served as areas for religious activities.

The royal tomb of the Lord of Sipan illustrates the richness of Moche elite burials. Dressed in the uniform of his office, this man of nearly 40 years of age at the time of death probably ruled as a divine god-king of a divine city in the Moche world.

By 400 B.C., the Olmec's sophisticated artistic style had spread over much of Middle America, from central Mexico to El Salvador. Some scholars have also recognized Olmec influences in the artwork and religious practices of many later Middle American cultures, including those of the Maya and the Aztec.

Dinosaurs Living with The Moches?
The Moche stirrup-spout pots were modeled to represent warriors, battle patients undergoing brain surgery, physicians performing caesarian sections, midwives aiding births, scenes of sexual life, portrait jars, animals, plants, musical instruments, people with different diseases, and Moche warriors fighting dinosaurs. I was rummaging around in dusty archaeological papers, when I stumbled on a little-known fact, that in the Chicama Valley and Viru Valley of the northern coast of Peru were found Moche vases with dinosaurian creatures as well as Moche warriors engaged in combat with the dinosaurs. The vases with dinosaurian creatures on them were first labeled as vampire monsters or dragons by Rafael Larco Hoyle.2 Rafael Larco Hoyle was the Vice-President of Peru in the 1920’s and an ardent scholar, archaeologist, and author. He investigated the Moche and filled in the gaps in archaeological knowledge by establishing the chronological order of the civilizations of northern Peru. His book, Los Mochincas (The Moche), became a turning point in Peruvian archaeology. Rafael amassed a collection of ceramics that exceeds 55,000 pieces. The Natural Museum of Peru in Lima and the Gold Museum of Peru have collections of Moche ceramics that exceed 20,000 pieces each.

The author has extensively studied the 100,000 plus pieces of Moche ceramics in the Lima Museums and has found twenty pieces that unmistakably depict dinosaurs. My research has revealed that the Moche, who were known for being species specific, indeed painted dinosaurs in red with cream-colored white background. The twenty stirrup-spout vases were photographed, and the fine line drawings of the dinosaurs were examined. In a further pursuit of the possible interaction of dinosaurs with the Moche, I found a mural painting from a Moche tomb showing a dinosaur attacking a Moche warrior. The mural painting of Panamarca is in the Nepena Valley of northern Peru.

Dr. Don Patton and I also investigated a Moche gold funeral mask that has a dinosaur on both sides of the headdress. The gold dinosaur funeral mask is dated from 50 to 800 A.D. and was found in a Moche tomb in the Lambayeque Valley in the 1920’s. The significance of the Moche vases, mural, and mortuary mask with dinosaurs on them directly relates to the Ica Stones. Some of the same kinds of dinosaurs with dermal spines are engaged in battle with Indian warriors. The fact that dinosaurs had dermal spines was not uncovered until the early 1990’s: Recent discovery of fossilized Sauropod (diplodocid) skin impressions reveals a significantly different appearance for these dinosaurs. The fossilized skin demonstrates that a median row of [dermal] spines were present. Some are quite narrow, and others are broader and more conical. It is nothing short of phenomenal that the Moche accurately depicted dinosaurs with dermal spines almost two thousand years before modern paleontologists. In order to draw them correctly, they had to be eyewitnesses of these behemoth beasts. I cannot forget what Maria Reiche, the queen of the Nazca Pampa, the foremost authority on the Nazca Lines said of the Ica Stones, “No greater marvel occurred in Peru.”4 Maria Reiche believed the Ica Stones were a great marvel like the Nazca Lines. I would concur with Dame Reiche, and add that now there is another marvel equal to the Nazca Lines and the Ica Stones--the Moche dinosaur vases.

Human sacrifice was central to the Moche civilization religion.

Before the Mayan came the Olmec Culture.

The Moche did not leave a written language, but their artwork portrays a vibrant and yet violent culture.

For the Olmec, or Moches, human sacrifice played a vital role in the major ceremonies. Priests slashed open the chest of a living victim and tore out the heart. The Aztec believed that the gods needed human hearts and blood to remain strong. Worshipers sometimes ate portions of a victim's body. They may have thought that the dead person's strength and bravery passed to anyone who ate the flesh. Most victims were prisoners of war or slaves. Additional Books & Articles; Bawden, Garth. The Moche. (Blackwell LTD: Oxford, U.K., 1996). 2 Hoyle, Rafael Larco. Los Mochicas. (The Moche Vol. 1). (Lima, Peru, 1938).  Pillsbury, Joanne. Moche Art and Archaeology of Ancient Peru. (Yale University Press: London, 2001). (Below painting of The Decapitator God, note sharp blade in his right hand)

Peruvian temple of doom: his hand grips a severed head, his fanged mouth snarls, and the decapitator god evokes the fearsome wrath of the Moche, a culture that ruled Peru's north coast a millennium before the Inca. In a remote complex of pyramid ruins known as El Brujo--the Wizard--archaeologists have found a trove of ceramics, reliefs, and bones that tell a bloody tale. Below Illustration by Jon Foster

___________________________________________________________

ABOUT THE MOSHIKA AND OTHER SOUTH AMERICAN ANOMALIES

According to Indian legends, some demon hordes called Mahesh-asuras and Mashishi once overran Kerala, India, decapitating the native inhabitants with their long machete-like swords. The deity Lord Ayyappa and his armies defeated these decapitator demons, killing the last of them beside the Pampa river. After that, he disappeared to parts unknown, never to be heard from again.

 

 
[Above photos;. Lord Ayyappa and the Decapitator Demon.]

Strange as it may seem, a deified leader named Ayapa-ek (spelled by the early Spaniards as Ai-apa-ek) suddenly appeared in South America as the Decapitator God and king of the ancient Moshica Indians of Peru. Notice the similarity of this name to the Sanskrit Maheshika. Also in the area there is a holy river named Pampa, as well as the ruins of Caral, which are older than the Egyptian pyramids. I am conjecturing that the archeologists studying the Moshica have somehow confused Lord Ayyappa with the decapitator demons.

 

(Above Photo; The Mochica god Ai-Apaya-ek and His Decapitator Demon.]

I believe that Lord Ayyappa led the surviving Mahishi to exile in South America. But why would he have guided the surviving Mahishi to South America after defeating them in India? Why are so many names in Peru and South America’s West Coast the same as in Kerala and other parts of India?

The Inca culture and dialects bristle with strong evidence that they, too, were sons of India. The Incas told the Spaniards that they came from a country "straight across the sea." The Inca Sun God was named Vira Cocha. Its nearly exact Sanskrit meaning is Vira Kasha (Hero Leader). Another name of the Inca Sun God was Inti Rayma (Indus Rama).

Their leadership castes were called Kechua (Keshva), Moshe (Mahesh or Shiva), Ayar (Immigrant); Aymara (Amara, a name of the Phoenicians. It also means "Home of Indra"). The different Kechua clans had names that were as Indian as curry and rice: Abishira; Abigers; Amuesha; Amoishe; Apurucayali; Cashibo; Cashnahua (Ship Chiefs); Moshe; Mischo Piro; Nahua; Maya; Mayo; Yava; Yagua; Yahwa; Suri; Asuri; Peeshak, etc. The last word, Peeshak derives from the Sanskrit Pisaca, a savage tribe of Mongoloid cannibals that lived in the Himalayas. The Hindu myths state that Kubera banished many of them to Patala (America).

About 1513 AD, a group of Spanish adventurers landed on the west coast of Central America, determined to find golden treasures and new lands to conquer for the King of Spain and the Catholic Church. One of these adventurers was a young man named Vasco Nuñez de Balboa. The Indians told them that in the high mountains lying westward there was a kingdom called Sinú, containing vast deposits of gold, silver, pearls, and other treasures. They also mentioned a much larger kingdom, Birú or Pirú, lying farther to the south. According to them, the graves of the Sinuans were filled with golden ornaments. The Spaniards decided to find that kingdom and empty those graves of everything except their skeletal occupants.

Before leaving on their odyssey, the Spaniards summoned the chiefs of all the surrounding tribes, telling them that there is only one God and that in 1494, in the Treaty of Tordesillas, Spain, the Pope himself had awarded all these lands to the Spanish Crown. After listening politely to this speech, one of the chiefs stepped forward and said, "No doubt there is only one God, but the Pope must have been drunk to give away what was not his own, and the King of Spain must have been crazy to ask from him what belonged to others. We are lords of these lands and want no other sovereign, and if this king should come to take possession, we would cut off his head and put it on a pole."

On November 28, 1523, the ships of Ferdinand Magellan, a Portuguese captain in the service of Spain, rounded the southern tip of South America, renaming the South Sea the "Pacific Ocean." Little did these adventurers know that what they called the Pacific Ocean had already been named The Indian Ocean (Mar Sinarum or Mar Indica) millenniums before by a partnership caste of traders and warriors from Northern India. This caste was called Kuberas or Khyberis. The subcaste (Jati) of traders was called Pani (Phoenicians); the warrior Jati were Yuddhis (Jews). In the beginning of their existence, the Jewish people were not a religion but a warrior caste, for Yuddhi means "warrior" in Sanskrit. They accompanied the Phoenicians during their trading expeditions, just as marines help protect our naval personnel on voyages. Back in ancient Central Asia, they were known as Chudes (pronounced as CHudees), or Tsoods. As partners, they were Hebrews, Khybers, or Kuberas.

Thousands of years before the Spaniards whittled the Indian Ocean down to its present size, These Khyberis had named the western coast of South America Shinar. In his book, India in Greece, the famous 17th century oriental scholar, Edward Pococke, wrote that this word Shinar meant "the country of the people of the Indus." (p. 45.) The real Sanskrit meaning is Sena (People) + Ar (Settlement): Senar. Shinar or Senar was in reality Sinú without the "ar" ending. Seneru is also a little-known name of Mt. Meru. The Sanskrit word for "people" spread throughout both Americas. For example, the Hopi Sino, Mayan Cinta, and Nahuatl Sintle.

As for Birú, we know it today as Perú. The first syllable of this word, Bir, is just another name of the Kuberas or Khyberis. U, which meant, "Lord, High, Superior, etc.," could have been correctly placed before or after Bir: Ubir/Birú. Either way, the meaning is the same: “The Lord Khyberis (The Phoenicians and Jews).” The Old Testament mentions this empire of silver and gold as Ophir. Cologne’s Sanskrit Dictionary says the word Peru means "Golden Mountain." It’s also another name of India's mythical Mr. Meru.

ABOUT THE DIFFERENT NAMES FOR THE MESHECHS

The Assyrians called them Musku. Herodotus writes of the Moschi (Moski). King Tiglath-pileser, mentioned in the Old Testament, tells in an inscription (ca 100 BC) that the Mus-ka-a-a were able to put into the field an army of 20,000 men. Josephus mentions Mosocheni (Mosokeni) and Mosoch. Moscow, Russia was named after them. In olden times, it was said that anyone encroaching on their home territories had to be crazy.

Some Fundamentalist Christian preachers may disagree with my "identification" of the Mesechs. Many of them say that the Russians, Japanese or Arabs are the Mesechs. However, I don’t see anything like "Mesech" in those names. The gospel truth is that Mesech = Meshika = Mexican!!

Nazca, [NAHS kuh] was an American Indian culture that thrived in the coastal desert of what is now southern Peru from as early as 100 B.C. to A.D. 800. The Nazca people are known for the huge etchings they made in the surface of the desert and for their colorful pottery. The name of the culture is also spelled Nasca. Existing concomitantly with the Moche culture of northern Peru. They are sometimes credited with creating the famous Nazca lines, and they also built an impressive system of underground aqueducts that still function today. Near the aqueducts open to tourists, there is an overlook point which includes an Inca building added after the Inca conquest of the area. On the pampa, on which the Nazca lines were made, the ceremonial city of Cahuachi (1-500 AD) sits overlooking the lines. Modern knowledge about the culture of the Nazca is built upon studying the city of Cahuachi. 

Pic. on left and on right; Skeletons in Chauchilla Cemetary, Nazca

 Scenes of warfare, decapitation, and the ritual use of human trophy heads by shamans reflect other aspects of Nasca religious life. Other motifs are more secular, representing plants, animals, fish, birds, and objects used in everyday life. The Nasca, like all other Pre-Columbian societies in South America including the Inca, had no writing system, in contrast to the contemporary Maya of Mesoamerica. The human remains of the pre-Inca Nazca people are around 1000 years old.

Thus the iconography or symbols painted on their ceramics served as a means of communication. The motifs depicted on Nasca pottery fall into two major categories: sacred and profane. The Nasca believed in powerful nature spirits who were thought to control most aspects of life. The Nasca visualized these nature spirits in the form of mythical beings, creatures having a combination of human and animal/bird/fish characteristics and painted them onto their pottery. These Mythical Beings include such varieties as the Anthropomorphic Mythical Being, Horrible Bird, as well as the Spotted Cat, etc. Mythical Killer Whale, (Pic. on left)

The Paracas figures were created by removing dark stones in order to expose the lighter surface underneath. Some areas were cleared and others built up with rock, creating figures in high and low relief. With the Nazca lines though, the geoglyphs were only made by clearing low-relief areas. Until recently scientists believed that the figures in the Palpa and Nazca regions were only from the Nazca culture. Mr. Isla says cultural dating and style of the newly found Paracas figures sets them apart.

Mr. Isla told The Epoch Times, "Most of these geoglyphs belong to the Nazca culture but our recent studies demonstrated that there are at least 50 geoglyphs pertaining to the Paracas culture. These new figures are definitely different and older than those of the Nazca culture.

First, the Paracas figures were drawn on the slopes of the hills, while the Nazca images were drawn in level areas.

Second, the Paracas figures are smaller and were made in a naturalistic style, while the Nazca figures are bigger and stylized.

Third, the Paracas figures are mostly arranged in groups, while the Nazca figures are arranged individually.

Finally, it is important to note that not one of the Paracas figures were repeated in the Nazca iconography." (Pic bottom left; Nasca Skull with a rope through it. Below Pic. in  center is of an Inca skull) Extraterrestrial? (Pic. (Pic. bottom right; Nasca Mummy Skull)

Nazca skull with rope through a hole
 

Egypt Long Skulls
Alien Skulls?
by Robert Connolly

Posted:
12:05 June 15, 1995

unusual giant skullsThese skulls were photographed by Robert Connolly on his trip around the world during which he was collecting materials about ancient civilizations. The discovery of unusual skulls was thus an unintended "spinoff" of his efforts. Robert Connolly published his photographs. Skull shaped like a pumpkin.

I pointed out to him that Egypt's King Akhenaton and his daughters were proud of their distinct features (elongated skulls) and the true facts of this royal family are shrouded in controversy. Some historians point out that the giant skulls of this family are a deformity caused by inbreeding. Others discount this and claim that it is the art style of the Armana period. The secret society known as the Rosicrucians place King Akhenaton on their highest pedestal by reconstructing his statue and main temple at their head office in San Jose, California.

Anthropologists suggest this elongated skull was not deformed by bindings, but belonging to an entirely different species
only remotely similar to homo-genus. Or
"Why did,  some still do, the many cultures bind their skulls to promote the
elongation of their inner cavity? Even trepanning, the opening of the skull cap, is thought to promote brain expansions.

 

5 Mysterious Skulls: Dare They Be Called, Human?

Death , history , human-biology , science & the weird


 

This isn't your most recent episode of Unsolved Mysteries. In fact, these are five authentic skulls dug up and discovered from nearly every corner of the globe. If the skulls are actually of human origin has been put up for debate by some. Either way, these anomalies will either give you a great costume idea, inspiration to go on your own Indian Jones-style adventure, or just provide a reason for some really freaky dreams.

The Horned Skull



During an archaeological dig in Sayre, Bradford County, Pennsylvania in the 1880s, a number of human skulls were unearthed. These skeletons were anatomically correct, except for the anomaly of their projections, two inches above the eyebrow, and the fact that their average height in life would have been around seven feet tall. The bones were sent to the American Investigating Museum in Philadelphia, where they were stolen - never to be seen again.



Above: Instances today of genetic throwbacks to this race.

Star-child Skull

Starchild Skull

This peculiar skull was found in a mine tunnel, 100 miles Southwest of Chihuahua. Dental analysis have ascertained that the skull is that of a five year old child. However, the interior of the skull is 20cm larger than the average adult cranial cavity. The optic nerve is situated at the bottom of the eye socket, rather than the back. The back of the skull is flattened, but not by artificial means. Carbon dating places the skull's age at approximately 1100 BCE. DNA testing has determined that the child had a human mother, but useful lengths of nuclear DNA for further testing could not be recovered. In 2004, Royal Holloway College of the University of London revealed “fibers” in the bone of the skull and a reddish residue, neither of which are known or recorded to exist prior to the discovery.

(Left Pic. Peruvian Head Shaping Device)

(Pic. on right of Ancient Egyptian King, Tutankhamun) Looks Alien.

 

 

 


Africa

Mangbetu and skull elongation

The Mangbetu live in central Africa, north of the Congo. When the first Europeans entered in this region in the late 19th century, the Mangbetu were accustomed to practicing the elongation of the head. For this, they enveloppaient the skulls of newborns with a cord which was tightened gradually for several months.

The elongated heads were collected by the Mangbetu as an expression of beauty and as a sign of intelligence. (Pic. on right of Tribesman with elongated head)

 

 




Deformation of the skull among Mangbetu - 1930

Ancient well preserved Skeletons & Skulls

Denmark

Graubelleman Man

A mummy from Denmark, found in 1952. He’s thought to have died about 55 BC. He was killed by having his throat cut. he had also suffered a blow to the skull and a leg fracture. His body showed no signs of manual labour.

 

 

 


 

Tolland Man

(Photo on left) This exceptionally well preserved body was found in Denmark, and dated to about 2,000 years old. He is thought to have been hanged or strangled by the rope around his neck, and he had eaten a drugged meal, a kind of vegetable and cereal porridge containing high levels of ergotamine, a strong hallucinogen. Picture above right of 6000 year old Egyptian Head.

He was so well preserved that the local police believed he was a recent murder victim when they first found him. Only his head and one hand are not still with us, as in 1950 when he was found preservation techniques weren’t so advanced.

Yde Girl

This is one of Europe's bog bodies, found in 1897 by peat cutters by the village of Yde in the Netherlands.  Carbon dating on the body dated her to the first century AD. She had been killed by strangulation; a woolen belt was wrapped around her neck three times and then strangled. A small stab wound was found at the base of her throat, suggesting this was some kind of ritual killing.

She is estimated to have been about 16 years old at the time of her death, and in rather poor health, with curvature of the spine, and some trouble from her right foot. She was only about 4′5” tall.

The skull reconstruction was achieved using a CT scan and a polystyrene skull overlaid with a wax skin.



Pre-Columbian Americas, cont'

Nazca Lines of Peru
Stretching across the Nazca plains like a giant map or blueprint left by ancient astronauts, lie the famous Nazca Lines of Peru. Peru is associated with the Incan Civilization who many link with alien visitors who still interact with local people to this day.

The Nazca Lines are an enigma. No one has proof who built them or why. Since their discovery, the Nazca Lines have inspired fantastic explanations from ancient gods, a landing strip for returning aliens, a celestial calendar created by the ancient Nazca civilization -- putting the creation of the lines between 200 BC and 600 AD, used for rituals probably related to astronomy, to confirm the ayllus or clans who made up the population and to determine through ritual their economic functions held up by reciprocity and redistribution, or a map of underground water supplies.

There are also huge geoglyphs in Egypt, Malta, United States (Mississippi and California), Chile, Bolivia and in other countries. But the Nazca geoglyphs, because of their numbers, characteristics, dimensions and cultural continuity, as they were made and remade through out the whole prehispanic period, form the most impressive, as well as enigmatic, archeological group.

 Location
The Nazca Lines are located in the Nazca Desert, a high arid plateau that stretches between the towns of Nazca and Palpa on the pampa (a large flat area of southern Peru). The desolate plain of the Peruvian coast which comprises the Pampas of San Jose (Jumana), Socos, El Ingenio and others in the province of Nasca, is 400 Km. South of Lima, covers an area of approximately 450 km2, of sandy desert as well as the slopes of the contours of the Andes. They cover nearly 400 square miles of desert. Etched in the surface of the desert pampa sand about 300 hundred figures made of straight lines, geometric shapes most clearly visible from the air.

 Nazca Plain
The Nazca plain is virtually unique for its ability to preserve the markings upon it, due to the combination of the climate (one of the driest on Earth, with only twenty minutes of rainfall per year) and the flat, stony ground which minimizes the effect of the wind at ground level. With no dust or sand to cover the plain, and little rain or wind to erode it, lines drawn here tend to stay drawn. These factors, combined with the existence of a lighter-coloured subsoil beneath the desert crust, provide a vast writing pad that is ideally suited to the artist who wants to leave his mark for eternity.

The pebbles which cover the surface of the desert contain ferrous oxide. The exposure of centuries has given them a dark patina. When the gravel is removed, they contrast with the color underneath. In this way the lines were drawn as furrows of a lighter color, even though in some cases they became prints. In other cases, the stones defining the lines and drawings form small lateral humps of different sizes. Some drawings, especially the early ones, were made by removing the stones and gravel from their contours and in this way the figures stood out in high relief.

The concentration and juxtaposition of the lines and drawings leave no doubt that they required intensive long-term labor as is demonstrated by the stylistic continuity of the designs, which clearly correspond to the different stages of cultural changes.

 Designs, Myths and Metaphors

There appear to be various designs consisting of figures of animals, flowers and plants, objects, and anthropomorphic figures of colossal proportions made with well-defined lines. An example of this is the drawing of a weird being with two enormous hands, one normal and the other with only four fingers. The anthropomorphic figures are relatively few and are situated on the slopes. The most well-known being is The Astronaut at 32m length discovered by Eduardo Herran in 1982.

Thus the iconography or symbols painted on their ceramics served as a means of communication. The motifs depicted on Nasca pottery fall into two major categories: sacred and profane. The Nasca believed in powerful nature spirits who were thought to control most aspects of life. The Nasca visualized these nature spirits in the form of mythical beings, creatures having a combination of human and animal/bird/fish characteristics and painted them onto their pottery. These Mythical Beings include such varieties as the Anthropomorphic Mythical Being, Horrible Bird, as well as the Spotted Cat, etc. Mythical Killer Whale, (Pic. on right)

The Paracas figures were created by removing dark stones in order to expose the lighter surface underneath. Some areas were cleared and others built up with rock, creating figures in high and low relief. With the Nazca lines though, the geoglyphs were only made by clearing low-relief areas. Until recently scientists believed that the figures in the Palpa and Nazca regions were only from the Nazca culture. Mr. Isla says cultural dating and style of the newly found Paracas figures sets them apart.

Mr. Isla told The Epoch Times, "Most of these geoglyphs belong to the Nazca culture but our recent studies demonstrated that there are at least 50 geoglyphs pertaining to the Paracas culture. These new figures are definitely different and older than those of the Nazca culture.

First, the Paracas figures were drawn on the slopes of the hills, while the Nazca images were drawn in level areas.

Second, the Paracas figures are smaller and were made in a naturalistic style, while the Nazca figures are bigger and stylized.

Third, the Paracas figures are mostly arranged in groups, while the Nazca figures are arranged individually.

Pre-Columbian Americas

 Human sacrifice in Pre-Columbian America
Some of the most famous forms of ancient human sacrifice were performed by various Pre-Columbian civilizations in the Americas.

Aztec Culture

Archeologist have found remains of 42 children sacrificed to Tlaloc (and a few to Ehécatl Quetzalcóatl and Huitzilopochtli in the offerings of the Great Pyramid of Tenochtitlan.

Inca culture

The Inca culture sacrificed children in a ritual called [[capacocha]] Their frozen corpses are still being discovered in the South America mountaintops. The first of these corpses, a female child who had died from a blow to the skull, was discovered in 1995 by Johan Reinhard. - "Pre-Columbian Andean Sacrifices" Other methods of sacrifice included strangulation and simply leaving the children, who had been given an intoxicating drink, to lose consciousness in the extreme cold and low-oxygen conditions of the mountaintop, and to die of Hypothermia.

Moche Culture

The Moche of northern Peru practiced mass sacrifices of men and boys.

 Central America
The Mixtec players of the Mesoamerican ballgame were sacrificed when the game was used to resolve a dispute between cities. The rulers would play a game instead of going to battle. The losing ruler would be sacrificed. The ruler "Eight Deer" was considered a great ball player and won several cities this way, until he lost a ball game and was sacrificed.

The Maya held the belief that cenotes or limestone sinkholes were portals to the underworld and sacrificed human beings to please the water god Chaac. The most notable example of this is the "Sacred Cenote" at Chichen Itza where extensive excavations have recovered the remains of 42 individuals, half of them under twenty years old.

In the Post-Classic period, the victims and the altar are represented as daubed in a hue now known as Maya Blue, obtained from the añil plant and the clay mineral palygorskite.

 Aztec sacrifices, Codex Mendoza.
The Aztecs were particularly noted for practicing human sacrifice on a large scale; an offering to Huitzilopochtli would be made to restore the blood he lost, as the sun was engaged in a daily battle. Human sacrifices would prevent the end of the world that could happen on each cycle of 52 years. In the 1487 re-consecration of the Great Pyramid of Tenochtitlan some estimate that 80,400 prisoners were sacrificed. Though numbers are difficult to quantify as all obtainable Aztec te[39]

According to Ross Hassing, author of Aztec Warfare, "between 10,000 and 80,400 persons" were sacrificed in the ceremony. The old reports of numbers sacrificed for special feasts have been described as "unbelievably high" by some authors and that on cautious reckoning, based on reliable evidence, the numbers would have been in the hundreds for yearly feasts in Tenochtitlan. The real number of sacrificed victims during the 1487 consecration is unknown.

Michael Harner, in his 1997 article The Enigma of Aztec Sacrifice, estimates the number of persons sacrificed in central Mexico in the 15th century as high as 250,000 per year. Fernando de Alva Cortés Ixtlilxochitl, a Mexica descendant and the author of Codex Ixtlilxochitl, claimed that one in five children of the Mexica subjects was killed annually. Victor Davis Hanson argues that an estimate by Carlos Zumárraga of 20,000 per annum is more plausible. Other scholars believe that, since the Aztecs always tried to intimidate their enemies, it is more likely that they could have inflated the number as a propaganda tool. Tlaloc would require weeping boys in the first months of the Aztec calendar to be ritually murdered.

Sacrifices to Xipe Totec were bound to a post and shot full of arrows. The dead victim would be skinned and a priest would use the skin. Earth Mother, Teteoinnan, required flayed female victims.

 South America
The Moche of Northern Peru sacrificed teenagers en masse, as archaeologist Steve Bourget found when he uncovered the bones of 42 male adolescents in 1995. A number of mummies of sacrificed children have been recovered in the Inca regions of South America, an ancient practice known as Capacocha.

Mexico & Central America Sacrificial Rituals

 Mayans, Incas and the Aztecs
In regard to the Maya society, which frequently offered their own blood spattered on pieces of bark paper, they also practiced some human sacrifice, such as throwing victims into deep wells or killing them at the funerals of great leaders. Sacrifices and offerings accompanied by prayers were a main part of the Inca religious ceremonies. Crops and animals, mainly llamas, were sacrificed to keep the good will of the gods. Human sacrifices were made under special circumstances. Most people considered it an honor to be chosen for sacrifice.

In regard to the Aztecs; they fought not only to enlarge their territory but also to take captives for sacrifice to the gods. Human sacrifice was a major part of the Aztec religion. Only the Aztec and the Inca had full-time armies. In other tribes, warriors went back to hunting or farming after their battles. Some tribes, particularly the Northwest tribes and the Iroquois, made slaves of their captives. The Witoto and Tupinamba tribes of the Tropical Forest tortured war captives and then ate them. But the victims were not eaten as a source of food. The Indians believed the dead person's strength and bravery would be passed on to the person who ate the flesh. The Aztec also sacrificed children to the god Tlaloc.

Human sacrifice took many forms in ancient South America. Individuals were killed and placed in tombs to accompany important persons in the afterlife, buried as dedicatory offerings in monumental buildings, and offered in various contexts as gifts to the gods. Captives were taken in small-scale raiding and in organized warfare, and executed in both formal rituals and impromptu reprisals. In some cases, body parts were collected from dead enemies and modified for various uses.

Sacrificial practices can be reconstructed from both indirect and direct sources. Indirect sources include historic accounts of trophy taking (such as the Jívaro of tropical Ecuador), descriptions of sacrificial practices recorded by Spanish and native chroniclers in the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries, and depictions of sacrifice and trophy taking in ancient South American art.

Archaeological evidence of retainer and dedicatory burials, mass graves, and isolated body parts constitute direct evidence of sacrificial practices. The careful analysis of human remains from these contexts is important in distinguishing between sacrificial practices and standard mortuary behavior. Direct archaeological evidence of human sacrifice is therefore important in confirming or questioning events inferred from ethno historic and iconographic sources. Fortunately, the database of physical evidence of human sacrifice in Central Andean South America has grown substantially in recent years, thanks to field projects with an increasing focus on the careful excavation and curation of human remains and laboratory analyses of this material. This review will focus primarily on Central Andean South America, where the ethno historic and archaeological records are most detailed.

Eastern religions

 Ahimsa
Many traditions of Eastern religions (Buddhism and especially Jainism) embrace the doctrine of ahimsa (non-violence) which imposes vegetarianism and outlaws animal as well as human sacrifice.

In Hinduism, the principle of ahimsa was prescribed as early as in the Maurya period Manu Smrti. It was, however, not taken to extend to religious violence, based on the argument that sacrificial killing is in fact a benevolent act, not violence, because the victim will attain a high rebirth in the cycle of reincarnation. Human sacrifice remained common in medieval Hinduism in the context of Shaktism until the Late Middle Ages, when it generally declined with the rise of the Bhakti movement. The status of the Hindu practice of widow-burning remains disputed. As a burial rite, it qualifies as a "retainer sacrifice" of the sort also found in Near Eastern and European antiquity. The killing of a large number of wives and concubines was practiced in particular in Rajput royal burials. In Sikhism, widow-burning remained common until its suppression under the British Raj.

In Chinese imperial religion, human sacrifice was abolish